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English mechanic and 
world of science 



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[Supplement to the ENGLISH MECHANIC, Sept. 29, 1876.] 



ENGLISH MECHAMC 

AND 

WOELD OF SCIENCE. 

WITH WHICH ARE INCORPORATED 

" THE MECHANIC." " SCIENTIFIC OPINION," AND " THE BRITISH & FOREIGN MECHANIC." 

ILLU8TRATED WITH NUMEROUS PRACTICAL EN6RAVIN88. 



VOLUME XXIII. 



LONDON: 

Office : 31, TAVISTOCK STREET, CO VENT GARDEN, W.C. 

Sold bt all Bookbblliks and Newsagents in the Kingdom. 



1878. 




[THE NEW YORK 
IfUBUC LIBRARY' 

; > * • >- > * 

MTO«, LSMOX AND 
T1L»EN FOOMBATiON8. 

18§7. 




London : WALTER SULLY, Printer, 
1 & 30, Plough Court, Fbttsr Lank. 



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^Supplement to the ENGLISH MECHANIC, Sept. 28, 1870.] 



INDEX TO VOL. XXIII. ENGLISH MECHANIC. 



ABERDEEN, steam tramway at, 461 

Aberration, 561 

Academic* of Science, 607 

Aecideuts: railway, 11; — of 1875, 161; 

tramway, 332 
Account book*, changing page numbers of, 

Acetic acid in wine, 415 

Achromatic : object glass**, construction of, 

119; — Barlow's formula) for the. 464, 

559; suitable powers for, 260 ; teleaoope, 

the inventor of the, 474 
Aehromatioa and reflectors, 406 
Aod-resisting alloys, 363 
Adds, teat* for, 469, 495 
IcoastioaL, 23, 126, 204 
Aeres, square, 131, 156 
Action: involuntary, 528; of light upon 

pigments, 400 : on Tolcanio, 187 
Acuta vision, 843 

Address of president of British Association, 
660 

Adjustable slide-rest graduation, 39 
Adjusting : slide-rest, 39, 119 ; weighbridge. 

Adulteration : dsteotinfc by means of a spec- 
troscope, 307 ; food, 443, 467 ; of cigars , 
403 

Advancing science a little farther. 36 

Atrial propulsion, advantages of employ- 
ing power in an intermittent manner 
for. 351 

.Eohan violin, 76 

Affection, leg, 79 

Afriea, the inland sea of, 557 

1?*. dying of old, 386 

An.- am and, 453 ; analysing, 442; and its 
relation to life, 473 ; compressed. 675 ; — 
TBotflation of coal-mines by, 61 , 123, 253 : 
expansion of. 547 ; homo-power required 
to force, 126; pressure of, 77, 126, 493, 
543, 621 ; refrigerator, a simple, 86 

Air-brake, Wesjtuighouse automatic, 620 

Air-engine, the Eider, 636 

Air-pomp, horizontal for engine, 465, 541, 

Airy, Sir G., on the Hebrew Scriptures, 640 

Alarm: an impmred low-water, 33; elec- 
tric. 100. 152, 199, 254 

Albert Hall, the Royal, 146, 240 

Algebra: 233. 258. 336. 387; and dual 
arithmetic, 127. 232. 258 

Alkaloid extraction, 282 

Allowance for refraction in setting an 
equatoreai, 354 

Alloy, inoxidisable, 419 ; Jewellers', 541 

Alloys, acM-resiatimr. 363 

Alphabet : dumb. 157 ; Greek, 649 

Altaahnnth: equatorial, 405. 506; mount- 
ing, finding stars in daylight with an. 

Aluminium : and its future in the arts, 

454; the metal. 97 
Amalgamation of iron, 577 
Amat e u r organ-bnilders, practical hints to, 

4. 85, 190, 229 
Amateurs' tools, preferring, 78 
Amber, dissolving, 597 
America, 400 

American : bug on trees, 574, 598 ; chuck , 
20. 75; clocks, 179, 204; exchange, 20; 
felling *ze, 182; locomotive chimneys, 
365, 590; national academy of sciences, 
232 ; paradoxist*. 147 ; railway travelling, 
MOM peculiarities of, 147; reader, an 
appeal to an, 640 ; sensitiveness, 278 

A mmonia : carbonate of, 496, 573 ; sulphate 
of, 128 

Ammoniac*! gas, 625, 650 

Auryl, nitrite of, 677 

Anmsfchaaa, cutaneous. 618 

analogy of sound and light, 632 

Analysing: air, 442 ; beer, 623, 649 

AaalysM: chemical, 47, 282; gas, 178, 231, 
2Si 280, 282, 307, 810, 832, 386 ; of butter, 
590; of coke, 282 ; of wines, 364; water, 
JBJl 368 

Analytical chemists, to, 412 

Ancajtor of man, 359 



Ancient : Egyptian pipe, 142 ; notions of 
light, 146 

Andromeda, stars in, 403 

Andromeda), gamma*, 640 

Aneroids, compensated, 281, 332, 385, 406 

Angular aperture of object-glasses, mea- 
suring, 374 

Aniline : 18, 125 ; colours, fixing, 547 

Animal: and vegetable food, 414, 465, 517, 
541, 569, 596. 619, 647, 672; physiology, 
lectures on, 625 ; refuse, 22, 152 

Annuity : Government, 313 ; problem, 18, 
391, 414 

Another new motor, 385 

Antidote: 78; for poisons, a general, 231 

Antimony: arsenic and, 443; electro- 
deposition of. 21 

Ants in flower-beds, destroying, 158 

Aperture: and power, 304; of object- 

S" asses, on the, 476 
idee and the potato disease, 169 
Apparatus: Hake's, 79; museum of scien- 
tific, 282 ; oxygen, 41 ; the exhibition of 
scientific, 220, 239, 241, 270, 292. 323, 347 
Apples, change of colour in, 651, 677 
Appliances, railway, 265. 317 
Aoaaria i marine, 119, 261, 288 ; show tanks 

for, 65 ; vivisection and, 119 
Aquarium: 45; construction, 361, 387; 

Westminster, 261 
Aquarius, stars in, 403 
AquilsD, delta, 484 

Archebioeis, researohos in fermentation 
and, 499 

Argument for vegetarianism, an, G 

Anotis, epsilon, 36 

Arithmetic, dual, algebra and. 127 

Arithmetical, 11 

Aromatic vinegar, 260 

Arranging music, 286 

Arsenio: antimony and, 413; experiments 
with, 257 

Art library, 125,264 

Art library at South Kensington, 264 

Artichoke, Jerusalem, 360 

Artifioial : horizon, 43, 91 ; ioe, 130 ; pro- 
duction of trombes, 54 ; teeth, 46, 126 

Ascites, or abdominal dropsy, 76 

Ash's elliptical cutting-frame, 570 

Asparagus, 444, 468 

Asphalte .- ice v., 281, 331, 436; reel. 357 
Assumption, on (anything but) a certain, 
665 

Astatic : galvanometer, 43, 209 ; needle, 93, 
103,124 

Astigmatism, 184, 207, 233, 258, 263, 311, 
411 

Astronomical : 233, 459 ; (moon and oooul ta- 
ts on of stars), 208 ; notes, 58, 163, 267, 
397, 502, 632 ; observatory visit to an, 
171; observers, visual powers of, 536; 
photography, new method in, 474; re- 
plies, 14 ; telescope, my first, 564, 642 ; 
vision, 564 ; work, 223 

Astronomy, Lockyer*s, 234, 278 

Atmosphere: has the moon an, 197, 224; 
limit of the, 209, 250, 304, 305. 331, 354, 
379, 431, 481, 510 ; the son's. 203 

Atomio weight*, subdivision of the, 175 

Atoms, balanced, 429 

Attack upon radiation, 459, 480, 484, 589, 

612,643 
Attraction, electrical, 813 
Augers, improved, 506 
August meteors, 611, 668 
Aurine, 179, 863 
Australia, 44, 78 
Automatic railway signal), 631 
Axe, American felling, 183 
Axes of the planets, 36 

B.A.O. 4902. 249 
B. Sc. examination question. U!0 
Backgrounds, how to prepare photographic, 
635 

Deck-rest for invalids, 298 
Backstay for lathe, 72 
Bacterial infusion, 78 
Bog, gas, 289 



ipes, 283 

, drum and fife, 520, 546 
Bands, lathe, 49, 77 

Balance : chemical, 126, 152, 179, 231, 285, 
336; springs, watch and chronometer 
glass, 596 

Balanced atoms, 429 

Balloons: fire, 520: model, 547 ; paper, 
566, 613 

Balls, solidifying of fused in a liquid 
medium, 27 

Barlow's formula) for achromatic object- 
glasses, 464. 539 

Barometer : 80, 546 ; aneroid, compensated, 
281, 332, 385, 406 ; Fitaroy, 48; meohani- 
Oft], a, 200, 281, 284 

Barometrical depressions, causes of, 8 

Barrel : for chamber organ, 183, 233, 287; 
rifle, 100 

Barrow, garden, 439 

Barrow in Furneas, search for cool at, 231, 
456 

Baas in harmonium, softening, 79 

Bath: problem, Plumb-bob's, 329; solu- 
tion, 130 

Bathometer, 87 

Baths, protecting photo, 34 

Bats, tennis, 673 

Battered organ pipes, 469, 518 

Battery: bichromates 78, 102, 466, 492; 
carbons, 868; chloride of silver, 360; 
constant, 41; Darnell's, 157, 182; — 
resistance of, 79; faulty Daniell, 520, 
545, 546; 4&oell, 12; Grove's, 77, 102; 
Halse's galvanic, 313, 338, 363, 432 ; im- 
proved galvanic, 321; Loolanohe, 156, 
574, 635; miniature medical, 493; new, 
392; new patent, 653: six-cell, 600; 
Smee's, 49. 624 ; two-celled, 236, 260 

Bearings: bicycle, 105; glass, 155; lathe, 
78; roller, 444, 467 

Beattic's patent locomotive, 468 

Bee and wasp stings, cure for, 595 

Beer : analysing, 623, 649 ; casks, deficiency 
in, 624; table, 360 

Bees: keeping in large towns, 358, 386, 
469; season and the, 88; spelling, 94, 
148, 174 

Beetle's eye, exhibiting lenses of, 34, 150 

Bell, a big diving, 178 

Bell's, Mr. I. L.'s, new iron-making process. 

Bells : chime of, 572 ; electric, 18, 44, 417 ; 
— indicator for, 125, 235 ; magnets and, 
199 

Benzole, deodorising, 624 

Bentoline lamps, improvements in, 398, 486 

Berthon's boats, 665 

Bevel, a combined square, kc., 268 

Bevel-joint. 102 

Bichromate battery. 78, 102, 466, 492 

Bicycle i bearings, 105, 444. 467 ; best, 184, 
206 ; brake, 494 ; bright, 444, 468 : cement 
for tires of. 650 ; elcctrio light for, 495 ; 
improved, 566, 595, 615; indicator, 74; 
register, 365; revolution counter, 175; 
speed of, 673 ; spindle, loose, 261 ; step, 
removable, 12; tires, mending rubber, 
312, 337 1 wheel, 50in.. S36 

Bicycles and locomotives, 407 

Bill : the new patents, 1, 114, 292 ; the vivi- 
section, 275, 395, 577 

Bills, notice, 288 

Binaries, double stars and, 429 

Birds : in the garden, 464; lining for cabi- 
nets of eggs of, 518 

Birmingham wire-gauge, 47 

Bitter words for small offences, why, 329 

Black crows, stories of three, 480 

Black: staining, 22, 46 ; varnish for steam 
cylinders, 547 

Blast : oontinuous. 98 ; fans, 49, 390 

Blasting powder, 310 

Bleaching horn, 596 

Block ^lan, 674; system, G. 2i. B., 74; 
Blotting pads, 469 

Blowpipe : 99 ; apparatus, a simple, 6, 63 
Blow-through jet, 289 



Blue grotto at Oapri, 117 

Blueing pistol barrels, 128 

Blunder-in?, aciento-philosopby and unsci- 
entific, 278 

Boarding and fixtures, 340 

Boat, defective, 209. 235, 287 

Boats, Berthon's, 665 

Bode's law and the planet Neptune, 197 

Bodies, floating, 199 

Bog, foundation on wet, 545, 572, 598 

Bogie : engines on the L. 0. and D. R , 
539 ; locomotives, 206, 258, 286, 336, 361 . 
410, 516, 541, 569, 566 

Boiler: corrosion, 70; engine, 103; experi- 
mental, of the Manchester Steam-user*' 
Association, 54; explosions, 46, 76; fur- 
naces, 407 ; incrustation, 541 ; jacketto'l, 
312.363; Lancashire. 240; making, 46». 
603; model, 313, 439, 491; pressure in. 
813; pressure and heat of steam, 70; 
pump, 469, 570, 620, 673; small steam- 
boat, 598; Up for, 573, 621 

Boilers : and ohimneys, proportions of, 219 ; 
cheap and effective coating for, 99 ; corro- 
sion in, 152: furred, 412 ; sal van ism and 
steam, 33; incrustation of, 43, 78; smalt 
engines and, coal consumption in, 308 ; 
unstayed flat surfaces of, 382, 515 

Bolts and screws, 802 

Bombardon, E flat, 519, 544, 570 

Bone-black, estimating the value of, 401 

Bones, actual cautery in diseases of, 646 

Books: fixing colour on edges, 43; on 
double stars, 354 

Bootes, oomitee to tan, 117 

Boot-cleaning machines, 553 

Boots and shoes : 261 ; now fabric for, 542 

Borax, 360 

Boring cylinders, 103 

Botany, Sachs's history of, 318 

Bottles for chemicals. 600. 623 

Bow for spring dividers, tempering, 337 

Box, musical, 102. 461 

Boxes, turning, 183 

Boy, a Brobdignagian. 618 

Boys, those, again, 365, 390 

Brachiopoda, fossil, 403 

Brake, the Westinghouse automatic, 230 

Brass : blackening, 521 : fire-guards, clean- 
ing, 390; flux for, 128; joining to iron, 
444, 468; silvering, 469, 495; stripping 
nickel from, 547, 573 ; taps, turning, 19, 
45 ; valve-balls, turning, 78 ; wire, 
brightening, 600, 622, 673 

Brazing : band saws, 573; cold soldering 
and, 390, 412 ; copper ball, 675 

Bread : aerated e. fermented, 235 ; good, 
227 

Bread-making ■' cleanly, 151 ; machines for, 

208,234.289 
Breaker, contact, 392 
Breaking strain of chains, 236 
Breathing, measuring force of, 519, 545, 572, 

598 

Breweries, galvanic action in, 599, 622 
Brewing i coppers, 423 ; M. Pasteur on, 527 
Brick-kiln, steam, 167 
Bricks from Japan, 197 
Brighton Hallway , Pullman cars on, 383 
Brilliant meteor, 539, 588, 611. 641 
British Association, President's Address, 
660 

Brobdignagian boy, 618 
Bromine, 621 
Bronze, phosphor, 467 
Bronzing copper, 527 

Broom-handles, new method of securing, 
453 

Browning's, Mr., harmonium, 409 

Bug, American, 574, 598 

Bmlding: dairy, 468, 492; house, 390, 413, 

649 ; organ, 644; society, query, 104 
Bulges in cornets. 157 
Bullet, flight of, 573, 598, 675 
Bullet*, degree of hardness and penetration 

of small bore, 675 
Bollfinohes, German, 49 
Bull's-eye lantern, 22 
Burdock, 260, 288 



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[Scmnmti to ths ENGLISH MECHANIC,"! 
Burr. 88, 1876. J 



INDEX. 



0LI8H MK0HASIC.1 
Inn to Vol. mm. J 



Burial of the dead, 17 
Burners, on gas, 81 
Burning sawdust, 665 
Bornishin*. 493 
Business, 135 

Butter: analysis of, 500; oaring, 105: 
making, 5U, 564, 613, 630, 670 ; report of 
the Government analysts on, 558 

Butterflies, preferring, 520, 546 

OABLMi detecting flaws in snb marine, 
545 

Oaohexia: 443, 402; and quackery, 566 
Oad,20 

Cake, oat, 19, 45. 101, 152. 203. 231. 285 
Calculations : chemical, 313, 337 ; in pneu- 
matic*. 536 ; scienoe, 543 
Oalf-akin, 387 

Gun for jam- winding machine, 414 
Oaoaacho electro- magnetic engine, 257, 398 
Camera: 625, 674; stand, 97, 127 
Camphor water, germination and, 362 
Canals, steam propulsion on, 668 
Canaries, rearing, 208, 234 
Candles, 387, 438, 491 
Cane ohairs, to reseat, 596 
Oannel coal. 417, 440 
Canoe, 18, 495 
Canoes. 74 

Caoutchouc oomponnds, 350 
Capital and labour, 264 
Capri, blue grotto of, 117 
Carbolic add, estimating. 495 
Carbon i bisulphide of, 360 ; cutting, 41 ; 
printing, notes on, 246 ; process. Far- 

Carbonates, 259, 336, 361, 388 

Oarbonio arid : and plants, 548, 574 ; on 

excretion of by large «"»"""»U. 526 
Card trick, 312, 362 
Cardboard, painting in oils on, 157 
Care of health, personal, 291 
Carlisle and Settle railway, opening of. 230, 

257 

Carnarvon's, Lord, Tiriseotion bill, 275 
Oarnauba wax, 622 
Carriage-wheel naves, elm, 337 
Carriages : long-truck railway, 176. 230 ; 

railway, 308 ; warming, 375 ; steam on 

common roads, 275 
Carrington's reflector, Mr., 610 
Cars, Pullman, 388 
Cartridge powder, detonating, 76 
Case, fern, 493 
Cases, growing ferns in, 556 
Casks : deflcienoy in, 624; made of cement, 

410 

Oasson-Dormoy puddling furnace, 141, 255 
Casting sine bars, 130, 156 
Castings: lathe, 648 ; metal, 622 
Cast-iron tools, 201 
Cat calls, 128 

Catalogues, lunar maps and, 15 
Cause of solar heat, 305 
Cautery, actual, in disease of bones, 617 
Caveat emptor, 304 

Cell : galvanic, 157 ; Laolanohe, 496 ; im- 
proved, 582 
Cells, lining wooden troughs for battery, 

Colluloid. 416 

Cement: an iron, unaffected by heat, -i>4; 
casks, 410; (ooagnline), 650; for electri- 
cal machine, 105, 128; for leather. 564; 
for vulcanised rubber, 130, 336, 651; 
rapidly hardening, 3U3 ; turner* - , 113; 
waterproof, 584 

Centennial clock, 302 

Centre of gravity i of oycloidal arc and sur- 
face, 447 ; of pyramid, 598 

Centreing micro, mounts, 533 

Centrifugal : force, 521, 572 ; governor, an 
improved, 195 

Chain*, breaking strain of, 236 

Chamber organ, barrel for, 183, 233, 286 

Chambers, vitriol, 416 

Chamfering machine, 5Wi 

Chances, 205, 417, 429, 466 

Changing trains, railway tickets and, 150, 

Channel tunnel, political arrangements oon- 
oerning, 559 

Character : 259 ; from handwriting, 361 

Charcoal: 20; as medicine, 105, 155, 417, 
440,465 

Charge, unfounded, 585 

Chart mounting, 76, 102 

Cheaper food, 43 

Cheeaemaking, electricity in, 73 

Chemical: 19, 74, 624, 625, 649; analysis, 
47, 206, 282: balance, 126, 152, 178, 231, 
285, 336 ; calculations, 313, 337 ; elements, 
469, 493: nomenclature, 126, 204; ques- 
tions, 444. 621 

Chemicals, bottles for, 600 

Chemistry, 623 

Chemists, to analytical, 412 

Causa : 26, 51, 82, 108. 183, 159, 186. 211, 
238, 963, 290, 315, 342, 367. 394, 419, 446, 
472, 497, 522. 549, 575. 8*2 „ , 

Chest, photographic, 444 v ^ . 

Chickens, hens and, 335 

Chime of bells. 572 

Chimney, smoky , 74, 157, 204 

Chimneys : American locomotive, 365, 390 ; 
boilers and, 219 

China painting, 380 

Chinks, 365 

Chlorine, spectrum of, 493 

Choosing timber, 561 

Chrome steel, 7 

Chrom ostrobosoope, 168 

Chronometer balance springs of glass, 396 

Ohuok: American, 20, 75; geometric, 279, 

386, 513, 538 
Cichus, 225 
" Cinchona," pace, 37 
Circle*, dividing, 13 



Circular saw : 234, 258, 310, 336. 387. 414 ; 

split in, 494 
Cirencester, organ at. 177. 228, 280 
Cistern, leaky slate. 157, 204 
Clamond's therm o-elee trio mnerator, 572 
Clamp-coupling tor shafts, 581 
Clarionet e. flute. 42, 97, 200, 229, 291, 334, 

356, 385, 410, 435 
Classification of the elements, 41, 48, 100, 

255.307 
Clays, hard, 387 
Clay pipes, colouring, 600, 623 
Cleaning : engravings, 387 ; hair, 336 ; oil 

paintings, 488 ; oily waste, 623 ; sewing 

machine, 78, 102 ; silver filigree work, 

444, 468, 543; wool, 600. 623 
Cleanly bread-making, 151 
Clinical thermometer, repairing, 104, 127 
Clock : Centennial, 302 ; cheap and simple, 

95, 103, 105, 255; electric 95, 119. 360; 

jobbing, 547; magic, 235, 269 : old, 102; 

regulator, a .simple, 12, 48, 312 ; solar, 

69. 151 ; water, 95 ; with two dials. 128 
Clookmaking, watch and, 124 
Clocks : American, 204 ; turret, 175, 230, 

255; watches and, 144 
Clockwork, simple and inexpensive, 76 
Clothes-horse, a new, 80 
Clothes-moths, Wistarias and, 595, 618 
Coal : 76 ; oannel, 417 ; consumption of by 

small engines and boilers, 308 ; gas. 182 ; 

— making in small quantities, 543 : in 
Pennsylvania, 606 ; spontaneous combus- 
tion of, 606 

Coal-dust, consolidated. 286 

Coal-mines, ventilation of by compressed 

air, 61, 123. 253 
Coal-tar varnish, 559 

Coating : cheap and effective for boilers, 
99. 559 ; inside of eleotro-gilded cup, 313 ; 
load pipes, 79. 103 ; metals with tin, 554 

Coca leaf, 125. 129, 181. 188. 258, 599, 648 

Cockades, railway, 365, 390 

Oock-amd-bttll stories, 480 

Cockroaches, 391, 517. 569, 596 

Coffee .- filter. 361 ; plates, 676 

Coffee-mill plug, hardening. 104 

Coils : defective, 80, 105 ; induction, 21, 80, 
184,391,491; — Oallan's iron wire, 493; 

— condenser for, 411 ; instructions for 
making small, suitable for experimental 
and medical purposes, 9, 92 ; insulating, 
392 : miniature medical, 488, 514, 538 ; 
small, 416 ; winding in lathe, 415 

Coinage, small silver, 547 

Coins, milling and lettering edges of, 100 

Coke, analysis of, 282 

Coke-shed, dimensions of, 200. 288, 311 

Cold in the head, cure for, 332, 381 

Collars, swimming, 600 

Collection : and preservation of natural 

history objects, 343; Loan, of scientific 

apparatus, 239 
Colliery: manager's certificate, 105, 262, 

389, 392, 413. 416, 439, 499, 496, 519; 

pump, 261, 288. 312, 362, 412 
Collodion films for experimental purposes, 

99 

Colonial securities, 415 
Colorado, emigration to, 675 
Coloured : lights, visibility of. 410 
Colouring : drawings, 677 ; liquids, 561 ; 

matter, 80, 104; plaster, 414 ; tea-urns, 

235; wax, 493 
Colours : fixing aniline, 547 ; in flowers, 

harmony of, 203 ; of flowers, on light and 

the, 182 ; of variable stars, 585 
Comacho electric machine, 257, 398 
Combination lathe, watchmaker's. 13 
Combined bevel, square, protractor, Ac., 

268 

Comet near Jupiter, the, 509, 520 

Comet's tale, a, 508.642 

Oomites : to eta and gamma Persei, 68, 117 ; 
to 40 Lyncis, 38 Lyncis, * Draoonis, > Urue 
Ma j oris, and n Persei, 38 

Commission, report of the vivisection, 2, 28 

Common law courts, taxing masters in, 339 

Compass : curious Japanese, 478 ; He's dif- 
ferential. 89 » 

Compensated : aneroids, 281, 332, 385, 406 ; 
seconds' pendulum, 17 

Composing machines, 464 

Compound : improved lubricating, 424 ; 
speoifio gravity of a, 182 ; steam-engine 
on a small, -217 

Compounds, caoutchouc, 350 

Compressed air, 675 

Conohology, 674 

Condenser: 130, 392: for Rhumkorff coil, 

623 ; sea-water, 672 
Conferences at the exhibition of scientific 

apparatus, 270, 992. 323, 334, 347 
Conio unguis*, 463 

Conioal frusta and oylindrio nngulas, 878 
Connecting-rods: how to ascertain length 

of, 455; liming out, 5 ; marking out, 60 
Consolidated ooal-dnst, 286 
Constant batteries, 41 
Constipation, eggs and, 496 
Contact breaker, 392 

Content : of iron ladle, 260 ; of tanks, 104, 
179 

Continuous blast, 98 

Contradictions, apparent, explained, 633 

Cooking lentils. 255 

Cooking-stoves, petroleum, 140, 279, 553 

Cooling, Newton's law of, 438 

Copper : ball, erasing, 876 ; bronring, 527 ; 

electro-gilding on, 131; paint, 527, 608; 

phosphide of, 62 
Coppers : brewing, 493 
Copying : inscriptions, 337, 338, 363 ; photo. 

prints, 105, 128; prints by pressure, 444, 

468 ; tracings by ferro-prnssiate, 493 
Cork, its growth and manufacture, 67 
Cornets : bulges in, 157 ; playing, 206, 520, 

545; slides in, 236 



Oornioes. curtain, an art question. 178, 201, 
226.284 

Corona, seeing without an eclipse, 480 

Corpulence, stays and, 231 

Corrosion, boiler, 70, 152 

Cosmogony, 224 

Cotton-seed oil, refining, 336 

Cotton-spinners, to 568 

Cotton-spinning mill, visit to, 594 

Cotton-waste, oleaning, 623 

Counter: adjustable index for slide-rest, 

178 ; bicycle revolution, 175 
Counterpoise lift, 618 
Coupler, octave, 126, 435 
Coupling for shafts, the clamp, 581 
Covering : floor, 231; non-conducting, 559 
Craig telescope, 438 
Cramps in legs, 619, 647, 676 
Crank-pins, oiling mid-shaft, 468 
Crayon painting, 646 
Cream-coloured glare, 104 
Cremation. French report on, 631 
Cremona, 46, 76, 157 

Crescent of Venus, visibility of in small 
telescopes, 458 

Crookedness, tight-lacing and, 149 

Orookes's i Mr., lucerometer, 15 ; radio- 
meter. Prof. Mayer on, 530 

Cross multiplication, 235, 259, 287, 311, 888 

Crows, stories of three black, 480 

Crusaders, 103 

Cryohydratee, f reeling mixtures and, 405 
Crystals : 78 ; rings and cross of under 

polarisation, 131. 146; strength of, 493 
Cultivation, farm, 98 
Culture of fruit, 187 

" dimming " dissolution of solar system, 91 
Cure for bee and wasp stings, 595 

Curing butter, 105 

Curious : experiment, 450 ; fossil, 385, 437 
Current, secondary, 414, 466, 492 
Curtain cornices, an art question, 173, 200, 
226,284 

Curve: 20, 45, 125, 179, 182, 208, 231, 232, 
268. 285, 465, 625; oycloid, 232, 286, 836; 
radios of, 634 

Cushion, pin and needle, 490 

Cutaneous amesthesia, 618 

Cut-off, 46, 126 

Cutting : and polishing stone, 670 ; and sur- 
facing machine for metal and wood, 217 ; 
carbon, 41 ; frame, Ash's elliptical, 570 ; 
mounts, 387 ; screws, 100 

Cuttings, hard wooded, 647 

Cyoles, lunar, 86 

Oycloid : curve, 232, 286, 836 ; evolute of, 

357 

Cyel >idal arc and surface, centre of gravity 
of, 417 

Oygni, 61, 339. 854, 863. 388. 408. 596, 610 
Cylinder electrical machine, 289 
Cylinders s boring, 103 ; steam, varnish for, 
547 

Cylindrio nngulas, volume of, 228, 378 
Cymbyohan alatomaoeous earth, 645 

DAIRY : building, 492, 643 : pans. 962 
Damp : feet, 184, 233, 287; walls, 441, 486 
Daniell's battery : faulty, 620, 545, 546 ; 

resistance of, 79, 157 
Dark : limb of Venus, 249 ; room, 80, 104, 

127; tent, ventilation of, 47 
Darning-machine, the, 217 
Dawes, Mr., visual powers of, 378, 480 
Daylight stars : 547, 561 ; finding with as 

altazimuth, 665 
Dead : burial of the, 17; silver, cleaning, 490 
Deadening sound, 467 
Dear meat, 93, 122 
Debilissima, the, 365, 642 
Decomposition of water, 443 
Deep-sea specimens, 443, 492, 543 
Deep waters, swimming in, 228 
Defective : boat. 209, 235. 287 ; coil, 80, 105 ; 

sight, 209, 495, 519, 600, 649 
Deficient beer-casks, 624 
Definition teste for 2Jin. telescopes, 668 
Denudation, affect of. 259 
Deodorising : benzol, 624 ; petroleum, 578 
Deposit : dark oolour of nickel, 619 : of 

niokel, 263 
Depositing silver and platinum, 363 
Depressions, barometrical, cau s e s of, 8 
Derbyshire, 547 

Descent, some recent discussions on the 

theory of, 110 
Designs on glass, producing, 217 
Detonating cartridge powder, 78 
Developer, formula for new, 359 
Dew and definition, 594 
Dextrine, new method of making, 558 
Diabetes, 600, 624, 673 
Diagonal eyepieces, 304 
Diagrams; physiological, 340; slide-valve, 

Dialyte telescope, 103, 279 

Diamagnetism, 99, 176, 198, 255, 283, 309, 

357, 616, 670 
Diameter of moon, apparent, 276 
Diamonds and their technical uses, 216 
Diaphragm : lens, 236 ; Waterhouse, 313, 



Diaphragms for carte lens. 388 
Diatomaoeous earth, Cymbyohan, 645 
Diatoms : 493, 620 ; or not diatoms, 548 
Dictionaries, spelling bees and. 148, 174 
Dictionary of musical terms, new, 84 
Dietetic*, food and, 83, 213 
Dletherosoope, the, 556 
Difference in visual power, range of, 533 
Differential oompaas. He's, 89 
Dimensions of coke shed, 880, 288, 311 
Disease : foot and mouth, 71, 119 ; of bones, 

actual cautery in, 646; potato, 169, 908, 

526 ; report, 385 ; spinal, 179 
Dispersive power and density of glass, 78 
Dissolving : amber. 597 ; old white lead, 

493 



Distance: measuring, 837, 568; of nebulae, 
351 

Distances : of satellites, 198; of the planets 

mean, 833, 355 j railway. «** 
Distillation. 364 

Dividers, tempering bow for spring, 837 
Dividing circles, 13 
Dock-gates, pressure on, 44 
Dog, food for, 19 
Dogmatic Ignorance, 147 
Domes, steam, 226 
Domestic manufacture of gas, 608 
Double: lunar rainbow, 196; star, what is 
a, 146 

Double stars : and binaries, 428, 188, 812, 
489,509,586: books on, 354; i Benlptoria. 
148, 40 Lyncis, Ac., 47: on Proctor's atlas, 
large, 240; test for 2 J in. telescopes, 93 

Drainage, 675 

Drawing : and roving frames, 545 ; from 
the microscope, 835 ; small ovals, 625, 
674: wire, 179 
Drawings : colouring, 678 : enlarging, 48 
Draught, ventilation without, 46 
Dreaming, Prof. Farrier on sleep and, 89 



Drill, rock, 258 

Drilling, lathe for, 98 

Drills, improvements in radial, 650 

Drinks, non-intoxicating. 444, 467, 518 

Driving wheels, slip in, 178, 362 

Drops, Prince Rupert's, 20, 438 

Dropsy, ascites or abdominal, 76 

Drugs, dispensing, 338 

Drum and fife band, 580, 546 

Dry plate photography, 310, 649 

Dry plates : 22 ; Liverpool, 600, 670, 673 

Drying : plant* 246 ; retorts, 631, 677 ; 

wool, 238 
Dual arithmetic, 127 
Dublin lioness, 401 
Dulong and Petit, law of, 371 
Dumb alphabet, 157 

Duplex : safetv-valves, Bamsbottom's, 387 ; 
telegraphy. 79, 126 

Duplicating press, electric pen and, 514 

Duplicity of the 1474 line in the solar spec- 
trum, 476 

Duration of musical notes, 115 

Duties, succession, 670 

Dyeing : 800, 660 ; ferns, 288 ; glove, 650 ; 
raw hides, 504 : white canvas shoes, 546 

Dying of old aire, 386 

Dynamical problem, 105, 128, 180 

Dynamite, explosion of, 678 

Dynamometers and friction brakes, 507, 525 

BABTH : diatomaoeous, 645; effect of 
denudation on form of, 208 ; how It is 
weighed, 164; inclination of axis of, 187, 
224; population of the, 647; shadow of 
the. 488, 543 

Earthenware, innocuous glare for, 827 

Earth's crust, density of, 687 

Ebonite, polishing, 363 

Eclipse i seeing corona without, 480 ; solar, 
610 

Economizer, 205, 232, 336, 861 

Eoonomy : of electricity, 68 ; of heat in 
ventilation, 253 ; of steam engines, 481 

Edison's electric pen, 264, 514 

Education, musical, in England, 485, 538, 
468, 593, 615 

Eggs and constipation, 495 

Egyptian pipe, the ancient, 148 

Elastic power of vapour, law of, 648 

Electrio : alarm, 100, 152, 199, 254: battery, 
a new, 284 ; bell, 18, 44, 417 : clocks. 95, 
119, 860 ; current, heating effects of the, 
499, 629; kit*. 875; lighting, 377; multi- 
plier, 376 ; pen, Edison's, 284, 614 ; pheno- 
menon, 838, 363: power, 158; shadow. 
184; wire, Marsh's vibrating electric, 673 

Electrical : 47, 155, 286, 887, 891, 415, 600. 
624,678; attraction, 813 ; bell indicator, 
125 ; contact, 125 ; experiments, singular, 
195 ; machine, 520, 598, 614, 684 ; — cement 
for,106, 128 ; —cylinder, 289, 885 ; - Holts, 
theory of the, 326 ; machines, index of, 
128; shadow, 184; varnish, 155; vortices, 
on, 27 

Electricity : and magnetism, Faraday's 
disooveries in, 425 : as a motive power, 
557; eoonomy of, 62; in oheesemaking, 
73; medical, 388; use of wire gauze in 
teaching, 286 
Electro-gilding on copper, 181 
Electro-magnet: 391 ; and bell, 189 
Electro-magnetic engines: 77, 318, 884;— 
how to make an, 254; machine, the 
Comacho, 257, 398 
Electro-magnets, 416, 465 

Electro-plating, 800 _ 

Eleotro^rpesTiaO. 158. 137, 804, 208, 282, 

Eleotrot yping, 547, 572, 598 

Elements: chemical, 499; olassiicatton of 

the, 41. 100. 255, 307 
Elliptical cutting frame. Ash's, 570 
Elm carriage-wheel naves, 887 

on glass, 49, 73, 77, 126 



Emigration to Colorado and California, 675 
Enamel : off bath, 468 ; paint, pure white, 675 
Endorsing ink, 887 
Energetic idealism, 856 
Energy: potential, 100, 152, 203; solar, 14 
Engine: and boiler for small steamboat, 
598 ; boiler, 103 ; Camaoho electro- magne- 
tic, 257, 398; governors, 820: guide-bars, 
setting, 375 ; horizontal, 46 ; how to make 
an electro- magnetic, 254; marine, 680; 
model, steamboat, 44 ; on a small com- 
pound, 217 ; power of. 596, 881, 648; var- 
iable, 675; pumps, brass valves for, 78; 
query, 864. 442 ; Rider air. 638 : Eobey 
mining, 262, 890, 413; small. 883, 888; 
valvefor, 180 



Digitized by 



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rEKGLI8H MECHANIC.! 
L i ; '. to Vol. XXm. J 



INDEX. 



luFPMMmxT to m ENGLISH MECHANIC, 
Sett. 20, 1876. 



V. 



Engines: oool consumption of, 308; wo- 
mb; of, 421 ; electro-magnetic, 77. 318, 
364 ; estimating horse-power of, 2 us ; ex- 
press, U, 40. 97. 124, 150, 801, 860, 358, 
8W, 407, 483. 463, 48S, 516, 538, 565. 591, 
617. 846; O. N. single, 128, 155; Glasgow 
nod 8. W„ 861 ; L. C. and D. bogie. 539 ; 
Midland, 361 . 388. 624. 646 ; now G. W. R.. 
181,646; rotary, 263 

England : musical education in, 485, 539, 
566, 593, 615; numerals, date of intro- 
duction into, 385 ; icasons in, 561, 574, 
599, 622 ; watchmaking in, 201 

English and foreign micro-objectives, 93 

Exnuifl Mkcbahic Lifeboat, launch of 
the. 349 

Bugiaver's Tarnish, 832 

Kngravin/. K50, t.71 

Koirravingt, cleaning. 387 

Enlargements, photo. 651, 675 

Enlarging drawings, 46 

Epicycloids and hypocycluids, 579, 656 

Equation to curve, 025 

Senatorial: allowance for refraction in 
setting an. 354. 561 ; altazimuth, 405, 508 ; 
stand. 360 

Equatorial or tropical, 562 

Equilibrium, 261 

Equinoctial, Saturn on the, 35 

Equivalent, mechanical, 183, 205, 2.52 

Eqnulei. xete. 184 

Erin colliery. Westphalia, pumping machi- 
nery at. 377 

Escapement, gravity, 129 

Escapement peudulum, gravity, 73, 100 

Esthetics : 330, 356. 410, 438, 400 ; and 
psunting, 117, 261. 283 

Estimating : oar bo lie acid, 495 ; horse- 
power of steam engines, 245 ; value of 
bone-black, 401 

Etching : 179 ; on metals. 386 

•' Bluer," how happv could I bo with. 458 

Ether of space, the. 429 

Etherio force. 38, 221. 242 

Eucalyptus, Tasmaniau, 300, 335, 356 

Euclid's elements, 610, 625, 640, 650, 665, 
674 

Evaporating pans, 416 
Evidence relating to verbal remark*. 147 
Evolate of cycloids, 357 
Examination, mechanical, 205, 209, 233 

KiCl-.-ivc Iicm!, fviN, 611 

Exhibition of scientific apparatus, 220, 270 

292. 306. 32*. 347 
Expansion: 593; of air. 517 
Kipcc ton* tore, rowdy, 533 
Experiment: a conoos, 456; interesting 

optical. 594, 643 
Experimental boiler of the Manchester 

steam-users' Association, 54 
Experiments: in telephony, 551.594; Bin- 

gular electrical, 195, spectroscopic. 22, 46 ; 

vivisection, 5 ; with arsenic, 257 ; with 

radiometers, 375 
Explanation : accepted, 147 ; olaimed on a 

eertL'a assumption, 640; wanted, 283 
Explosion : of dynamite, 678 ; on board the 

Tbuaderer, 655 
Explosions, boiler, •i'i, 76 
Express engines : 11,40. 97, 124, 150, 201, 

856. 358, 386. 407. 433. 463. 488, 516. 538, 

565. 591. 617, 040 ; O. N. single, 128, 155 ; 

Midland, 501. 646; new G. W. K., 181, 

646; trains, 490. 618 
Expression stop, 261, 313 
Extinction of life, 392. 415 
Extraction of alkaloids, 282 
Eye, beetle's, exhibiting lenses of a, 34, 150 
Eyaietted direction labels, 288 
Eyelid, swelling under, 389 
Eyepiece : polarising, 304 ; single lens, 77 ; 

solar, 304. 340 
Eyepiece*: diagonal, 304; high-power. 651, 

685 ; Hnyghenian, 48 ; panoratic, 508 
Eyesight, extraordinary, satellites of 

C ran us and, 197, 250 

P R.A.8. : letters bv. 36. 91. 149, 197, 249. 
304. 354, 403, 458, 5<I8, 561, 610, 665 ; slide- 
rest of . IS 

Vibrio for boots, loggings, kc., now, 452 

Facte, 533 

Faint stars: 420. 458: by twilight. 329; 

limit of telescopic vi-i-m iin.l,.'sis ; m»-iinf, 

668 

Fans, blast, 49, 390 

Far West, manners and enstoms of the, 37 
Faraday's discoveries in electriolty and 

magnetism, 425 
Fargier's carbon process, 8 
Fastening : paper to tin. 649 : tires, 617 
Faulty Daniellbettery. 520, 545, 546 
Farm, cultivation, 98 
Feed, how plants, 455 
Feed-pump for portable boiler, 206 
Feet, damp. 184. 807, 233, 287 
Fell railway, 260 
yUlow-feenng (in his pockets) does not 

make us wondrous kind, 065 
Felling axe, American, 183 
Fellows, pretty, 354 
Fences, law of, 313, 338, 363 
Fermentation, researches in, 499 
Fermented hread, ne rated v., 235 

r.rnwa.. . UV, VC 

Ferns : dyeing. 232, 886 ; frost; 71 . 175, 309 ; 
■rowing in eases, 556; management of, 

Forrwr, Prof., on sleep and dreaming, 86 
Ferro-pruselate, copying tracings by, 493 
Fever, hay, 391 
Fiction, B'-ientifie, 633 
Fiddler, to. 651 
Fiddler's keyed viol. 13. 72. 97 
Figures - cleaning stucco, 519 ; on lightning, 
214.438 

Filigree work, cleaning silver, 444, 468, 543 
Filling for red letters m brass, 1S7 



Films, collodion, for experiments, 99 
Filter: coffee. 361 ; keeping oool, 547, 572 
Filter-pump. 807, 282 

Filters : few words about, 554 ; pure water, 

613, 670 
Finding Cranns, 249 
Finger-keyed viol, 889 
Fingers, crooked little, 389 
Fire, protection from. 105 
Fire-arms, recoil of. 48, 76 
Fire: bUloons, 520 
Fire-bars, straightening, 205 
Fire-clay. 231 
Fire-damp, 115 

Fire-guards, cleaning bras*. 390 
Firelighters. 338, 373. 388 
First astronomical telescope. 648 
Firth's works, visit to. 406, 511 
Fishes, nest-building. 193 
Fitxroy barometer, 48 
Fixing vanes, 157 
Flame, oxyhvdrogen, 331 
Flames, on the theory of illuminating, 88 
Flannel, washing, 410, 518 
Flashing pointe of mineral oils, 14 
Flat : lens, 339. 364 ; roofs, 389 
Flavouring tinotures. 184, 207, 233 
Flaws in submarine cable, detecting, 545 
Fleas in old thatched cottage. 444, 467 
Flexible power transmitter, 581, 613 
Flight of bullet, 573, 598, 675 
Floating bodies, 199 
Floor : 183 ; stained, 574, 599 
Floors : covering, 203, 2.31 ; polishing, 392 
Flow of water at different temporatures, 
256 

Flowers i harmony of colours in, 803 ; light 
and the colours of, 162 ; packing, 204 ; 
watering. 548, 674 
Fluctuations, market, 411 
Fluid, pressure of, on a surface, 116 
Flute: 49. 77. 102. 260 ; clarionet v., 48,97, 
200. 229, 281, 334. 357. 385, 410. 435; 
organ v.. 253. 309 ; Slccama, 288, 337, 362, 
412; silver. 184 
Flux on brass, 128 
Flying Dutchman. 691 
Flying trot, 470 
Fly-wheel of lathe, 622, 673 
Focus of spectacles. 610, 650 
Fog sad f ig-horns, 673 
Food : adulteration, 443, 466 ; and dietetics, 
83. 213 ; animal and vegetable, 414, 465, 
617, 541, 569, 596, 619, 647, 672 ; cheaper, 
43, 93. 122, 149; preservation of, 490; 
taberclo in, 307 : weather and, 637 
Foot and mouth diseaso, 71, 119 
Force : centrifugal, 521, 572 ; etherio, 38, 
221, 242 ; of breathing, measuring, 520, 
545, 672 ; on pipe, 20 ; reflection of, 15 
Forces of impact, 48, 232. 286. 336, 360 
Forecasting storms, 228, 355, 430, 515, 567, 
612. 669 

Foreign and English micro-objectives, 93 
Fork, handy garden, 616 
Formula for deducing from a ship's length 

1 ..1.1.1 1M 



her captain's name, 480 
Formula:, Barlow's, 539 
Forty -eurht cell battery. 18 
Fossil : 258 ; Brachiopoda. 403 ; curious, 385, 

437 ; tooth, peculiar, 280 
Foundation : on wet bog, 545, 572, 698 
Fountain : parlour, 412 ; portable, 854 
Fowl-house, 496. 519 

Fracastoriua, 117. 879, 405, 410, 438, 484, 585 

Frame hives, 582 

Frames : drawing and roving, 545 ; heat in, 
22.47 

Franoe, meteorology in, 478 
Fraunhofer. 533. 630. 594 
Freesing mixtures : 184; and cryohydrates, 
405 

French report on cremation, 631 
Fret-saw, improved, 31 

Friction : 20tf. 235 ; brakes, dynamometers 

and, 506, 525 
Friedman's injectors, 364, 671 
Friend, womau's, 21, 75, 101, 152, 231, 258, 

310, 564, 615 
Friends. Job's. 561 
Friendship. 564, 592, 613, 645, 069 
Frogs, screaming, 618 
Frost: ferns grown by magnetism, 71, 175, 

309 j plants nnd. 276; telescopic work 

during hard, 178 
Frozen hands, 261 

Fruit: and fruit culture, 187; preserving, 
104 

Frusta, conical, 378 

Fuel of the sun, 383, 379, 404, 481. 510, 536, 
561, 610 

Furnace: for ironfoundry, 388; gas, 130; 

laboratory, 519 
Furnaces : 321 ; boiler, 407 
Fused balls, solidifying of in liquid, 27 

GALILEAN telescopes, improvements 

in. 350 

Gallicia, petroleum in, 847 
Gallium and a prediction. 283 
Galvanometer, astatic, 43 
Gal van io : action in breweries, 599, 622 ; 
battery. Halse's, 318, 363 ; — improved, 
321 ; cell, 157, 236; conductivity and vis- 
cosity of some saline solutions, 581 
Galvanism: and steam boilers, 33; as an 
agent in the resuscitation of failing life, 
589 ; heating by, 469, 494 
Galvanometer : astatic, 209, 261 ; best silk 

for, 651 
Oamgee's real ice-rink, 229 
Garden : barrow. 439 ; birds in the, 464 ; 
fork, handy, 618; walks, weeds on, 390, 
413 ; work, 627 
Gardeners' friends, sea-gulls as, 351 
Gas : 180; ammoniaeal. 625.650; analysis, 
178, 281. 256, 280, 282, 307. 310. 332. 386; 
I bag, 289, 337 ; burners, on, 01 ; coal, 182 ; 



Gas I — making in small quantities, 543 ; fit- 
tings, 469 ; furnace, 130 ; hot-water coil, 
heated by, 441 ; manufacture of, 128, 
180 ; — domestic. 606 ; oxygen. 40 ; supply, 
metropolitan, 203 ; the sun all, 36 ; under 
water, 675 

Gas-burner, Watkins's, 401 

(ias-cngine, the, 605 

i;.is«><, boat cvnducti-jn in, 501 

Gasogeno, 520 

(i fwsondi. 27V. 306 

Gauge : Birmingham wire, 47 ; mind the, 

62 ; water, 568 
Gauge-glass of boiler, 17, 73. 125 
Gauge*. ttssUa pressure. — <>< ' 
Gauze, use of wire, in teaching electricity, 

266 

Gear, overhead, 79 
Geared lathe, 19 

Gelatine films for heliotype printing, 181 
Geminorum : eta, 198 ; (47) near approach 

or, 403 ; ooeultation of 47, on April 1, 11*7 
Generating ozone, 373 
Gentleman, stays for, 40, 123 
Geography, physical, 80 
Geology : of Surrey, 198 ; of the weald of 

Sussex and Kent, sketch of, 138 
Geometric chuck, 878, 386, 513. 538 
German i bullfinches, 49 ; torpedo boat, 

197 ; yeast, 310 
Germination and camphor water, 362 
Giddiness, 76 

Giffard's piston packing, 100 
Gilder's wax, 18 

Gilding : 674 ; inside of onp, 289 ; organ 
pipes, 469 

Girders, 468 

Glasgow and 8.W. engines, 261 

Glass: balance springs for watches, 396; 
bearings, 155 ; designs on, producine - , 217 ; 
embossing on, 49, 73. 76, 126 ; holes in, 
making, 289, 312; letters on, 157, 286; 
painting on, 208 ; polishing. 289, 337 ; 
printing on, 581; safe temperature for 
heating, 130 ; specula, 105 ; — unsilvered, 
665; stained, imitation of, for windows, 
156 ; tempering, 863, 418 j use of coloured, 
in hothouses, 440 ; writing on, 152 

Glaze, cream-coloured, 104 

Glazed leather, patent, 387 

Glossic, spelling, 307 

Glove dyeing, 650 

Glue : bichromated, for mending glass and 

earthenware, 478 ; waterproof , 625 
Goats, 494 

Gold : and silver, formation of, 183 ; forma- 
tion of, 205, 232, 282 ; making, 18 ; mining 
130; sice, 520 

Good-natured friends and ill-natured tattle, 
480 

Goods locomotives (Midland), 651 
Goose spot and sans pot, 37 
Gourmet and gourmand, 40, 99, 124, 149, 229 
Government : analysts' report on butter, 

658; annuity, 313 
Governor, improved centrifugal, 195 
Governors : 648 ; engine, 681 
Gradients, railway, 256, 301, 308 
Graduation : adjustable slido-rest, 39 ; of 

thermometers, 340, 364 
Gramme magneto-electric machine : 263 ; 

for lighting railway depots, 478 
Granary, 362 

Grape sugar, fermented, 129, 156 
Gratifying, 198 

Gravel walks, weeds on, 365, 390 
Gravitation and weight, 107, 233, 311 
Gravity : 809, 834, 859 ; centre of, of oycloi 
dal arc, 447 ; — of pyramid, 598 ; escape- 
ment pendulum, 73, 100; law of, 533; 
specific. 314, 363 ; — of a compound, 182 
Greasy silk, 104 
Greek alphabet, 634, 640 
Green varnish tor metals, 302 
Greenhouses, heating apparatus for small, 

466, 618. 643 
Greenwich : time and local time, 36 ; visi- 
tation, 324 

Grinding : bones, 858 ; wheat, handmill for, 

288,362 
Grotto of Capri, blue. 117 
Growing ferns in cases, 668 
Growth and manufacture of cork, 57 
Guide-bars, setting engine, 375 
Gun : the 81 ton, 849 ; the 100 ton, 660 
Guns, recoil of, 72 

Guttapercha: 18; joining to brass, 182; 

photographic baths, 236 
Guttemberg, Taruntius and, 460 

H. V. 62 Leonis and Smyth's cycle, 667 
Habits, pleasant, 147 
Hair, cleaning, 336 
Hall. Boyal Albert, 249 
Hallet's point, submarine explosion at, 118 
Hall-marks for jewellery. 53 
Halse's : apparatus, 78, 313 ; battery, 338 

363. 388, 439 
Hammer, spring lever, 387 
Handiness of ships, 69 
Handmill for grinding wheat, 288, 363 
Hand-power circular saw, 414 
Handrailing, 78. 179 

Hands : frozen, 261 ; perspiring, 439 ; velo- 
cipede driven by the, 462 
Handwriting, character from, 361 
Handy garden fork, 616 
Hard clays, 387 

Hardening, coffee-mill ping, 104 ; steel, 102 
Hardness of bullets, 675 
Hard-wooded cuttings, 647 
Harmonium: 205, 232, 259. 287. 311, 520 
and organ matters. 120, 178. 199. 408 j bass 
softening, 79 ; Browning's, Mr., 409 
enlarging, 182 ; justly-intoned, 96 ; larce, 
105 ; Mustel, 439, 517 ; novel, 392 ; octave 
coupler for, 432 ; out of tune, 183 ; pan 
making. 338; pedals to, 339, 363, 442 



wtima- 



Harmonium : quest ion , 105 ; reeds, 18, 42, 78, 
96, 313 ; — in organs, 155 ; requiring high 
pressure of wind, 129. 181 1 skeleton, 17, 
73, 124 ; splendid, a, 229 ; steel reeds for, 
78 ; stops, 80; sweet-toned. 339. 469. 493. 
518, 570, 598, 647, 673 ; tremolo valve for. 
520 ; two manual, 339 : voix celeste, 520. 648 
Harmoniums, organs, 4c. 177, 228, 252,280 
Harmony of colours in flowers, 803 
Harp, ancient and modern, 136, 3-44, 422 
Hay fever, 390 

Head t cure for cold in the. 381 ; bot, 677 
Health: importance of kuowledgo of laws 

of, 426 ; personal care of, 291 
Heart disease. 179 

Heat : cause of solar, 305, 333, 380. 569. 665 ; 
condensation in gases, 501 ; exoessive, 
588. 611 ; in frames, 47; in the United 
States, 511; in ventilation, economy of, 
253; light and, 480. 508. 536 ; measure- 
ment of solar, 511 ; of light, radiant. 463 ; 
of soil and air, effects of on vegetable life, 
606 ; of water. 45 ; primarily considered, 
131, 157; radiation of solar. 147; spoU, 
solar, the Times and, 378, 416, 54S 
Heated shaft, 232 

Heating : apparatus for small greenhouses, 
466. 518, 643; by galvanism. 469. 404; 
effects of electric current, 489, 629 ; green- 
houses, 466. 518 
Heavens, signs in the, 37 
Hegelinnism. speculative physics and, 225, 

251, 283, 330 
Heliotype, gelatine films for, 181 
Hens and chicken*, 335 
Herbarium case, 600, 023 
Uerculis (29), 610 
Hide, dyeing raw, 504 
Hides, preserving, 619 
High-power eyepieces, 651, 665 
High pressure, living at, 56*. 612 
History of boteny, riaohs's, 318 
Hires, frame, 582 
Hoist rope, 182 
Hole in iron, making, 74 
Holes in glass, making, 289 
Holt*, electrical machine, theory of. 326, 
600 

Honey harvest, 562 

Hooks and eyes for lathe bands, 40, 175 
Horizon, artificial. 43. 01 
Horizontal : air-pump, 465, 541, 619 ; 
engine. 46 

Horn: bleaching, 606; for combs, 183; 

liquefying, 183 
Horse-dealer's license, 336 
Horse-power : of steain-engiucs, 

ting. 245 ; of shafting, 417, 440 
Hot head, 677 

Hot-water coil heated by pas, 441 
Hotch-poteh, scones and. 102 
Hothouses, use of coloured glass in, 440 
Hot weather, the recent, 640 
House: budding, 390, 648; decorations, 
curtain cornices and, 226 ; pigeon, 625, 
650 

Houses, wooden, 254 
Huvgheniau eyepiece, 48 
Hvdraulic : canal lift at Anderton. 63 ; lift, 

49 ; organ blowor, 860 
Hydrocarbon gas lamp, 63-4 
Hydrogen and oxygen. 360. 387, 410 
Hydrophobia and barking. 262 
Hydrostatieal, 128, 312, 360 
Hypooycloids, epicycloids and, 679, 656 

ICE : artificial. 130; manufacture of, 475 ; 

safe. 645; e. asphaite. 281, 331, 436 
Ice-houses, cheap and simple, 595 
Ice-rink, an, 21H 

Ice-rinks: Mr. Oamgee's, 229 ; real, 79 
Idealism, energetic, 356 
Ignorance, dogmatic, 117 
lie's diiforeulial compass, 89 
Illuminating: names, theory of, 32; light- 
houses, 505 
Illusions, telesoopio, 480 
Images, hollow plaster of Paris, 76 
Impact, forces of. 48. 232. 286. 336. 360 
Imporishahle letters. 43, 182. 311, 361 
Imposture, a little attention and a great. 
666 

Impression metal, soft, 49, 77 
Improvements, sanitary. 287 
Inclination of the earth's axis, 197, 231 
Increase of population. Malthus and, 405 
Incrustatiou of boiler, 43. 78, 541 
Index-counter for slido-rest. adjustable, lt- 
India, sanitary progress in, 204 
Indian ink, 675 

Imliarubbor : cement for fixing vulcanised, 

DO, 169. 330 ; varnish, 888 
Indicating steam-eugines, 050, C74 
Indicator, bicycle, 74 

Indicators: eloctrio bell, 125; tune, actual, 
ing, 601 

Induction coil : condenser for. 411 ; Dr. 
Oallan's. 493; instructions for making, 
9, 41, 80, 92, 391 ; noise made by, 184; 
small, 411 ; winding in latbo, 415 
Inequalities in motion of moon, 405, *%. 

46* i. 483, 510. 635, 562. 588. 611. 641. 667 
Infinity of space, 118, 151, 171 
Influence, magnetic, 365, 390 
Infusions, bacterial. 78 
Infusorial earth, cleaning, 258 
Inheritance, 599 
Injectors, Friedman's, 364, 671 
Ink: endorsing. 3b7 ; indelible, 541 ^Indian, 
675 ! on book covers, removing, 339, 364 ; 
red. 623, 649. 673 
Inlaw! sea of Africa, 657 
Inlaying, 312 

Inscriptions, copying. 336, 338, 383 
shut 



Instantaneous shutter, 79. 102, 1-7 
Instrument. Mnstel. 439. 517. 647 
Instruments : old musical, 14 ; wind, 40W 
Insulating coil, 392, 415 



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ScrriBxwrT to tm ENGLISH MECHANIC, " 
Sxrr. 29, 1876. 



INDEX. 



PNGLI8H MECHANIC,*! 
Isnax to Vol. XXIII. J 



Insulation, 209 

Intelligent inquirers, tride interests and, 

177 . 

IntercronuU pressure, variations of, 617 

Intonation, just, 297. 320, 630 

Invalids, back-rest for. 298 

Invention, how to Introduce a new. 670 

Inventor of the aohromatio telescope, 474 

Involuntary action, 528 

Iron : amalgamation of, 577 : and steel, 
testa for, 216 ; cement, an, 264 ; houses, 
507 : in well-water, 510j Japauosc, 91 ; 
joining braes to, 444, 468 ; making pro- 
cess, 541 ; — Mr.' I. L. Bell's new. 374 ; 
making hole in, 20, 74 ; puddled, fibrous. 
234 ; Khips, 417, 440 ; trade, Russia and 
the, 464 ; wire silvering. 62 

Ironclad, new Italian, 215 

Ironclads, 437 

Ironfonndry. furnace for, 388 
Irradiation, lunar occult* tions and, 249 
Irregular yarn, 593 
Italian ironclad, new, 215 
Ivory : engravlmr on, 839, 363 ; polishing 

bone, horn and, 600 ; vegetable, 261 ; — 

staining, 519 

JAPAN: brinks from, 197; patent law 
in, 559 

Japanese : compass, a curious, 478 ; iron, 
91 ; paper, 374 

Jerusalem artichoke, 360 

Jet : blow through, 289 ; mining and work- 
ing. 634 

Jewellers' alloy, 541 

Jewellery : gilding, 331 ; hall-marks for, 

53 ; taking bruises out of, 261 
Job. spotting an attempted, 665 
Job's friends, 581 
Joint, bevel, 102 

Juiige : an unwise, 223 ; de jure, a, 249 

July meteors, 485, 536. 611 

Jupiter: 105. 225, 279, 306. 332, 355, 381, 
404. 460, 484 j as a present test for 3 Jin, 
O.G., 91 ; at opposition, 562 ; comet near, 
509, 520 ; markings on, 433 ; naked-eye 
observations of satellites of, 643, 667 ; 
Saturn and, theory they are intensely 
hot. 429 

.liwt intonation. 297, 320, 630 

J ustl) -intoned harmonium, 96, 630 

KALEIDOSCOPE, 208, 234, 336, 600 
Kauri pine, 124. 125 
Keely motor, the, 381 

Kensington, South : art library at, 264 ; 

conference at. 334 ; science at, 406, 434 ; 

show at. 241 ; snub for, 458 
Kenper. 236 
Keyboard, the new, 630 
Keys and key action for organs, 615 
Khfdive, meaning of title, 178 
Killing, fighting, and inflicting pain for 

sport, 36 
Kiln : molt, 128; steam brick, 167 
Kilt, 310 

Kite-, electric 677; tailless, 864 
Knapsack, 598 
Kniic, war to the. 671 

LABELLING tin, paste for, 392, 415, 

M-t 

Label.-,: eyelet ted direction, 288; to pre- 
serve, 77, 232 
L-il>oratory, 625, 650; furnace for, 518 
Labour, capital and, 264 
Lacing heavy belU, now method of, 377 
1 .oequer. 43 

LouVs, tricycles for. 41 

Lndle, contents of, 260 

1. imp : a hydrocarbon gas, 631 ; watch- 
maker's, 387, 415, 543 

Lamps : pemoline, 486 ; improvement in 
bcnsoline, 398 

Lancashire boiler, the, 240 

Landscape photography, 301 

Lantern: bull's-eye, 22; lenses, 79, 289, 
337; slides, Woodbury, 46 

Larva of Ohelonia caja, 203 

Lathe: 260; bands, 49; bearings, 78; 
castings, 648; fly-wheel for, 673 ; for 
drilling, Ac., 98 ; geared, 19 ; hooks and 
eyes, 40, 77, 175 ; overhead gear for, 16 ; 
power to drive a foot. 408 ; screw, 16 ; 
turning shafting in, 20. 45, 72, 74, 100 ; 
waUhmiker's combination, 13; winding 
coils in, 415 

Lathe-bands, hooks and eyea for, 40, 77 

1 .at he- bed query, 77 

Lathes : backstay for, 72 ; securing speed 

cones of, 143 
Liunch of the English Mechanic, lifeboat, 

:m 

Low of gravity, 533 

Laws: NowUn'i, 251. 306, 438: of health, 

importance of knowledge of, 426 
Lead of valve, 43 

Lead: in platinum points, 401: in tin, 
fallacious test for, 327 ; melting, 364: 
pipes, coating, 79, 103 ; poisoning 417, 440 

Leaf coca, 18L/258, 599, 648 

Leaky slate cistern, 157, 20t 

Leather: cement for, 584; cleaning, 573; 
patent glased, 3H7; portmanteau, clean- 
ing, 625; Bosnia, 6il>, 673; vegetable, 

Leolanche : battery. 156, 236. 360, 496, 574, 
625 ; cell, improved, 582 ; xinc rods for, 

206 

Lectures, course of on physiology, 625 

Log affection, 79 

Legal, 547, 572 

Logs, oramp in, 619, 617 

Leicester steam tram-car, 1 (3 

Length : of connecting-rod, how to ascer- 
tain, 455; of strap, 411, 492, 518 

Iyns: diaphragm, 236; flat, 339, 364; 
lantern, 7V, 289, 337 



Lenses : of a beetle's eye, exhibiting, 34 ; 

quick acting, 131, 181 
Lentil*, cooking, 179, 231. 255 
LeonU : o micron. 610 ; (62) H. V.. 667 
Letters : imperishable, 43, 182, 311, 361 : 

on glass, 157, 286 
Levelling, 492 

Level : adjusting, 73 ; sea, 79, 158, 258, 310, 
665 

Lever : hammer, spring, 887 ; notch, must 

It be oiled. 96, 151, 230, 309 
License, horse-dealer's, 336 
Lieblioh gedact. 182 

Life: air and its relation to, 473; extinc- 
tion of, 415 

Lifeboat, English Mechanic launch, 342, 319 

Lift : and force pumps, 646, 621 ; counter- 
poise, 618; hydraulic, 49; — canal, at 
Anderton, 63 

Light : 872 ; action of upon pigments, 400 ; 
analogy of sound and, 632; ancient 
notions of, 146, 156 : and heat, 480, 508, 
536; and colours of flowers, 102: mecha- 
nical production of, 66; polarisation of 
by scattering, 259 ; radiant heat of, 463 ; 
radiometers and, 68; reflection of, 156, 
181, 204, 232 ; rings and cross of crystals 
under polarised, 146, 181 

Lighthouses, illuminating, 505 

Lighting: electric, 377; railway depots by 
the Gramme machine, 478 

Lights : the law of, 22, 47, 102, 152; risi- 
bility of coloured, 410 

Lightning I conductors, 456 ; figures, on, 
214, 438; without thunder, 209, 235 

Limb of Venus, the dark, 249 

Lime, 365, 390 

Limelight: 43,73, 648; oxy hydrogen, 466, 
546 

Lime-water, 495, 619 

Limit of telescopic vision, 508 

Limits of the atmosphere, 197, 209, 304, 

379. 431. 481, 510 
Linea, nulla dies sine, 508 
Linen webs, 79, 103 
Lining Daniell's wood batteries, 259 
Lioness, the Dublin, 401 
Liquefying horn, 183 
Liquids, coloured, 561 
Liver : 18 ; com plaint, 573 
Liverpool dry plates, 649, 670, 673 
Living at high pressure, 568, 590, 612 
Loan collection of scientific apparatus, 239, 

354 

Lockmakers and lookbreakers, 637 
Lockyer's astronomy, 234, 278 
Locomotive chimneys, American, 365, 380 
Locomotives: 70, 104, 233, 280; and spaed 

of trains, 176, 226; Mcyeles and. 407; 

bogie, 206, 258. 286, 336, 34*. 410, 491, 

516 541, 562, 596 : goods. Midland, 651 ; 

incline, 138 ; stability of, 155 ; weight and 

speed of, 308, 433 
London: "B. A.," 412: matriculation, 

651, 675; university B. So. examination, 

469 

Long tots, 209 

Long-trnok railway carriages, 176 

Longitude and time, 665, 676 

Low-water alarm, an improved, 33 

Lubricant, petroleum as a, in turning 
metals, 644 

Lubricant*, piston, 440 

Lubricating : compound, improved, 424 ; 
oil, 608 ; oils, testing, 573 

Lubricator : 18, 49; for mathematical in- 
struments, 157 ; improved, 168 

Luoerometer, Mr. Crookos's, 15 

Lunacy, 546, 572 

Lunar : crater Fracastorins, 67, 410 ; cycles, 
36; inequality a, 458; maps and cata- 
logues, 15 ; oooulta tions ana irradiation, 
249 ; rainbow, double, US ; topography 
(Posldonius),15; (Ciohus), 69; (Fracas- 
tonus) , 67, 460 ; volcanoes, 381, 403, 405 

Lyn:is (40), 36, 38, 47 

Lyra>, epsilen, 329, 332, 355, 381, 403, 404, 
510, 533, 536, 586, 611, 4)40, 667 

M.D ., how to become, 391 

Machine : Oomooho electrio, 257, 398 ; elec- 
trical, 365, 520 : Holts theory of the, 336 ; 
magnoto-etectrio, 442, 478, 496. 519 ; mitre- 
planing, 255, 279, 359; mowing, repair- 
ing, 546; the darning, 217; type-oom- 
posing, a new, 266 

Machinery : paper-box making, 89; wood, 
conversion by, 655 

Machines : boot-cleaning, 553 ; composing, 
464; cutting and surfacing, 217; elec- 
trical, 593, 614, 624 ; for bread-making, 
208, 234, 289 ; Gramme magneto- electric, 
263 ; large paper-making, 34 ; paper-box 
making, 89; wood-chopping, 48, 76 

Macula) and weather, 304 

Magic : dock, 235, 259 ; lantern, 80 ; 
squares, 259, 311, 361, 411, 462, 513, 537, 
562, 594, 614, 669 

Magnesia, citrate of, 547, 572 

Magnet, power of permanent, 600 

Magnetic : influence, 365, 390; repulsion, 
236, 260 

Magnetism : and magnets, 183 ; frost-ferns 

grown by, 71 
Magneto-electric machines, 442, 478, 496, 

Magnets : 622 ; and bells, 199 

Magnitudes, star, 804 

Mahogany, polish for, new, 13L 157, 182 

Maice, 442 

Malt kiln, 128 

Malthas and increase of population, 406 
Mammals, on excretion of carbonic acid by 

the larger domesticated, 526 
Man: ancestor of, 359; beside himself, a 

480 

Manager's, colliery, certificate, 962, 889, 
392, 416, 439, 402, 496, 519 



Manchester steam-users' association had 

their experimental boiler, 64 
Manganese: a new oxide of, 115; 

an taprored, 191 ; liquor, 282 ; 

Manipulation, workshop, 109 

Manners and customs of the Far West, 37 

Manufacture of ice, 475 

Manure for potatoes, 22, 47 

Maps, lunar, 15 

Mare's nests, cock-and-bull stories and, 480 

Marble, 78 ; stained, 599 

Marine : aquaria, 119, 261, 288 ; engine, 620 

Market fluctuations, 411 

Markings : on Jupiter, 433 ; on Venus, 458, 

Mars, occulta tions by, 91, 

Marsh's vibrating electrio wire, 673 

Matches, safety, 162 

Mate" or Paraguayan tea, 503 

Mathematical .- 415, 468. 518 ; instrument 
screws, oiling, 494, 520 

Matriculation questions. 78, 179, 675 

Marvellous washintr machine, the, 475 

Mayer, Prof., on Crookos's radiometer, 530 

Measurement : metrical system of, 69, 100, 
of solar heat, 511 ; timber, 413 

Measurer, sound, 444, 518, 568 

Measuring ; distance, 337, 516, 568 ; force of 
breathing, 572, 519, 545, 598 

Meat, dear, 43, 93, 122 

Mechanical : barometer, 200, 231, 284; 
equivalent, 183, 205, 232; examination 
question, 183, 205, 209, 233 ; money-box ; 
589 ; physiology, 540 ; problem, 518 ; pro- 
duction of light, 66; puddling, progress 
of, 551 

Mechanism, practical, 5, 60, 112, 168 
Mechanics: 544,648 

Medical : battery, miniature, 493; coil, 
miniature, 488, 514, 538 ; electricity and 
H Rise's battery, 388: galvanism, 676; 
query (wax in ear), 131 
Medicine, charcoal as, 155, 417, 440, 465 
Meerschaum pipes, fixing stems to, 592 
Melbourne reflector, 380, 403 
Melting lead, 364 
Memory, 289, 494, 518 
Merchant, a youthful, 147 
Mercurous snlpho-oyanide, 18 
Mercury : motion of perih 



helion of, 535,561 ; 
the planet, 444, 458. 468 
Metal: castings, 622; coating with tin, 
654; etching on, 386; green varnish for, 
302: organ pipes, 103; soft impression, 
49,77 

Metallic pyrometer, 663 

Metals : petroleum as a lubricant in turn- 
ing, 644 ; sonority of various, 671 

Meteor, brilliant, remarkable, 536. 564, 611, 
641 

Meteorologist, a, giving reins to his indig- 
nation, 561 

Meteorology : in France, 478 ; science of. 
281, 458, 665, 668 : waste and work in, 533 

Mtjteors: 404; July. 485. 536, 587, 6U ; 
August. 611. 668 

Method of making surface plates, new, 504 

Metre, the, as a philosophical, unit of 
length, 91 

Metric system, 11 

Metrical system of measurement, 60, 100, 
175,230 

Metropolitan gas supply, 203 . 
Micro-photos. 80 

Microscope: best, 677; drawing from the, 
335; high-power object-glass for, 517; in- 
creasing power of, 392 ; mount*, mode of 
centreing, 533; objectives. English and 
foreign, 93 ; slide, a new, 246 

Microscopic : lenses, minute, 15 ; objects, 
43, 243, 269, 371, 501 ; - mounting, 131, 
388 

Midland : engines, new, 361, 388, 591, 624, 
646; railway, 490, 539, 617, 649, 669; 
route to Scotland, 337 

Midnight sun, the, 249, 261, 288, 311 

Mildew on vines. 417. 439. 441, 516, 568 

Milk, preservation of. 102 

Mill, visit to a cotton, 594 

Milling : and lettering the edges of coins, 
100 ; tools. 152 

Mine: surveying, 365; ventilation, water- 
gauge in, 598 

Mineral : OQS, flashing points of, 14; testing, 
86; waters, 310 

Mines : plans of, 44 s reports of the inspec- 
tors of, 564 ; ventilation of by compressed 
air, 61, 123 

Minimum viaibile, wanted law for deter- 
mining, 429 

Mining : engines, 390, 620 ; engines, Robey, 
262, 390; jet, 634; ventilation question, 
413 

Minor planets, 147 
Mira Oeti, 198 

Miraculous vision, 249, 278, 304 
Mirrors : for reflectors, 93 ; short focus, 44 
Misquotation and variable star*. 172 
Mistakes in Lockyer's astronomy. 278 
Mitre-planing machine, 255, 279, 359 
Model, balloons, 673; boiler, 363, 491; 

steamboat engine, 44, 235 
Models, pitohing wheel, 103, 179 
Modern soience, 461, 488, 534, 567, 585, 638 
Modest request, a, 458 
Mole skins, 44 

Money-box, new mechanical, 589 

Monument, the Sutton, 78 

Moon : apparent diameter of the, 276 ; de- 
termining sun's distance by, 665 ; has it 
an atmosphere, 107, 224 ; inequalities in 
motion of. 405, 436. 460, 483,484,510,535, 
562, 588. 611, 641, 667 ; Mr. Nelson's book 
on the, 450, 515, 535, 585 : path of, 15. 117, 
251: phases of the, and Nautical Alma. 
nook, 483 ; projection of stars on limb of, 
197,279; rising, 600, 010 



Mooning over self-made difficulty, 608 

Moonshine, 508, 521 

Moonstone. 365, 390, 541. 668, 619, 678 

More terms. 79, 102, 165, 204, 232 

Morphia, 131 

Mortar. 365 

Morte d'anoestre, 209 

Moss lands, 623 

Motion: 10. 70. 98, 118, 170. 198, 262; of 
radiometer, 407; overheard, 80; plane- 
tary, 251, 433; wave, 230, 259, 311, 381, 
381 

Motive power, electricity as a, 557 
Motor : Keely, 381 ; new, another, 385 
Mould for easting plaster of pans, 647 
Mount cutting, 387 

Mounting .- chart* , 76, 102, 179 ; photos, 20 
Movement : during process of solution, 
phenomena of, 57 ; wave, 230, 258, 311, 

Mowing machine, repairing, 646 
Mullein, 76 
Mullen, 48 

Multiplication, cross, 235, 259, 287, 388, 465 
Mummy wheat, 362 
Munroe reed, and how to use it, 384 
Museum of scientific apparatus, 282 
Music : and songs, 677 ; arranging, 286, 386 
Musical: box, 102; — tuning, 411, 491; 
education in England, 485, 589, 566, 503, 
615; instruments, eld, 14; notation tonic 
sol-fa, 624 ; notes, pitch of, and their 
duration, 115; string, stopping a, 208; 
telegraph in Paris, 658; terms, a new 
dictionary of, 84 ; tone, 462 ; tones, limits 
of perception of, 35 
Mustel instrument, the, 439, 517, 647 

NAKED-EYE observations of Jupiter's 

satellites. 643 
Natural history object*, collection and 

preservation of, 343 
Nature, whence came, 37 
Nautical Almanac, phases of moon and the, 

483 

Navigation, question in, 622, 640 

Nebuuo : according to Mr. Proctor, 509 ; 

distance of the, 354 
Naylor's safety-valve, 648 
Needle : astatic, 93, 103, 124 ; cushion, pin 

and, 490; telegraph, magnetising, 546, 

572 

Negatives, new developer for, 361 
Neison's book on moon, on the review of, 

450, 515, 535, 585, 611 
Neptune, Bode's law and the, 197 
Nest-building fishes, 193 
Net, trawl, 206 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, swing bridge at, 401 

Newton's laws, 251, 300 

Newton's law of oooling, 438 

Nickel: deposit, 263; — dark colour of, 

519; ore in New Caledonia, 559; salts of 

558 ; stripping from brass, 573 
Nitric acid, 625, 650 
Nltro-onmio acid. 546 
Nobody's business, 480 
Noise: in supply pipe, 20, 74; of passing 

trains, 179, 310 
Nom de plume, 226, 278 
Nomenclature, chemical, 126, 204 
Non-conducting covering, 559 
Non-intoxicating drinks, 444, 467 
North and south line for a vane, 146 
Notation, tonic sol-fa, 624, 673 
Notes : astronomical, 58, 163, 267, 397, 502. 

632 ; on novelties, 608 ; on photography, 

historic and descriptive, 503, 531, 555 
Notice bills, 288 
Novelties, notes on, 608 
Nulla dies sine Linea, 508 
Numerals, date of their introduction into 

England, 385 
Numerical squares, 408 
Numismatic, 204, 599 

OAK varnish, restoring, 184 

Oat cake, 19, 45, 101, 152, 203. 231, 285 

Objeot-glass: by Tulley, 104: test for a 
ajin., 197, 209 ; test for mice*. , 417, 443 

Object-glasses : construction of achromatic, 
112. 464; good, and abnormal appear- 
ances, 665 ; imperfect, 484 ; measurement 
of angular aperture of, 374 ; on the aper- 
ture of, 476 ; triple, 48, 100 

Objectives : English and foreign micro- 
scope, 93 ; working distance of, 469, 494 

Objeots: in beetle's eye,- 150 ; microscopic, 
243, 269, 372, 501 

Oboe: 229; reeds for, 253 

Obscurity not necessarily evidence of pro- 
fundity, 223 

Observatory, visit to an astronomical, 171 

Occultation : of 47 Oeminorum, 197 ; of 
Saturn, 641 ; projection of stars on moon 
during, 107 

Occultations i by Mare, 91 ; lunar, and irra- 
diation, 249 

Octave coupler : 126 ; for harmonium, 435 

Offences, why bitter^rords for small, 829 

Oil : phosphorised, 650 ; refining olive, 232 

Oiling mid-shaft crank-pins, 468 

Oil-painting on cardboard, 157 

Oil-paintings, cleaning, 469 

Osk : mixed dark, 675; testing mineral, 86 

Oilskins, seamen's, 22 

Old age, dying of, 386 

Olive oil, refining, 232 

One-rail railway, 672 

Open-air photography, S37 

Opening of Settle and Carlisle railway, 257 

Ophiuohi, tan, 146 

Optical : 183 ; experiment, an interesting, 

643 

Optics, question in, 339, 864, 439 
Orange rind, ■pecks on the, 119, 176,802, 203 
Orangeade, sulphuric add, 522 
Orbite of the planets, 854, 804, 889 



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rKXfiLlSH MECHANIC, "1 
I In mx to Vol. XXIII. J 



INDEX. 



rSOPFLMMT TO THE ENGLISH MECHANIC, 1 
I 8irr. 29, 1876. 



VII. 



Orcholla weed. 651 

Organ.- 180, 182, 233, 286, 288, 677 ; and 
harmonium mutters 120, 177, 199. 408 ; at 
OMDOester. 177. 22*. 2H); at Toronto, 
485; blower, hydraulic. 260; builders, 
practical hints to, 4. 85, 190. 22H, 229 ; 
building. 13. 18, 252, 280. 309. 644: cham- 
ber, barrel (or. 183. 286 ; keys and action, 
615 ; pedals, 77, 102 ; pipe, violin, 73, 199; 
pipes, battered, 469, 518; pipes, scale of, 
906 1 pipes, metal. 103, 203 ; — manu- 
factum of. 153. 203, 236 ; — vibrations in 
wooden. 131, 182 ; small, 102, 130, 181 ; 
MJUfldhoard, 48; stops, 184, 415, 467; 
street. 414 ; swell. 73, 96 ; tuning, 176, 
338 i v. flute, 253, 309 

< irganinns, age of terrestrial, 118 

Organs I harmonium reeds on, 155 ; harmo- 
niums, Ac, 177, 228, 252. 280 

Orfonis : theta, 225, 249, 261, 279, 288. 301, 
806, 355, 403. 510, 665 ; — and other stars, 
93. 148. 198 ; — and Sin. object-glass. 146 ; 
(31). 36. 78. 102 

« Ormolu, regilding, -19 " 

Outfit, ship's, 229 

Ovals, drawing small, 674 

Overhead : gear for lathes, 16, 79, 279 ■ 
motion for lathes, 72, 80, 104; supple- 
mentary, 130 

Dnjtbeads. 309. 359. 381 

Oiyjrm: 14 ; apparatus, 41 ; hydrogen and, 
390, 387, 410 ; production of, 86 

Oxyhydriquo light, 127. 155 

Oxyhydrogen i flame, 331 ; gas, 41, 80, 100, 
104, 137 ; limelight, 466 

Ocokerit, on, 4-10 

Otonc, generating, 373 



PACKING : flowers, on, 284; Giffard'i 

piston, 100 
Pad, blotting, 469 

Pain for sport, killing, fighting, and inflict- 
ing, 36 

Paint: for Parian cement. 387: on zinc, 
white, 183, 206; or varnish for stoves, 
675 ; oxide of iron, 77 : pure white enamel. 
675 , white. 466 
Painting I canvas, 261 ; China. 359 ; crayon, 
■48: esthetics and, 117, 283 ; in oils on 
cardboard. 157; on glass, 208; wntor- 
colonr, 104 
Panama, isthmus of. 429 
Pancrntic eyepiece, 508 
Pan* .- dairy, 362 ; evaporating, 416 
Pantry, drying walls of underground, 235 
Paper : fastening to tin, 649 ; Japanose, 

374 ; transparent. 391 
Paper-box making mnchinory, 89 
Paper-making machine, large, 31 
Parabolic curvature for specula, suggested 

method of producing, 72, 123, 438 
Parabolising spocula, new method of, 123 
Para-fox is t«, 1 47 

Paraffin : 62 ; staining, 259 ; stoves, 18 
Paraguayan tea. Mate or, 505 
Parallax.- 38; tolar, 91. 249 
Parotitic plants, vegetable, 201 
Parian cement, paint for, 387 
Paris, musical tolegraph in, 658 
Pari*, plaster of, dissolving, 283 
Parlour fountain, 412 
Piute for labelling tin, 392, 415 
Patent bill, tha now, 1, 114, .■■■i 
Patent i glazed leather, 387 ; law, 3*3. 437 - 

regulation*, the now. :f.ib 
Patents. 330, 357, 407. 462, 511 
Path : of moon, 15, 1 17. 251 ; of a satellite. 72 
Pattern-making, 218, 298, 375, 426, 477, 635 
Paving in Paris, 249 
Pans, preserving green, 389 
Pebble*. 49 

Peculiar fossil tooth, 280 
P«dals : organ, 77, 102: to harmoninm. 

339, 362, 412 ' 
PWdostrianlam, 184, 205. 233 
Pegasi, xi, and miraculous vision, 40.1 • 

oomes to. 460 
Pen : Edison's electric, 284, 514 ; method of 

holding the. 337 
Pendulum: ooatpen sated seconds', 17; gra- 

vity escapement, 73 
Pwplc ..f Russia, the, 487 
Percvntag.}*, rule of finding, 3"2 
Psrlajncry, essences from French pomatum, 

674 

Pcrsei, eta i 3* : companions to, O*. 117 
Prsonal care of health. 291 
Perspiring hands. 337. 360, 388, 439 
Petrifying water. 22. 7-; 
Petroleum : 339 ; as a lubricant for turn in" 

metals, 641 ; in Oallicia. 247 ; stoves. 4S 

M, 140, 151. 201, 231. 279 
Phase* of moon and Sau'.ieal Almanac, 483 
Phenomena of movement during process of 

solution, 57 
Ptssiihiikiuiu, electric, 339 
Philological. 465 
Phorminm tenax, 439 
Phosphates, 330 
Phosphor bronze, 467 * 
Phosphorised oil. 680 

Ph oto b aths : guttapercha for, 236 ; pro- 
tecting, 31 

Photo: plates, dry, 468 ; prints, copying, 

105; tnuunanncles, 157 
Photographic : 519 ; agent, vanadium as a, 

94*| backgrounds, how to prepare, 635 1 

pat*X how to make nr.d use a small, 476 ; 

aasat, 444 ; enlargement*, 651, 675; gal. 

I*rr. 444; (thy cbromatropo ) , 411; var- 

Photographs : detaching. 45; in printer's 
ick. 1»; ; oiicio. BO , mounting. 20; var- 
nish for, :*15 

Photography: 236, 861, dry plate, 310; 
land/cape, 301 1 new method in astrono- 
mical, 4i4; notes on, historic and descrip- 
tive, 6CO ; open air, 289, 337 



— — • --v.w^M.Mg, wo: u^- 

yingsettingof. 104, 127, 180 : dissolving, 
9, W; images, hollow, 76, 102, 120; 



Photometers. 80, 104, 127 
Photo-miorography, 33 
Physical ireography, 79 
I'i y-.'.-.. . !-.T.I.,trv. . and IL-.'e.linnUtti, 225 

251. 283, 330, 356 
Physiologioal diagrams, 340 
Piano : 77. 365, 390 ; bridges, 48 ; cottage, 

how to improve the tone of a, 400 
Pianoforte: construction. 312,387, 340, 392 ; 
reeds in, 77; tuning, 338, 388, 391. 413. 
463,402.512,651 
Picric acid, 406, 519 
Picrotoxin, solveut for, 410 
Piecework, 62 
Piers, brick, 342 
Pigeon-house, 650 
Pigment-*, action of light upon, 400 
Pm and needle cushion, 400 
Pine deal linings, varnishing, 182 
Pine, Kauri, 44, 124, 125 
Pipe : bunds, making, 74 ; Egyptian, oncirnt, 
142 ; force on, 20 : noise in supply, 20, 74* 
tremulous vibrations in. 18 ; violon organ. 
73, 199 8 * 

Pipes : ooatinglead, 79 ; organ, manufacture 

of metal, 153 ; violon, 151 
Pistol barrels, blueing, 128 
Piston lubricants, 440 
Piston-packing, Gilford's, 100 
Pitch of musical notes and their duration, 
115 

Pitching wheel models, 103, 179 
Plan, block, 674 

Planet, annual revolution of in, consequenco 

of its diurnal rotation, 148 
Planot Vulcan, 79, 91 

Planetary: motions, 251, 433 ; rotation, 176 
Planets : axes of the, 36 ; mean distances of 
the, 833 ; minor , 146 ; orctiltations of 
stars by. 38 ; orbits of the, 354, 364, 988 1 
sun-expelled, 429 
PUnimetcr, .". ;o 
Pinning machine, mitre, 255 
Plans of mines, 44 
Plante's secondary batteries, 131 
Plants : and frost, 276 ; how they feed, 456': 
how to dry, 246 ; vegetable parasitical, 204 
Plaster of Paris i colouring, 414, 468 ; de- 
lay"™— " : * «" <~> . . 

289. 

mould for casting, 647 
Plates i dry, 22 ; — Liverpool, 649. 670, 
673 ; surface, new method of making, 504 
Platinum points, lead in, 401 
Play ins*- cornet, 520; violin, 417. 441 
Pleasant habits, 147 
Pleurisy, 131, 181 
" Plumb-bob's" bath problem, 329 
Pneumatic steering gear, 58 
Pneumatics, calculations in, 356 
Poisoning, lead, 417, 440 
Poisons, genoral antidote for, 231 ' 
Polaris, 667 

Polarisation by scattering from small par- 

tides, 208. 259 1 
Polarisoope, 677 

Polarised light, rings and cross of crystals 
under, 146 

Poising eyopiooe for solar observation, 

Polish) for now mahogany, 131. 157. 182 
Polishing : floor*. 302 ; gins*. 2>9, 337 
Population : Maltlius and increase of. 406 : 

of the. earth JBO 
Portable: engine. 675; fountain, 251 
Posidonius, 15. 117 
Pot barley. 517 

Potash : nitrates of, and soda, 22, 125; per- 

man-unate of. 150 ; pierato of, 444 
Potato disease, 169, 203, 526 
Potatoes: grown from seed, 519; manure 

for, 22, 47 
Potential energy, 18. 101, 125, 152, 20:; 
Poultry, 207, 387 
Powder, blasting, 310 • 
Power: aperture and, 304; electric, 158; 
for driving a lathe, 408 : of engine. 598 
621. 648; of telescope. 668 
Powers: for a 2iin. O.G., 249 ; 6f visiou, 

extraordinary, 355, 432 
Practical : hints to amateur organ builders 

4, 85. 190 ; mechanism, 5, 60. 112, 168 
President's address, British Association, 660 
Predictions, weather, 37 
Preservation of milk, 102 
Preservers, sight, 260, 439 
Preserving i butterflies, 520 ; fruit, 101 • 
ships' bottoms, new composition for. 112- 
wood, 648 * 
Pressuro : boiler, and heat of steam, 70 j of 
air, 77, 120 ; of fluid upon a surface, 120 • 
OB dock-gates, 44; steam, 105 
Prey, your petitioners will ever, 508 
Prime-movers, Mr. Iiramwell on, 319. 848 
371,399 ' ' 

Prince Rupert's drops, £0, 438 
Printer's ink, photographs in, 184 
Printing: carbon, practical notes on, 246 • 
sun. 571, 598 *. 
Printing-press, Walter, 73, 125, 152 
Prints, copying. 128. 444, 469 
Problem : anuuity, 18 ; dynamical, 105, 128 

180 ; mechanical, 516 
Frootor, Mr. : and the nngula problem, 309 • 
letters by. S7, 147, 223. 278, 329, 378. 429. 
480, 533, 585, 610 ; the nebuhe according 
to, 509 ■ 
Proctor's atlas, large double stars in. 210 
Profunditv, obscurity not necessarily evi- 
dence of, 223 
Projection : 77 ; of star on moon's disc. 197. 

279, 301, 306 
Propulsion, steam, on canals, 660 
Protection from Are, 105 
Protractor, combined bevel, smart. 268 
Prurigo. 127, 155 
Public records, 288, 412 
Puddled iron, fibrous, 284 



Puddling furnace. Casson-Dormoy, 141, 255 
Pulleys, rubber, 243 

Pullman's cars on Brighton railway, 312, 388 
Pump: 105, 128; boiler. 518, 673; oolliery. 
261, 312, 862. 412 ; feed for portable 
engine, 78 ; filter, 206, 282. 288 
Pumping, 22. 75, 125, 440. 465, 518 
Pumps : brass valves for engine, 78 ; col- 
liery, 261, 312, 362, 412 
Purfling violins, 493 
Pyramidon, 357 

QUEER or querist, 30 
Quick-acting lens, 131, 181 



IvADIAL driUs, improvements in, 050 
Radiants of shooting stars, 458, 460 
Radiation : attack upon, 459, 480, 484, 580, 
612, 643; of solar heat, 147; severe 
attack of, 610 
Radiometer, Prof. Mavor on the, 530 
Radiometers: 14, 42, C*, 08, 124, 149,166. 
173. 184, '202. 289. 313, 407, 644; on 
experiments with, 375 
Radius of curve, 624 
Rags, sugar from, 18 

Railway : accidents, 11 ; — in 1875, 161 ; 
appliances, 265, 317 ; carriages. 308; 
long-truck, 176, 230 ; — ventilating, 645 ; 
— warming, 375; cockades, 365, 390: 
coupling, a new, 518; Fell, 260; gradients 
aud fait speeds, 301, 308 ; Midland, 400, 
539, 617, 669 ; Settle and Carlisle, opening 
of, 257 ; signalling without wires, 474 ; 
, signals, 62; — automatic, 634; speed, 
261: speeds in United States, 400; tra- 
velling, 389. 465 ; — some peculiarities of 
American, 147 ; troubles. 407. 433. 490 ; 
tickets and changing trains, 150, 201, 280, 
•t;2 ; wheels. 619 
Railways: of the world, 218 ; one-rail, 672 : 

Btrcct, 601, 645 
Rainbow, donble lunar. 198 
Ruin-catchers v. stargaze rs, 514 
Rnmsbottom's duplex safety-valve, 361, 387 
Raw hides, dyeing, 504 
Read, trusting to a, 91 
Real asphalte, 357 
Rearing canaries, 208, 234 
Rebounding, 363, 388 
Reclaiming moss land, 623 
Recoil of firearms, 48, 72, 76 
Records, public 2S8 

Red : ink, 541, 600, 623, 049, 673 : varni'h. 
180 

Reed, the Munroe and how to use it, 384 
Reeds : harmonium, 18, 42, 78, 90. 81.1, 338 j 
in organs. 155 ; in piano, 77 : oboe, 253 •' 
steel. 72. 178; voicing, 178 
Reflecting telescopes, mirror for, 93, 675 
Reflection : of force, 15 ; of light. 131. 156 

181. 201, 232 * 
Reflector: Melbourne, 380, 403; Hr. Car- 

rington's, 610; warming stove. 387 
Reflectors : achromatic* and, 406 j effects 

of sea nir on, 41-4 
Reform, spelling, 307 

Refraction: 642; allowance for, in on 

equatoreal, 561 ; and the sundial, 665 
Refrigerator, a simple air, 86 
Refuse, animal, 22, 152 
Regilding ormolu, 49 
Register, register I 508 
Register, bicycle, 365 
R-julat ions, the new patent, 395 
Regulator : siinplo clock, 12, 48, 203, 312 ; 

water, 495 
Relation of sun? pots to storms, 246 
Relaxed uvula, 599 
Remington writing-machino, 3u7 
Removing tar, 131 

Repairing: clinical thermometer, ]f>4 1 
mowing machine, 546; spring of watch, 

Repieno, lt-2 
Replies, astronomical, 14 
Report: disease, 385; of Government ana- 
lysts on butter, 558; of vivisection com- 
mission, 2, 28 
Repulsion, magnetic 236, 260 
Repulsive powor of the solar rays, 556 
Reseating cone choirs, 598 
Rciin, 3S8 

Resist for dyeing, 261 
Resistance of Daniell's battery, 79 
Retorts, drying, 651, 677 



Notes of a Voyage to Kerguelen Island, 

by Father Perry, 346 
Notes on Collecting and Preserving Natu- 
ral History Objects, edited by J. E. 
Taylor, 343 
Notes on the Earlier Hebrew Scripture. 

by Sir G. B. Airy. 578 
Ou Personal Care of Health, by Dr. E. A. 

Parkes, 291 
Over the Sea and Far Away, by T. W. 

Hinohclilf, 190 
Plain Guide to Good Gardening, by S. 

Wood, 190 
Popular 8cionce Review, 452 
Practical Plane Geometry, by J. 8. Rawlc, 

Railway Appliances, by J. W. Barry, 265, 

317 

Report of Smithsonian Institution, 55 
Science Made Easy, by T. Twining, 190 
Storms, their Nature, Classification, and 

Laws, by W. Blusitu, 29 
Telegraphy, by W. H..Preeoo and J. Sive. 

wright, 369 
The Moon aud the Condition and Con- 
figurations of its Surface, by E. Neison, 

The Theoretical and Practical Boiler 

Maker, by 8. NichoUs, 603 
Treatise on Food and Dietetics, by Dr. 

F. W. Pavy, 83. 213 
Wood Conversion by Machinery, by J. 

Richard*. 655 
X Y 7. Railway Guide. 452 
Year-book of facts, by C. W. Vincent, 55 

Revolution counter, a bicycle, 175 
Revolutions of wheels, 40 
Rhumkorff coil, condenser for, 623 
Richmond and victory, 458 
Rider air-engine. 636 
Riflo-barrcls, 100 ; Soper. 234 
Riflo: shooting, 100, 339, 363, 388; — 

chances in, 429 : sight, 305, 390 
Ring, Winter's, 184 

Rings and cross of orystsU. 131, 181, 204 
Rink, skating, 339,364, 387 
Rinks, real ice, 79 

Rising and setting of the heavenly bodies, 

642 

Road indloator for railways, 568 
Roads, steam carriages on common, 275 
Robey mining engine, 262, 390, 413 
Rock drill. 258 

Rods, sine. 259 

Roller; blind, making waterproof. 619. 

673 ; skates. 72. 98, 111, 149, 161, 17«, 230, 

253. 309, 614, 669 
Roof, flat, 389 
Roofing, rino. 664 
Room, dark. 80. 104 
Root-marks on stone, 618 
Rope, hoist, 182 

Ropes : site of, 440 ; strength of, 465 : wire. 

103 

Rose trees, 47 
Rotary engines. 263 
Rotation, planotary, 176 
Booas, 155 

Rowdy expeetorators, 533 

Rubber: bicycle. 312, 337 ; pulleys, 243 

Rule of And lug percentages, 392 

Rushes, colouring, 288 

Russia : and the iron trade. 404; her people 

and their avocations, 487: leather. 625. 

649, 673 
Rusty tanks, 410 



Reviews- 
Air and its Relations to Life, by W. N. 

Hartley, 473 
British Manufacturing Industries, bv 

G. P. Bevan. 55 
British Rainfall. 451 

Building Construction, by R. 8. Burn, 452 
Business, by J. Piatt, 135 
Classbook of Chemistry, by E. L. You- 
inans, 54 

Clerk of Works, by G. G. Hoskins. 452 
Dictionary of Musical Terms, by Stainer 

and Barrett, 85 
Economy of Workshop Manipulation, bv 

J. Richards. 109 
Fragments of Science, by Prof. Tyndall, 
189 

Garden Oracle by Shirley Uibberd, 55 
Great Moteors of 1^75, by Capt. Tupman, 
310 

Introduction to Animal Morphology and 
Systematic Zoology, by Prof. A. Mac- 
alister, 190 
Iron aud Steel, by C. Uoare, 310 
Lectures on Some Recent Advances in 
Physical Science, by Prof. P. G. Tait. 
189 

Miscellaneous, 55, 100, 340, 452 
Music in Common Things, by Colin Brown , 

Notation, by J. HuUah, 451 



BABBATH-BREAKEB,tt biuiue». 

like young, 147 
Bach's history of botany, 318 
Safe, ice, 545 
Safety-matches, 162 

Safety-valve: a safe, 57; Naylor's, 648; 

Ramsbottom's. 361, 387 
Safety-valves, 182, 205. 310, 361 
Sails, mildew in yacht, 050 
Salicylic aoid, 404 

SaUnu solutions, viscosity and galvanic 

conductivity of some, 581 
Sanitary i improvements, 287 ; progress iu 

India, 261 
Satellite, path of a, 72 
Satellites: distances of, 108; Jupiter's, 
naked eye observations of, 6-43, 667; of 
Saturn, 338, 354, 412, 667; of Uranus. 
197. 225, 250, 278. 304, 329 
Saturn : oocultation of, 587, 641 ; on the 
c.]uinortial,36: ring of seen in a telescope 
without an eyepieoo, 3S1; satellites of. 
a'!3, 854, 412,067 
Saw: circular, 234, 258. 310, 336, 387; 

handpowcr, 414 ; split in circular, 494 
Sawdust : 302 ; burning, 595 
Sawing stone, 362 

Saws : tempering and straightening, 4 • 
tenon, straightening, 417. 411 

Science : Academies of, 607 ; advancing a 
Utah further, 30; and scripture, 578, 
039. 606; calculations, 543; class. 545: 
modern. 461, 488, 634, 507. 585, 638 ; of 
meteorology, 281 ; teaching, 625, 650, 674 

Scientific: apparatus, exhibition of at 
South Kensington. 220, 239, 270, 292, 306, 
323, 343, 854; — museum of, 282 ; flotion, 
033 

Scientific Nkws : 7, 34, 63. 90. 116, 114, 

109. 196, 222, 2 IK, 276.303,327,353.377, 
402. 128, 456, 479, 507, 532, 560, 583, 608, 
637. Got 

Scientific; Societies- 
Aeronautical, 352 

American National Academy of Soiencos, 

British Association, 660 
Geological, 221 

Institution of Civil Engineers, 63, 281 

Digitized by 



VIII. 



?rrrir«rNT TO TBE ENGLISH MECHANIC.! 

Bbpt. 88. 1870. J 



INDEX. 



fENGLISH MECHANIC. "I 
L Index to You XXIII. I 



Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 506 
Linnean. 7 

Meteoroloiricnl. 34. 270, 427 

Physical, 63. 221, 376 

Royal Astronomical, 6, 144, 217, 352 

hoy ill Horticultural, 169 

Royal Institution. 89 

Royal Microscopical, 115, 217. 377 

8ooiety of Engines, 1 15, 377 

Seiento-philosophy and unscientific blun- 
dering, 278 

Scones : and botoh potch, 102; buns, Ac., 
46 

Scotch tartans, 79 

Scotland, Midland route to, 337 

Scrap-book, how to disponso with a, 513 

Screaming frogs. 618 

Screw, lathe. 16 

Screw-cutting, 100 

Screws i aud screw-drivers, improved, 475 ; 
bolts and, 302 ; how they are made, 558 ; 
oil for instrument . 544 

Scripture, science and, 578, 639, 666 

Scripture*, Sir G. Airy on the Early 
Hebrew. 61" 

Seulploris, double star epsilon, 147 

Sea: inland of Africa, 557; level, 79, 158, 
258, 310. 665 

Bea-gulU as gardeners' friends, 351, 404 

Sea-sickness, 235, 2*7. 311. 336 

Seamen's oiLskins, 22 

Search for oosj at Barrow, 231 

Season and the bees. 88 

Seasoning wood for turning. 286 

Seasons in England. 561. 574. 599, 622 

Secondary: batteries. I'loute's, 131; cur- 
rent, 414, 466 

Sections, stains for wood, 10 

Securities.-colonial, 415 

Seed, growing potatoes from, 519 

Seldliu powders, 547. 572 

Sensitiveness, Amoricnn, 278 

Her pentis (2), 249 

Betting: engine guide-bars, 375; valve, 
39* 139 

Settle and Carlisle railway, opening of, 257 

Sewage in well*. 898, 621 

Shafting : horse-power of, 417.410 ; turning 

in lathe. 20, 45. 74. 101 
Shafts : damp-coupling for, 581 ; heated, 

232 

Sharpening tools. 321 

Shavings. 260. all 

Shelves, worm-eaten, 466, 402 

Ship, outfit of, 229 

Shipbuilding, 259 

Shipmate, an unpleasant, 342 

Ships : hnndiness of, 69 ; iron, 417, 440 ; 

preserving bottoms of. 112 
Shoos : boots and, 261 ; dyeing white 

canvas, 516 
Shoe-tips, raw hide. 504 
Shooting: rifle. 100. 339. 363, 388; stars, 

radiants of, 458, 460 
Short foous mirrors, 44 
Shower of sulphur, 257 
Showman, a collection will now be made 

for the, 561 
Show-tanks for aquaria, 65 
Shrinking-wood, 597 
Shutter, instantaneous, 79, 102, 127 
Shutters, swell. 357 
Sicoonia flute, 337, 362. 412 • 
Sight: defective, 209, 496, 519, 600, 649; 

preservers, 260, 439 ; rillo, 391 
8ignals : railway. 62 ; — automatic, 634 ; 

stretching of wires of. 181 
Signs : in the heavens. 37 ; of the times, 453 
Silk, greasy, 104 

Silver : chloride of. battery, 360 ; cleaning 
dead, 4!K) ; coinage, small, 547 ; deposit- 
ing, 363 ; filigree, cleaning, 444, 468, 543 ; 
flute, 184 ; formation of gold and, 183 ; 
plate, 313 

Silvered glass reflectors, effects of sea air 

on, 444, 4(f9 
Silvering • brass. 469, 495 ; iron wire. 62 
Singer machine, broken cog-whoel in, 131 
Single-needle telegraph, cheap, 73 
Sir John Tyndall, 283 
Sirius : 146 ; Wollaoton's photometry of, 561 
Site, gold, 520 

Skates, roller. 72. 98, 111, 149, 161, 178, 
230, 253, 309. 614. 670 

Skating rink. 339. 364. 3*7. 522 

Skeleton harmonium, 17, 73, 125 

Sketch of geology of the Weald, 138 

Sketohing on cine, 412 

Skins : mole. 44 ; softening. 338 

Slate cistern, leaky, 157, 201 

Slates, stains on, 387 

Sleep and dreaming, Prof. Ferrier on, 86 

Slide, new mioroscopc, 246 

Slide-rest: adjusting, 39, 119; F.R.A.S.'s, 
16, 36; graduation, 39: index, counter, 
adjustable for. 172 ; tool, a now, 39 

Slides, valve, for cornet, 127, 236 

Slide-valves, diagrams. 284 

Slide-valves. 289." 313, 337, 439 

Slip in driving wheels, 178, 362 

Snieo's battery, fault in, 49 

Smoking. 36 

Smoky chimney, 74. 157. 204 

Smyth's cycle. H.V. 62 Leonis and, 667 

Soap boiling, 131 

Soda : chlorinated, 441. 467, 518 ; nitrate 
of. 282 ; solution, 128. 131 

Soft impression metal, 49. 77 

Softening i skins, 3:58; whetstones, 389, 413 

Solar : clock, 69, 151 ; eclipse, 610 ; energy, 
14 ; evpicce, 340 ; heat, cause of, 3u5, 
333, 380, 665 ; radiation of. 146 ; observa- 
tion, polarising eyepieoe for, 301 ; paral- 
lax, 38. 91, 249; measurement of, 511; 
rays, repulsive power of, 556 ; spectrum, 
duplicity of the 1474 lino in, 476 ; system, 
Cumming dissolution of the, 91 



8older : analysis of, 74, 492 ; separating 

tin and lead in. 444, 468. 545 
Soldering, oold, 390 

Solidifying of fused balls in a liquid medium, 
27 

Solution : bath, 130 ; phenomena of move- 
ment during. 57 ; soda. 128. 131 
Solvent for picrotoxin, 416 
Somerset House, wills at, 236 
Songs, music and, 677 
Sopor rifle, 234 

Sound .- 469, 493 ; and light, analogy of, 
632; deadening, 467; measure, 444, 518, 
569 ; spelling by, 11, 40, 94, 123. 148, 229, 
254, 331, 319, 383 
Soundboard : organ, 48 ; — wood for, 597 
South Kensington : art library at, 264 ; 
conferences. 33* ; scientific exhibition at. 
306. 406, 434, 488 ; show, 241 ; snobbery, 
more, 304 : snub for, 458 
Space : ether of, 429 1 infinity of, 118, 151, 

171 ; temperature of, 107 
Specific gravity : of a compound, 182, 236, 
314, 363 

Specimens i deep-sea, 443, 543 ; of turned 

work, 615 
Speck, on. 665 

Specks on the orange rind. 119, 176. 202. 203 
Spectacles, focus of, 610, 625, 650 
Spectroscope: detecting adulteration by 
moans of a, 307 ; now form of pocket, 531 
Spectroscopic: experiments, 22, 46, 129, 
. 180 ; observations on the transit of 

Venus, 1874, 395 
Spectrum of chlorine, 493 
Specula : glass, 105 -, new method of pro. 
duoiug the parabolio ourvature for, 72, 

123, 438; supporting, 94; unsilvered 
glass, 665 

Speculative physics and Hegelianlsm, 225, 

251. 283. 330, 356 
Speed : of bicycle. 673 ; of trains, 11, 40. 97, 

124. 176, 183, 201, 203, 226, 232, 256. 264. 
310. 332, 516, 518, 539, 565, 501. 617. 646; 
weight and, of locomotives, 183, 232, 433 

Spr od-cones of lathe, securing. 143 
Speeding wheels and pulleys, 593 
Spelling: bees, 91; — and dictionaries. 
148, 174 | bv sound, 11. 40. 94. 123. 140. 
174, 202, 229, 254, 307, 331, 359, 383; 
reform, 307 
Sphere, shadow of a, 458, 469 
Srmsx : 25. 82. 159. 211. 316, 394. 471, 522. 

549, 602.653 
Sphyginograph, 651, 676 
Spider, mounting head of, 546 
Spicgeleisen. 17 
Spinal complaint, 103, 179 
Spindle, loose bicycle, 261 
Spine, weak, 289, 337 
Spittoon, 595 
Split in circular saw, 494 
Spontaneous combustion of coal. 606 
Sport, killing, fighting, and inflicting pain 

for, 36 
Spot, the very, 304 
Spotless physicists again, 610 
Spotting an attempted job, 665 
Spots : on Venus, 333, 354, 355, 403, 404. 

509 ; solar heat. 378 
Square: acre, 131, 156; combined bovel, 
Ac, 268 

Squares, magic. 311, 361, 411, 462, 513, 537. 

562, 594, 614, 669 
Stability of locomotives, 102 
Stained: floor. 574, 599; marble, 599; 

windows, cheap, 131 
Staining: black, 22, 46; paraffin, 259; 

vegetable ivory, 519 
Stains : for wood sections, 10 ; on slate, 387 
Stammering, 494 
Stand, camera, 79, 127 
Stannons chloride, 234, 282 
Star : close triple, 91 ; double to naked eye, 
249 ; magnitudes, 30-1 ; projection of, 
upon moon's disc, 279 ; sun as a, 304 ; 
what is a donble, 146 
Stanjaxers, raincatohers v., 514 
Starlings, treatment of, 389 
Stars : 234 ; best seen in twilight, 278, 304, 
889 ; daylight, 547. 561. 598 ; double, 47. 
182. 312. 429, 509, 586; — large in 
Proctor's atlas, 249 ; faint 429, 458, 508, 
<>68 ; finding in daylight, 665 ; in Andro- 
meda?, 403 ; in neighbourhood of Venns, 
197 ; positions of, 561 ; projection of, on 
moon's limb. 197, 304 ; small. 386. 432 ; 
— and small telescopes, 509, 564, 042 ; the 
two debilissima, 289 ; variable, 172, 484. 
562 ; — colours of. 585 
Stays : and corpulence, 231 ; for gentlemen, 

40, 123 ; weak, 337 
Steam : boiler pressure and heat of, 70 : 
boilers and chimneys, 219 : boilers and 
galvanism, 33 ; brick kiln, 167 ; carriages 
on common roads, 275; domes, 326; 
engine, on a small compound, 217; 
engines, the economy of, 421 ; pressure, 
105 ; — gauges, 260 ; propulsion on 
canals, 669 ; tram-oar, Leicester, 143 ; 
tramway for Aberdeen, 464 ; want Of, 
261. 288, 312 
Steamboat : boiler, model, 363 ; engine, 
model, 44, 235 ; engine and boiler for 
small, 598 
Steatite, 492. 543 

Steel: chrome, 7; hardening, 102; reeds, 

178 ; tests for iron and, 216, 572 
Steering gear, pneumatic, 58 
Stems, fixing to meerschaum pipes, 592 
Step, removable bicycle, 12 
Stereomicrometer, 142 
Stereoscopic transparencies, 21 
Stereotyping. 415. 495 
Stewarton system and Stewarton hive, 672 
Stone : cutting and polishing, 570 ; root- 
marks in, 618 ; sawing, 362 
Stop, expression, 261, 312 



Stopping musical string, 208 
Stops : harmonium, 20, 105 ; organ, 104, 
181 

Storage of books. 234 
Storm, remarkable. 514, 5T7. 595. 612 
Storms : forecasting. 228. 355. 430, 515. 567, 

612, 669 ; relation of sunspote to, 246 
Stove, reflector, warming, 3s7 
Stoves: pitait or varnUh for. 675; petro- 
leum. 18. 42. 9*. 151. 201. 231, 279. 553 
Straightening i fire-bar?, 158, 205 ; wire, 

232. 518 
Strap, length of. 441. 492 
Straw liats, brown dye for. 128 
8treet : organ, 414; railways, 601, 645 
Strength of unstayed flat surface* of boilers, 

882. 515 
String organ, tho, 356 
Strontian, 440 
Strophoraeter, the. 342 
Stucco figures, cleaning, 519 
Btudio, photographic, .'.It 
Stumps of trees, removing, 235, 491 
Subdivision of atomic weights, 175 
Submarine i cables detecting faults in, 545 . 

railway, a, 284 
Subtraction, common, 486, 515 
Succession duties, 8JP 
Sugar i from rags, 18 ; grape, 15(3 
Sulphur, shower of. 2-'i7 
Sulphuretted hydrogen gas. 76 
Sulphuric acid : 20. 568 ; orangeade. 522 
Sun : all gas, 36 ; atmosphere of, 908 ; de- 
termining distan' e of bv moon, C65 ; fuel 
of the, 333, 379, 404. 481. 510. 53-i. 561, 
610; heat spots on, 416. 513. 569 : mid- 
night, 249. 261. 288. 311 ; rays of, 613 
Sundial, refraction and the, 665 
Sun-expelled planets, 429 
Snn-pnnting. 574. 598 
8nnspota : 331, 354 ; relation of to storms, 
246 

Sunstroke : 600 ; or what, 61A 
Supplementary overhead, 150 
Supporting specula, 94 
Snrfaoe-plates, new method of making, 501 
Surrey, geology of. 198 
Surveying, mine, 365. 414 
Sweet-toned harmonium, 339, 469, 493. 518, 

570, 598. 648, 673 
Swell : organ. 73. 96 ; shutters, 357 
Swelling of flesh under eyelid, 389 
Swimming: 13. 42, 71. 99. 122, 173. 202, 
227. 279, 332; collar, COO; in deep waters, 
223 

Swing-bridge at Newcustle-on-Tyue. 401 
Swiss transferring pictures, 78 
Syrup of phosphate.'. 573 
System i metric. 175 ; telegraph io, 369 
Sxerelmey liquids, 533 

T ABLE beer, 300 
Tailless kite. 364 
Tale, a comet's, 503 

Tales of comets in our modem times. 642 
Tanks: contents of, 104. 179, 287; for 

aquaria, show, 65; rusty, 410 
Tannic acid, 282 
Tap for boiler, 573. 621 
Tap*, tinning bra*s, 19. 45 
Tar. removing, 157, 466 
Tartans, Scotch, 79, 101 
Tasinaniaa Eucalyptus, 309, 335, 356 
Tea, Paraguay mi. 505 • 
Touching : electricity, wire-gauze in, 900; 

science, 625, 650. 674 
Technical Uses of diamonds, 21C 
Teeth: artificial, 46, 126 ; wheel. 209. 834 
Telegraph : 20, 45, 75 ; cixle, 125 ; instru- 
ment, a cheap single-needle, 7:; ; musical 
in Paris, 658; system, the new. 369, 4-1 
Telegraphio: needle, magnetising, 516, 

572 ; system. 369. 421 
Telegraphy, duplex. 79, 126 
Telephony, experiments in, 551, 591 
Telescope: 19, 179; a £S. 610: achromatic, 
260 ; — , inventor of tho, 474 ; Craig. 438 ; 
dialyto, 103. 279; Huyghenian eyepiece 
for, 444; its principles and practical con- 
struction, 659 ; my first astrouoniiu-vl, 
564, 642 ; reflecting, 625 ; tests, » Lyra-, 

Telescopes: cheap. 611; dialyte, 279; Gall- 
lean, improvements in. 350; mirror for 
reflecting. 93 ; power of. 608 ; powers of 
small, 355; reflecting, 675; small, small 
stars and. 386. 432. 509. 561. 5t>6. 6)2 ; 
test doubles for 2jin.. 93; text tor. 012. 
668; three-inch. 249; Tulloy's. 178; 
Venus and small, 386, 404. 433, 4j8, 4«i0. 

481, 586 *_,,«,, 
Telescopic: illusions. 480; vision, limits 
of, 508, 585, 610, 610; work duriug hard 
froat, 178 
Temperature of space, 197 
Tempering : and straightening saws, 4 -, 
bow for spring dividers, 337 ; gloss, 203, 
448 

Tennis bats, 673 
Tennis net, preserving, 104 
Tenon saw. straightening. 417. 411 
Tent, a convenient photographic, 257 
Tents, ventilation of dark, 47 
Terms, more. 78. 102, 165. 179, 201, 232 
isms, age of. 118 



Terrestrial 
Territories, t/nited St 
Tosscno for window b( 
Test for a 2iin. O.G., 
Testing : aurino, 363 ; 
micro, object-glass 



619 

.xes. 289, 312 
197. 200 

lubricating oils, 57:5 ; 
417, 443 ; mineral 



oils, 86 ; steel. 517, 572 ; well water, 235 ; 
for acids. 470. 495 
Teste : for iron and ste«l. 216, 547. 572 
Thatohed oottage, fleas in old. 441, 467 
Theodolite : 156, 181 : transit , 438 
Theories, a few well-considered, 158 
Theory of descent, recent discussions on 
the, 110 



Theory : of illnrainating flames, 32 ; of 
radiometer, 644; of tho Holts machine. 
326 ; that Jupiter and Saturn are in- 
tensely hot. 429 
Thermo-electric pilo, Clamond's, 407. 546. 
572 

Thermometer, repairing clinical, 104, 127 
Thermometers, graduation of, 310, 364 
Tho«o boys again. 365, 390 
Thunder, lightning without, 209. 235 
Thunderer, explosion on board the, 655 
Thymol. 468 

Tight-locimr and orookednesa, 149 
Tilbury and Southend engines, 491 
Tile pavement in churchos, cleaning, 18 
Tilcn for window-bixes, tessolnted, 312 
Timber : calculations of, £14 ; choosing, 
561 ; measurement. 413 ; preserving, 532 ; 
supply of United States, 552 
Time : Greenwich and local, 36 ; indicating 
after dark, 463 ; indicators, actuating. 
Ml ; longitude and, 665, 676 ; not up to, 
508 

Times: signs of the. 403; tales of comet* 
in our modern, 612 ; the, and solar heat 

spots. 378 

Tin : block. 361 ; coating metals with. 554 ; 
fallacious test for lead in. 327; posting 
labols on. 392. 415. 60u, 622.6 19 
TuctuDBS. flavouring. 184, 207, 233 
Tinning brass taps. 19, 45 
Tinwaio. paste for labelling, 569 
Tit hes. 338 

Tub WOO : 49 ; pipes, to clean, 203 
Toilet vineenr. 260. 545 
Tone, gift of, 409 ; musical. 462 
Tonic sol-fa musical notation, 624, 673 
Tonnage of yachts. 310. 336 

Tool, a new sjlde-reet, 39 

Tools : cast iron. 201 ; milling, 152 ; sharp- 
ening, 321 
Tooth, peculiar fossil. 2S0 
Topography, lunar. 15, 67, 69 
Tornado, train upw-t by a, 367 
Toronto, organ at, 435 
Torpedo-boat, German, 197 
Tortoise-hell and ivory, polishing, 600 
Tote, long. 209 

Tracing-, copying, bv fcrro-pnissiatc, 493 
Tnvle interest* ami intelligent inquirer*. 

Trade-marks , Act, 696 ; in America. 490 
Trade, unhealthy. 31, 88, 113. 140. 165. 

191. 214, 2X1, 325 
Train up-et by a tornado. 3C7 
Trains : changing railway tickets and. i-a». 
201, 28.1; express, 400; noise of puninc;. 
179. 3M; -peed of. 11. 40. 97, 121. 201. 
22«>, 2-'xi. 261. 310. 332, 169, 516, 518, S39, 
565. 591, 617. 646 
Tram-car. Leicester steam, 143 
Tramway accidents. 332 
Transferring pictures. Swiss, 78 
Transit theodolite. 488 
Transmitter, flexible power, 581, 613 
Transparencies : photo, 157 ; stereoscopic, 21 
Transparent paper, :»1 
Travelling, railway, 389, 465 
Trawl-net, 205 

Trees, removing stumps of. 235, 491 
Trefoils, oirving, 545 
Tremulant, organ, 517 
Trick, card, 312 
Tricvcle velocipedes, 618 
Tricycles : bicycles and. 183, 230, 2S7. 405 ; 

for ladies, 41 
Trignometry. 361. 439, M7 
Triple : obieet-irla*se3, 43, 100 ; star, close, 91 
Trombes, artificial production of, 5l 
Tropical, equatorial or, 502 
, Trotting. 170 

Troubles, railway. 407. 433. 490 
Trust ing to a read, 91 
Tubbing, 440 
Tubercle in food. 307 
Tnlloy. object-glass by, 104, 178 
Tuning : musical box. 411. 40] ; organ. 177. 
336 ; piano, 338. 3K>. 388. 391. 113. 462. 
492. 512. 651 
Turbine wheels, on, 188 
Turned work, specimens of. 615 
Turning: bjxes, 183 ; metals, petroleum as 
a lnbriount iu, lAi; seasoning wood for, 
286 ; shafting in lathe. 20, -15, 74. 101 
Turret clocks, 175. 230, 255 
Twilight, stars best, seen m, 278. 301, 3J:l 
Two-cell battery. 230, 260 
T-vo-nianual hnruionium, 339, 413 
Tvndull, Sir John, 283 
Tvpe-washiug, 338, 363. 412 
Tvne-com posing machine, a new. .66 
Typewriter, the. 183. 206, 233. 307 
Typescript, 307 

TJNGTJLA. problem, Mr. Troctor and 

the, 309. 358 
(iuirnlas: conic, 379, 163 ; oyliinlnc, 378 
Unhealthy trades. 31. 88, 113, 140, 165, 191. 

244. 299, 325 
rniutoxicntinif drinks. 519 
Unit of length, tho metre as a philosophical, 
91 

United States, beat in the. 533; railway 

speeds in. 400 ; territories. 619 
Unsilvered glass specula. 605 
Unstayed : flat surfaces of boilers. 382 ; 

strength of. 515 
Uranus: oecultotion by, 301 ; satellites of. 
and extraordinary eyesight, 197, 225, 249. 
250, 278. 2.-7. 304. 329 
Urns, colouring, 235 
Utilsation of water power, 195 
Uvula, relaxed, 599 

VALUE of bone-black, o-timat'ng, 401 
Valve : for eugino, 180. 337 ; had of, 43j 
lift of. 336 ; safety, ' 



Valve-balls for pomps, brass, 7$ 



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["ENGLISH MECHANIC. "1 
[_ I»d«x to Vol. XXIII. J 



INDEX. 



[."•rrpi.rx r.N r TO the ENGLISH MECHANIC.! 
8«pt. 29, 1876. 



IX. 



Valve-slides of cornets, 127 

Valves, glide. 439 

Vu brake, self-acting, 234 

Vanadium as a photosTaphio agent, 342 

Vane .- fixing; a. 157 ; N. and 8. line for a, 146 

Vapour, law of elastic power of, 613 

Variable stars, 172. 484, 562. 585 

Varnish i 18, 152, 361; and oil. 572 ; black, 

for enirine cylinders, 547 ; cicatrical, 155 ; 

for fretwork, 157 ; for metals, green, 302 ; 

indiarnbber, 380 ; photographic 19, 335 ; 

red. 104, 155, 180 ; removing; from cans. 

364 ; restoring oak, 181 ; to stand soda, 45 
Varnishing : oleograph), 517, 573 ; pine deal 

Union. 182 ; wall paper. 152 
Vegetable i food, animal and, 414, 465, 517, 

541. 569, 597. 619. 647, 672 j ivory, 261 ! 

leather, 425 ; parasitic plants, 201 
Vegetarianism : an argument for, 6 
Vegetarians, to, 674 

Ve-.-etation, heat of soil and air, and its 

effects on. 608 
Vellum, cleaning, 360 
Velocipede driven by the hands, 462 
Velvet, dressinc, 258 
Ventilating railway carriages, 645 
Ventilation : economy of heat in, 253; 
mine, water-gauge of, 598 ; of coal-mines 
by compressed air, 61, 123. 253; of dark 
tents, 47 ; without draught. 49 
Venus : 225. 279, 306. 433 ; crescent form of, 
381 ; dark limb of. 249 ; spots on. 333, 
354, 355. 403. 404, 405. 458, 485, 509 ; stars 
in neighbourhood of, 197 : telescopes, 
small, and. 386, 433, 458, 484, 586 ; transit 
of. spectroscopic observations on, 395 
Verbal remarks, evidence relating to, 147 
Vibrations : in pipes, on the excitation of, 
604; in wooden organ pipes, 131, 182 ; 
of pipe, tremulous, 18 
Vienna refractor. 306 
Vinegar : aromatic. 260 ; toilet, 260, 545 
Vines, mildew on, 417. 439, 441, 516, 568 
Viol. Fiddler's finger-keyed, 13, 72, 97. 289 
Violin : 17. 19, 45, 105. 182, 236. 260, 313, 
365, 390, 413. 540 ; age of, 17 ; construc- 
tion, 177 ; oostly, 91 ; drawing outline of, 
157 ; instruction, 463, 540 : matters, 392, 
4i$, 465 ; organ pipes, .fiolian. 76 ; play- 
ing, 417, 441. 486 ; position of bridgein. 128 
Violins ] old, 130, 156, 181, 234, 416 1 purfling, 
403, 543 



Violon organ pipe, 73, 150, 199 

Visoosity and galvanic conductivity cf some 
saline solutions, 581 

Visibility of coloured light. 410 

Vision : astronomical. 561 ; extraordinary 
powers of. 355, 432 ; eye, 613 ; limit o*f 
tele* -r.ipio.5i1S ; miraculous. \i IVjasi and 
403 ; naked telescopic, 585, 610. 640. 668 

Visit: to an astronomical observatory, 171 ; 
to cotton-spinning mill, 594 ; to Firth's 
works. 406, 511 

Visitation, Greenwioh, 321 

Visual power, range of difference in, 533. 536 

Visual powers. Mr. Dawes', 378. 480, 533, 536 

Vitriol chambers. 416 

Vivisection: 9. 67, 223. 530; and aquaria. 
119 ; bill. Lord Carnarvon's, 275. 395, 577 ; 
commission, report of, 2, 28 ; experi- 
ments, 5 ; question. 370 

Viviseotor* iu a corner, 514 

Voicing reeds. 178 

Voloanio: action, on, 187; phenomena of, 

18, 75, 214 
Volcanoes, lunar, 381, 403 
Volume of cylindric ungula, 223 
Vortices, electrical. 27 
Vulcan, the planet, 79. 91 
Vulcanised rubber, ©anient, 130, 336, 651 

WALIi-PAPEE. varnishing 152 
Walls: damp. 411. 466; of underground 

pantry, drying. 235 
Walter printing press, 73, 125, 152 
Want of steam, 312 

Wanted law for determining minimum 

viaibile. 429 
War to the knife. 671 

Warming : railway carriages, 375 ; stove, 

reflector, 387^ 
Warts. 392. 416. 439 

Washing: flannel. 410, 518 ; type, 338. 363, 412 

Washing-machine, the marvellous, 475 

Wasp stings, cure for, 595 

Waste : and work in meteorology, 533 ■ 
cotton, cleaning. 623 

Watch : and chronometer glass balance 
springs, 396 ; and how to repair it, 30 1 
mainsprings of. 105. 155 ; maintaining 
power of. 180 ; repairing spring of. 625 ; 
wooden, 264 

Watchmaker's : combination lathe, 13 • 
lamp, 387, 415, 543 



Watchmaking s 43, 124 ; in England, 201. 204 

Water : 75 ; analysis, 388 ; clock, 95 ; de- 
composition of, 413 ; flow of, at different 
temperatures, 256 ; gas under, 675 ; gauge. 
568. 596. 598; heat of. 45. 74; lime. 495- 
petrifying. 22. 76; pipes, noise in, 74; 
pure. 613. 670 ; regulator. 495 ; repelling 
surface, a, 236. 260. 311. 412 ; testing, 625 • 
twist, 46 ; weight of. 208. 209 ; well, 494 

Watercolour painting: 101; cleaning, 361 

Waters-lass, 651 

Waterhouse diaphragms, 313. 363 
Watering plauts and flowers, 548, 574 
Water-power, utilisation of, 195 
Water-pressure engines. 77 
Waterproof : cement, 584 ; glue, 625 ; roller 

blind. 649. 673 
Watertight joints, 157 
Watkins's gas-burner, 401 
Wave movement, 208, 230. 259. 311, 331, 381 
Wax : colouring. 493 ; gilder's, 18 
Weak spina. 289. 337 

Weald of Sussex and Kent, sketch of geo- 
logy of, 138 

Weather i and our food. 637 ; macula? and 
the. 301; or no, 561. 588. 610. 645; pre- 
dictions. 37 ; the recent hot. 610 

Weaving-mill, walk through a, 594 

Web«. linen, 79. 103 

Weeds on gravel walks, 305. 390, 413 

Weighbridge, adjusting. 439 

Weighing the earth, 164 

Weight : and speed of trains. 183. 232. 308, 
433 ; gravitation and, 197 ; of water, 208, 
209 

Weights, subdivision of the atomic, 175 
Well-water: iron in. 519; sewage in. 573. 

621 ; test for, 206. 233. 494 
Wistinghouse automatic brake, 230, 620 
Westminster aquarium, 264 
Wet bog, foundation on, 545. 572. 533 
Wheat : hand-mill for grinding, 288, 362 ■ 

mummy. 362 
Wheel : models, pitohing, 103. 179 ; naves, 

elm carriage. 337 ; teeth. 209. 234 
Wheels i railway. 619, 647 ; revolutions of, 

40 ; speeding, 593 ; tnrbino, on, 193 
Whence camo nature, 37 
Whetstones, softening, 389, 412 
Whiskey, 101 

White lead i 414, 468 ; dissolving. 493 ; 
paint, 466 



Whitewash out of doors, 48, 76 
Whitewashing, 152 

Why bitter words for small offence*, 820 

Will. old. 156. 182 

Wind instruments, gift of tone. 409 

Window : blinds, gilding and writing on, 
261 ; boxes, tessera?, 287, 312 

Windows, cheap stained. 131. 156 

Wine : acetic acid in. 415; orange. 622 

Wines, analysis of. 364 

Wire : brass, brightening. 600, 622 ; draw, 
ing, 179 : gauge, Birmingham, 47 ; gauie 
for teaching electricity, 266 ; Marsh's 
vibrating electrio, 673 ; ropes, 103; 
— splioing, 310 ; silvering iron, 62 ; 
straightening. 232 

Wires i railway signalling without, 474 ; 
stretching of signal, 181 

Wistarias and clothes moths. 595, 618 

Wollaston's photometry of Sirins, 561 

Woman's fnend, 21, 75, 101, 152, 231, 258. 
310, 561. 615 

Wonderful vision, 641, 668 

Wood : conversion by machinery, 655 ; for 
organ soundboard, 597 ; for turning, sea- 
soning, 286; preserving, 648; sections, 
stains for, 10 

Woodbury lantern slides, 46 

Wood-chopping machines, 48, 76 

Wooden : houses, 254, 309 ; watch, 261 

Woods, 10 

Wool : cleaning, 623 ; drying, 236 
Working distance of objective. 494 
Workshop: manipulation, 109; moisture 

in. 232 
Workshops, amateurs', 78 
World, railways of, 243 
Worm-eaten shelves. 486, 498 
Writing on glass, 152 
Writing-machine, Remington, 307 

YACHT sails, mildew in. 650 
Yachts, tonnage of, 310, 336 
Yarn-winding machine, 415 
Yeast, 20. 101, 310 
Yerba.338 

ZINC : bars, casting. 130. 156; rods for 
LeeUnche, 208. 234. 259 ; roofing. 665 ; 
white, 263 ; white paint on, 183. 206 

Zoological Society, the Government and 
the, 438 

Zoophytes, 76 



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[Suppltmcut to the ENGLISH MECHANIC, Sept. 29, 1870.] 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ACHROMATIC object-glasses, con- 

struct ion of, 112 
..sSolian violin pipe, 76 
Air-«ngine, the Rider, 636 
Air-filter, Dr. Richardson's, 326 
Air-pump?, horizontal, 465, 541, 619 
Air- refrigerator, a simple, 86 
Alarm : an improved low- water, 33 ; electric, 

100, 152, 190, 254 
American felling axe, 183 
Amyi. nitrite of. 677 
Ancient and modern harp, 136, 344, 423 
Apparatus, a siinplo blowpipe, 6, 99 
Ash's elliptical cutting frame, 571 
Astatic needle, 103. 124 
Astigmatism, 233, 411 
Axe, American felling, 183 

BACK-BEST for invalids, 298 

Backstay for lathe, 72 

Balance, cheap chemical, 285 

Balance-springs, glass for watches, 396 

Ballouns i'.ip<-r, 506 

Band, lathe, 23 

Barometer, mercurial. 205 

Barrel for chamber organ, 286 

Barrow, garden, 439 

Bath, problem, " Plumb-bob's", 329 

Bathometer, the, 87 

Battery I bichromate, 466 ; 48-cell, 12 ; 
Grove's, 77 ; improved, 321 ; Loclanchr, 
157 ; manganese, improved, 191 

Seattle's patent locomotive, 469 

Bell : electro-magnet and, 130 ; indicator, 
electric. 125 

Bells : chime of, 521 ; electric, 199 

Bevel, square, Ac., combined, 269 

Bichromate battery, 466 

Bicycle: bearings, 312; improved ("Slide- 
valve's"). 566; step, removable, 12 

Billiard table, 521 

Blast : continuous, 98 ; fans, 49 

Blowpipe apparatus, a simple, 6, 99 

Boat, defective, 235, 287 

Boiler : bow to make a model, 491 ; making, 
camber for plate, 468 ; model steamboat, 
363, 402 ; safety-valve for model, 205 ; tap 
for. 573 

Boilers, chimneys and, 219 

Brass : joining to guttapercha, 182 ; valve- 
balls for engine-pumps, 79 

Brown's keyboard for just intonation, 298, 
630 

Building, house, 413 

CAM for yarn winding machine, 366, 415 
Camber for boiler plate, 468 
Camacho electro-magnetic engine, 399 
Camera, 674 
Canoes, 74 

Casson-Dormoy puddling furnace, 142 

Centre of gravity i of cycloidal arc and sur- 
face, 447 ; of pyramid, 598 

Centrifugal governor, an improved, 195 

Chamfering machine, 596 

Chemical balance, cheap, 285 

Chime of bells, 521 

Chimneys and boilers, 219 

Chromostroboscope, the, 168 

Cichus, region to the north and west of, 69 

Circular-saw, split in, 491 

Clamond's thermo-generator, 467 

Clamp coupling for Bhafts, 581 

Clock : a solar, 69 ; cheap and simple, 255 ; 
electric, 95 ; magic, 259 , water, 95 

Clothes-horse, a new, 30 

Coal-gas, pressure in hydraulic, 132 

Code time, telegraph, 75 

Coil, miniature medical, 514 

Coils, instructions for making small induc- 
tion, 9, 92 

Colliery pumps, 312, 363, 412 

Combined bevel, square, Ac., 269 

Cone-bearings for bicycles, 312 

Conic ungulas, 463 

Connoctinn-rods : how to set out lentrth of, 

455 ; lining-out, 5 : marking out, 60 
Contents of tanks. 102 
Continuous blast, 98 
Cooking-stove, petroleum, 140 
Copper steam pan, thickness of, 106 
Counterpoise lift, 618 
Coupler, octave, 126, 436 
Coupling for shafts, clamp. 581 
Crank-pin. oiling mid-shaft, 468 
Carre: 231 ; cycloid, 286; radios of, 624 
Catting and surfacing machine for wood, 217 



Cutting frame, A=h's elliptical, 571 
Cycloid curve, 286 

Cycloidal arc, centre of gravity of, 417 
Cycloids, evolute of, 357 

DARNING machine, 217 

Defective boat, 235, 287 

Diagram, indicator, 674 

Diagrams, slide-valve. 284 

Diaraagnetism, 176, 670 

Dock gates, pressure on, 4-1 

Domes, steam, 326 

Domestic manufacture of gas, 008 

Drawing i and roving frames, 545 ; small 

ovals, 674 ; wire, 179 
Drill, rock, 258 

Drills, improvement* in radial, 659 
Duplex telegraphy, 79, 126 

EABTH, weighing the, 165 
Economiser, 205 

Kleotric : alarm, 100, 152, 199. 254 ; bell 

indicator, 125 ; clocks, 95, 199 ; machine, 

theory of the Holtx, 327 
Electrical : experiments, singular, 195 ; 

vortices, on, 27 
Electro-maguet and bell, 130 
Electro-magnetic engine : 254 ; the Camacho, 

399 

Electrotypes, 156 

Klliptical cuttin.'-frame. Ash's, 571 

Engine: electro-magnetio, 254; indicating, 
674 ; model steamboat, 44 ; queries, 412 ; 
the gas, 605 

Engine-pumps, brass valve-balls for, 78 

Engines, tire fastenings for express, 617 

Kpicvcloids and hypocycloids, 570, 657 

Epsilon Lyras. 381 

Etherio force : 38 ; so-called. 242 

Evolute of cycloids, 357 

Experiments : singular electrical, 195 ; spec- 
troscopic, 180 

Express engines, tire fastenings for, 617 

P.R.A.S.'s "lide-rest, 16 
Vans, bls.it, 49 
Felling axe, American, 183 
" Fiddler's" finger-keyed viol, 13, 72 
Figures, on lightning, 215 
Filter I air. Dr. Richardson's, 326 ; pump, 
207 ' . v v, 

Flat roof, 389 

Flexible power transmitter, 581 

Flow of water at different temperatures, 256 

Fly-wheel, lathe, 622. 673 

Force, etheric, 38, 242 

Fork, handy garden, 616 

Forty-eight cell battery, 12 

Fossil : a curious, 385 ; tooth, peculiar, 280 

Fountain, a portable, 254 

Fracastorius, 117, 405, 432, 481 

Fret-saw, an improved, 31 

Friedmann's patent injectors, 671 

Friend, woman's, 21 

Furnace: Casson-Dormoy puddling, 112; 

for laboratory, 518. 51!) 
Furnaces in mines, 620 

GALILEAN telescopes, improvements 
in. 351 

Galvanic battery, improved, 321 
Garden i barrow, 439 ; fork, handy, 616 
Gas, hot water coil heated by, 441 
Gas-burner, Watkins's, 401 
Gas-engine, the, 605 
Generating ozone, 373 
Geology of the Weald, sketch of the, 138 
Glass : balance springs for watches, 396 ; 

printing on, 581 
Graduation, adjustable slide-rest, 39 
Gravity, centre of : of cycloidal arc, 447 ; of 

pyramid, 598 
Greenhouse, heating apparatus for small, 

543 

Guttapercha to brass, joining, 182 

HAMMER, spring lever, 3S7 
Hand-driven velooipede, 462 
Handy garden fork, 616 
Harmonium i and organ matters, 120, 228 ; j 
skeleton. 17 ; the orchestral. 120 : two- i 
manual, 443 ; valve-action for tremolo, 520 
Harp, ancient and modern, 136, 344, 423 
H satin? apparatus for small greenhouse, 543 
Heavenly bodies, rising and setting of. 642 
High-power object-glass for microscope, 517 ' 
High pressure, 361 



Holtx electric machine, theory of, 327 
Horizontal air-pump, 465, 541, 619 
Hot-water coil heated by gas, 411 
House : building, 413 ; pigeons', 650 
Hydrocarbon gas-lamp, 631 
Hydrostatics, 312 

Hypocycloids, epicycloids and, 579, 657 

IMPERI8HABLE letters, 43 
Index counter for slide-rest, adjustable 172 
Indicator: diagram, explanation of, 674; 

electric bell. 125 
Induction coil, instructions for making 

small, 9, 92 
Injectors, Friedmann's patent, 671 
Instantaneous shutter, 102, 127 
Intonation, on just, and the new keyboard, 

298, 630 
Invalids, back-rest for, - <S 
Ironclads, 437 

JUPITER: 279, 355; satellite of in 
transit, 562 

KALEIDOSCOPE, 231 

Keyboard, Colin Brown's new, for justly 

intoned instruments, 298, 630 
Keys and key action for organ, 615 

LABORATORY, furnace for. 518, 519 
Lamp : hydrocarbon gas, 634 ; watch- 
maker's, 543 
Lathe i backstay for, 72 ; band. 23 ; bod 
query, 77; fly-wheel of, 622, 673; ov«r- 
heads, 359; turning Bhafting in, 20, 45, 
74, 101 ; watchmaker's combination, 13 
Lathes, speed cones of, securing, 143 
Leclanche" battery, 157 
Length i of a connecting-rod, how to ascer- 
tain, 455 ; of a strap, 441. 492 
Lenses, minute microscopio, 15 
Lepisma Bcale, 269 
Letters, imperishable, 43 
Levelling, 492 
Lift, counterpoise, 618 
Light: mechanical production of, 56; re- 
flection of, 181 
Lightning figures, on, 215 
Lining-out connecting-rods, 5 
Locomotive, Beattio's patent, 469 
Low-water alarm, an improved, 33 
Lubricator, an improved. 168 
Lunar topography, 15, 69 
Lyne, epsilon, 381, 401, 510, 586, 640 

MACHINE i chamfering, 596 ; cutting 
and surfacing for wood, 217; darning, 
217 ; mitre planing, 255 
Magic elook, 259 

Manganeso battery, improved, 191 
M n tti eto-elec trie machine, 442 
Markjng-off slide-valves, 168 
Marking-out connecting-rods, 60 
Mathematical, 463, 518 
Measurement, metri-al system of, 09 
Measuring sound, 518 

Mechanical : money-box, new, 589 ; produc- 
tion or light, 56 
Mechanics, 544 

Mechanism, practical, 5, 60, 113, 169 
I Medical coil, miniature, 514 
i Molbourne refloctor, 380 
I Mercurial barometer, principle of, 205 
Metrical system of measurement, 69 
Micrometer, stereo, 143 
Microscope: high-power object-glass for, 

517 ; slide, a new, 246 
Microscopic : lenses, minute, 15 : objects, 

372.502 
Midnizht sun, 311 
Mineral oils, testing, 86 
Mines : furnaces in, 620 ; plans of, 41 
Miniature medical coil, 514 
Mitre-planing machine, 255, 359 
Model : boiler, how to make a, 491, 492 ; 

steamboat engine, 41 
Models, pitching wheel, 103 
Money-box, new mechanical, 589 
Moss lands, reclaiming, 623 
Munroe reed. 384 

Musical : string, stopping a, 209 ; telegraph 
in Paris, 659 

NAYLOH'S safetv-valve, MO 
Needle, astatic, 103, 124 
Note on duplicity of 1474 line in the solar 
spectrum, 476 



OBJECT-GLASS, high-power, 517 
Object-glasses, construction of achromatic, 
112 

Objects, microscopic, 372, 502 
Occultation of Saturn, 587 
Octave coupler, 126, 436 
Oiling mid-shaft, orank-pin, 468 
Oils, testing mineral, 86 
Optics, question in, 364 
Orbits of the planets, 389 
Orchestral organ, 120 

Organ i arrangement of pipes. 205 1 barrel 
for chamber, 286 ; building, 563, 593, $15 • 
keys and action, 615; pedals, Ac., 503; 
pipes, making metal, 153; — violon, 199 : 
small, 181 ; street, 414 ; the orchestral. 
120; tuning, 177; windcliest of. 641; 
wood for soundboard, 597 

Ovals, drawing small, 674 

Overhead, supplementary, 150 

Overheads, 359 

Ozone, generating, 373 

PALLET, the Tamplin harmonium, 223 
Paper balloons, 566 
Paris, the musical telegraph in. 659 
Pattern-making, 299, 376, 426, 477, 529. 533. 
636 

Pedals and pedal action for organ, 563 
Petroleum stoves. 94. 140 
Piano tuning, 388, 391 
Pigoon-honse, 650 

Pipes : for organs, making metal, 153 ; 

violon for organs, 199 
Pitching wheel models, 103 
Planets, orbits of the, 389 
Planitueter, 360 
Plans of mines, 44 

Plates, new method of making surface, 505 

Plimpton skate, the. 111, 161 

" Plumb-bob's" bath problem, 329 

Pneumatio steering-gear, 58 

Polariscope, how to make, 677 

Portable fountains, 254 

Posidonius, 15, 117 

Power transmitter, flexible, 581 

Practical mechanism, 560, 113 

Pressure : high, 361 ; on dock-gates, 44 

Printing on plass, 581 

Projection, 77 

Protractor, combined bevel, Ac., 269 
Puddling furnace, Casson-Dormoy, 142 
| Pulleys, rubber. 243 
Pump, filter, 207 

Pumps, colliery (fitting valve in), 312, 362, 
412 

Purfling violins, 543 

Pyramid, centre of gravity of, 598 



QUESTION in optics, 361 

RADIAL drills, improvements in, 659 

Radiation, an attack upon, 459 

Radiometers, 173 

Radius of curve, 624 

Ranisbottom's safety-valve, 387 

Raw hide, dyeing, 504 

Reclaiming moss lands, 623 

Itced, Munroe, the, 381 

Reflection of light, 181 

Reflector, Melbourne, 380 

Refractiou, 642 

Refrigerator, a simple air, 86 

Region to the north and west of Ciehui. 60 

Rider air-engine, the. 636 

His in? and setting of heavenly bodies, 612 

Rock drill. 258 

Roller skates. 72, 111, 161, 670 
Roof, flat, 389 

Roving frames, drawing and, 545 
Rubber pulleys, 243 

SAFETY-VALVE: a safe. 57; for 

model boiler, 205 ; Naylor's, 648 ; Rams- 
bottom's duplex, 387 

Sanitary improvements, 210 

Satellite of Jupiter in transit, 562 

Saturn, occultation of, 587 

Saw : fret, an improved, 31 1 split in cir- 
cular, 491 

Sawing stone, 302 

Saws, tempering and straightening, 4 

Scale of Lepisma, 269 

Screw, six-thread, 470 

Screws and screw-drivers, 475 

Shafting in lathe, turning, 20, 46, 101 

Ships, handines? of, 69 



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XII. 



[BvmMMMrt to tbb ENGLISH MECHANIC,"] 
Sxrr. 29, 1876. J 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



fKNGLISH MECHANIC,"! 
L Imdmx to Vol. ttttt, J 



Shoe-tips, tit hide, 504 

8hutter, instantaneous, 102. 127 

Skate, the Plimpton, 111. 181 

Skates, roller, 78, 111, 161, 670 

Skeleton harmonium, 17 

Sketch of geology of Weald, 138 

Slide, new microscope, 246 

Slide-reet: "P.R.A.8.'s, 16; graduation, 
adjustable, 39 : indez-oounter for adjust- 
able, 172 ; tool, an adjustable, 38 

Slide- valve diagrams, 284 

Slide-valves, marking off, 168 

Solar : dock, a, 66: spectrum, duplicity of 
1474 line in, 476 

Sound measurer, 518 

Soundboard of organ, wood for, 507 

Spectroscopic experiments, 180 

Specula, supporting, 94 

Speed-cones of lathes, securing, 143 

Spring lever hammer, 387 

Star, appearance of, in cheap telescope, 614 

Steam domes, 326 

Steamboat engine, model, 44, 363 



Steering-gear, pneumatic 58 

Step, removable bicycle,' 12 

Stereomicrometer, 143 

Stone sawir-g, 362 

Stopping a musical string, 209 

Stores, petroleum. 94 

Strap, length of, 441, 492 

Street organ, 414 

Sun, midnight, 311 

Supplementary overhead, 150 

Supporting specula, 94 

Surface plates, new method of making, 505 

TAMPLIN harmonium pallet, 228 

Tanks, contents of, 104 

Tap for boiler, 573 

Teeth, peouliar fossil, 280 

Telegraph: code time, 75 j the musical, in 

Paris, 659 
Telegraphy, duplex, 79, 126 
Telescope, appearance of a star in a cheap, 

614 

Telescopes, Improvements in Galilean, 351 



Tempering and straightening saws, 4 

Tent, a convenient. 257 

Testing mineral oils, 86 

Thermo-generator, 467 

Tire fastening for express engines, 617 

Tool, an adjustable slide-rest, 39 

Topography, lunar, 15, 69 

Trefoils, carving, 496 

Tricycles, 287 

Trigonometry, 439 

Tuning : organ, 177 ; piano, 389, 361 

Turbines, 194 

Turning shafting in lathe. 20, 45, 74, 101 
Twom&nn&l hariiioiijtun, 443 

UNOTJL A : oenio. 463 ; the oylindrio, 224 
Unhealthy trades, 326 

VALVE, safe safety. 57 
Valve, slide, diagrams. 284 
Valve-action for tremolo of harmonium, 520 
Valve- balls, brass, for engine pomps, 78 
Val»e-eetting, 366 



Velocipede driven by hands, 462 
Venus, appearance of, 881, 485 
Viol, " Fiddler's" finger-keyed, 18, 72 
Violin, JColian (pipe), 76 
Violin : construction, 177 ; purfling, 543 
Violon organ pipes, 199 
Vortices, on i 



WATCHMAKER'S 

lathe, 13 
Watkins's gas-burner, 401 
Water: clock, 95 ; flow of, at different tern- 
_peratures, 256 
Weald, sketch of geology of, 138 
Weighing the earth, 165 
Wheel models, pitching, 108 
Wind-chest, organ, 644 
Wiredrawing, 179 
Woman's friend, 21 



Y AEN. WJJi DING machine, < 
366, 415 



i for. 



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IMarck 17, 1876.] 



THE ENGLISH MECHANIC 



AND WORLD OF SCIENCE. 



A BTICLE S. 

THE NEW PATENTS BILL. 

HPHE new Patents Bill, or rather the 
amended and in some respects im- 
prored bill, which the Lord Chancellor has 
introduced to the House of Lords, muBt 
undergo a still further improvement before 
it can expect to meet with any extensive 
support from those outside of Parliament 
who are most directly interested in the 
measure. Lord Cairns, though of course 
he has not the least objection to patentees, 
qua patentees, appears to have listened far 
more attentively to the arguments of manu- 
facturers and traders than to those who are 
in reality the best friends of the "busi- 
ness " man. It is incontestable that manu- 
facturers oppose inventions and discoveries, 
except under special and rarely- occurring 
circumstances ; for in many cases inven- 
tions revolutionise whole processes, render 
valuable machinery antiquated and useless, 
and often take some time before they begin 
to make a return on the fresh capital, 
which is not_ always easily obtained. But 
when these inventions are encumbered by 
the " letters," the manufacturer becomes a 
cruelly ill-used man. Here is an invention 
to utilise which will probably cost him a 
considerable slice off his profits, which will 
upset all his routine, and, besides that, 
there is an individual who occupies the 
enviable position of the last straw on the 
camel's back, because he demands a royalty. 
Fortunately, the manufacturer does not 
break down, except in temper, for he knows 
that if Brown and Jones do not adopt 
the invention, Smith and Robinson will, 
and so accordingly he consents to adopt the 
new process, and to haggle with the 
patentee as to the terms of the license. 
But there is a worse side still. The know- 
ledge that the rival house will take up the 
invention is a thorn in the manufacturer's 
side ; the greatest torture is the possibility 
of new firms starting in the business 
without the drawback of capital sunk in 
plant rendered useless by the new inven- 
tion. . The first firm to take up an invention 
is also placed at a disadvantage, unless 
special and favourable terms are made with 
the patentees, because there are always 
alterations and expenses of one kind and 
another which have to be met before an 
invention is brought into practical working, 
and the manufacturer knows that hiB 
rivals in business — those who come after 
him— will reap the advantage of his expe- 
rience. These are amongst the principal 
reasons why manufacturers dislike patents, 
and it seems strange that practised lawyers 
VOL. XXIH-Ho. 678. 



and legislators, who have fairly earned their 
positions, should be misled by the special 
pleading of the class. We say misled, 
because it is evident that if the Lord Chan- 
cellor and those who will support his bill 
are not misled, they are certainly doing a 
great deal to discourage patents, if only by 
the simple fact that they do not encourage 
them. The bill has many of the old faults, 
and nearly all that we said against that of 
last session may be urged against the pre- 
sent one. 

First and foremost, although " provisional 
protection" remains, it is not the provi- 
sional protection which, from long user, 
we have learnt to understand and to appre- 
ciate. An intending patentee must deposit 
his specification at the time of making 
application for a patent, and although it is 
true that, by means of certain formalities 
and fees, he may obtain leave to amend 
it, the evil remains that it gives the 
inventor little opportunity to improve 
his invention before the sealing, and 
no opportunity, or scarcely any, of 
finding purchasers or capitalists to work 
it. Another thing which should not be 
forgotten is that the early publication of 
an invention opens the door for unprincipled 
persons to oppose the granting of a patent. 
At present it is difficult for any one to 
oppose a patent until the complete specifi- 
cation is published, because the real nature 
of the invention is unknown ; but if the 
full description is to be published before 
the patent i» sealed, it will be comparatively 
an easy matter for persons possessed of 
money to get up evidence to show that the 
invention is not new. They will, in fact, be 
able to so hamper the poor inventor, by 
means of gold and law, that he will be com- 
pelled to give up his patent. In a certain 
sense the same thing may be done under 
the present law ; but a patent is now prima 
facie evidence of an invention, and it is for 
the infringers to prove that an invention is 
not new. Under the proposed law, as it 
seems to us, the intending patentee will 
have to show that his invention is new, and 
this against all that money can do. No 
Patents Bill can be satisfactory that does 
not give the inventor time — time to test his 
invention, time to get capital to his aid, 
and time to get it into working order. By 
no other means can the inventor feel secure 
in explaining his methods or processes to 
those who are to use them. 

The examination clauses are preposterous, 
and we are sorry that we feel compelled to 
use so strong a phrase. By the bill only 
six examiners are appointed, and we assume 
from experience that their verdict will be 
accepted by the law officers and the com- 



missioners as sufficient evidence of the 
novelty or value of an invention. But there 
were more than 4,500 applications for 
patents last year, or about 90 a week, and 
the f ramers of the bill must have a very 
poor idea of the amount of searching requi- 
site, or of the difficulty of forming an 
opinion on the novelty of an invention, if 
they imagine that the six examiners they 
propose to appoint can possibly get through 
the amount of work required of them with 
satisfaction to those most interested, or 
even to themselves. Before exposing the 
preposterous character of this innovation, 
it will be well to notice an interpolation in 
the present bill. As the clause reads, the 
commissioners will, on the request of the 
applicant, refer the application to an 
examiner. The mode of expression is pro- 
bably characteristic of bills in Parliament, 
for we certainly fail to understand what is 
meant. Is it only on the request of the appli- 
cant that his invention will be referred to the 
examiners, or is it one of the necessary steps 
to obtain a patent, similar to the present 
"notice to proceed" P If the applicant 
fails to " request " the commissioners to 
refer his application to the examiners, will 
his failure so to do be considered an aban- 
donment of his application, or will matters 
proceed to the sealing without such exami- 
nation P The same phrase occurs in another 
clause, in which it is stated that after the 
report of the examiner the commissioners 
will, on the request of the applicant, transmit 
to the law officer the application, specifica- 
tion, and relative documents and report. 
Here, again, we are in doubt as to the 
meaning of the words in italics. Is it or is 
it not necessary that the applicant should 
" request " the commissioners to forward 
the documents to the law officer P "Will 
failure to so request forfeit the "applica- 
tion" P It would seem so, for it is not until 
after these formalities have been gone 
through that the applicant is directed to 
give " notice to proceed." Considering the 
high position of the introducer of the bill 
we are sorry to say that it is an incompre- 
hensible and impracticable measure. Some 
of its minor details are improvements on 
the present law, but in its main features it 
is radically bad. Bather too much has been 
made of " examination;" but we fail to see 
what really useful purpose examination will 
serve. Unless thoroughly done it will be a 
great evil, and six examiners cannot by any 
possibility do it, even if the period of time 
known as a " day " were specially lengthened 
to suit their necessities. But is there any 
absolute need for examination P From the 
inventor's point of view we can readily 
reply, yes ; for it is no easy matter to learn 



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2 ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 573. March 17, 1876. 



whether an invention is really new ; but we 
doubt whether it is advisable to throw this 
work on the Patent Office, with this excep- 
tion : under the present law an intending 
patentee can only ascertain what has been 
published ; he can get no information as to 
the character of a patent obtained within, 
say, the seven months immediately pre- 
ceding his application, and may, for all he 
knows to the contrary, have been anticipated, 
by specifications previously filed, but not 
mado public. • As we have said above, it 
would be very objectionable to publish 
specifications too early, but there is no reason 
why an application should not be examined 
and compared with similar applications in 
the hands of the commissioners. Such an 
examination would be an advantage to the 
applicant, who should be warned of the 
existence of a similar specification, but not 
necessarily refused protection. Beyond this, 
examination seems to us to be inadvisable, 
because from the incompetency of an ex- 
aminer great injustice may be done, while 
comparatively little harm ia done by the pre- 
sent absence of examination. If an invention 
is old. the patent is, after all, easily set aside, 
and, if it is useless, no one but the inventor 
suffers. It is true that the inventor of a 
subsequent process may find it absolutely 
necessary to employ something forming a 
part of a previous invention which has 
been patented, but owing to the incom- 
petency of the earlier patentee is un- 
workable. Although it may be what is 
colloquially termed a nuisance, the subse- 
quent inventor must make terms with the 
previous patentee, and it might be advisable 
to insert a clause by which such matters could 
be referred to arbitrators. The present bill 
proposes certain compulsory clauses, and 
these probably might be enlarged to meet 
the want. Such instances are, however, rare, 
although we know that money has been 
paid for crude and unworkable patents, 
which have been found to stop the way to a 
subsequent and successful inventor obtain- 
ing a patent. A little matter often makes 
all the difference between success and non- 
success, and we are afraid that the result of 
examination would often be to refuse pro- 
tection to a workable invention because its 
main features were already the subject of 
a patent, albeit a useless one. The fees 
remain practically the same, for although 
reduced to £20 (£5 on application and £15 
on sealing), a fee of £5 would have to be 
paid for " leave to amend," and as this 
would undoubtedly have to be applied for 
in many cases, and especially so with really 
useful inventions, the fees may be taken as 
the same as. at present. 

We venture to think, however, that any 
patent bill which does not propose to 
materially reduce the fees during the early 
life of a patent will not meet the wishes of 
inventors or o£ the public, whose interests 
are undoubtedly identical. The bill was to 
have been read a. second time on the 14th 
insL, last. Tuesday, and probably we shall 
have something further to say about it. 
Meantime, the same means must be adopted 
with regard to it as were successful last year. 
Inventors and their friends must petition 
against it, and that promptly, for an attempt 
will be made to force it through the Legisla- 
ture this session, and after all the expres- 
sions of opinion made on the defects of its 
predecessor it is useless to hope that its 
framers wiH modify its clauses unless com- 
pelled to do so. 



REEOBT OF THE VIVISECTION 
COMMISSION. 

TJESUMING our notice of the report of 
- L * / the Commissioners we commence with 
the evidence of Prof. G. M. Humphry, who 
may be taken as a representative of the 
physiologists, and who may accordingly be 



expected to speak more from their point of 
view than from that of the medical men 
pure and simple. Prof. Humphry con- 
siders it justifiable for man to inflict death 
and a " certain amount of pain " on other 
animals when there is a reasonable prospect 
of his condition being benefited by it ; but 
he asserts that experiments can almost in- 
variably be performed under anaesthesia, 
and should always be performed by com- 

Wtent persons, and by those alone. Lord 
iumarleigh, however, put a very perti- 
nent question to this witness. He read the 
following extract from a medical paper 
called The Doctor -. — " Press your finger 
under a frog's mouth until the eyeball pro- 
trudes. Then pull down his nictitating 
membrane with a pair of forceps Next, 
scrape off with a sharp knife the three 
layers of anterior epithelium. Now let 
him rest ten minutes — you may then observe 
bis actions; he pokes his head down be- 
tween his forelegs, jumps, or turns over, 
wriggles, and otherwise acts in a strange 
manner. Having watched this, take him 
again and push out the eyeball once more. 
Again hold down the protecting membrane, 
and rub a stick of solid lunar caustic all 
over the eye until the aqueous humour of 
the anterior chamber shows a precipitate. 
Now release youv frog, and his actions will 
be similar to those previously watched, but 
more intense ; in fact, he plays such fan- 
tastic tricks as few could look upon without 
that blunting of sensibility on which so 
many have dilated : it is necessary for him 
to be left for ten minutes, after which hie 
head is cut off with a pair of scissors, and 
his Buffering ends. The object is to demon- 
strate the structure of the cornea by stain- 
ing the intercellular substance." In answer 
to a question whether he believed that that 
sort of experiment is carried on in this 
country, Professor Humphry said : " I do 
not understand that as a physiological 
experiment at all; it is a meaningless 
experiment." And, further, in answer to 
another question, whether such an experi- 
ment would be recognised by the great 
medical practitioners or the great physiolo- 

fists of this country, "Prof. Humphry said 
e should think not : " It seems to me very 
extraordinary as being performed by phy- 
siologists." And yet this identical "experi- 
ment " appears in the notorious handbook 
to which we have before alluded, and in 
reference to which it has been asserted that 
all the experiments are intended to be per- 
formed under the influence of antestheticB, 
although not specially ordered in the hand- 
book. It will be noticed that we have 
italicised the word "suffering," and the 
question was, and will be again, asked — 
How do you explain the word " suffering " if 
the animal was under ajuesthesia? It is 
not sufficient to answer, as Prof. Humphry 
did, that he doubts the " veracity " of the 
account — that he considers it a "sensa- 
tional description." A "sensational de- 
scription," forsooth! It must be either 
true or false. If the latter, why is it 
made at all ? If true, is it not enough to 
make the blood in every human heart boil 
with indignation and horror P Puerile 
excuses only help to accuse the perpetra- 
tors, and it in preposterous to say that 
" pain in a frog is not to be measured by 
pain in ourselves " — that the lower animals 
are not as sensible to pain, in proportion to 
their ability to bear it, as the higher 
animals, including man. Further on Prof. 
Humphry said: "It is very difficult to 
know when a fact has been established." 
Has he established it as a fact, or has any 
one else, that the frog does not suffer 
intense agony P Prof. Humphry also 
stated that an animal fixed down and ren- 
dered unable to move evinces very little 
suffering" — a statement which was modi- 
fied considerably when it was put to him to 
say whether a horse that evinces suffering 



when struck by a whip does or does not feel 
pain if his limbs are fastened down. 

Mr. W. Pritchard, professor of anatomy 
in the Royal Veterinary College, stated 
that the operations performed at this 
college were for the purpose of cure, and 
considered that mere experiments were 
very improper. The general tendency of 
his evidence showed that there are always 
sufficient cases to establish the result of a 
suggested operation without experimenting 
on healthy animals ; and that so far as the 
administration of drugs and poisons was 
concerned their effects upon animals were 
practically of little utility in the treatment 
of human beings. 

Dr. H. W. Acland. Regius Professor of 
Medicine in Oxford University, speaking of 
a common experiment to exhibit the circu- 
lation of the blood— viz., simply tying the 
toes of a frog so as to examine the web 
under the microscope — declared that ob- 
jections to it are absurd, as the frog does 
not experience pain from that operation. 
But, said Dr. Acland, " some persons I 
believe, with entire indifference, take a 
living frog, open the abdomen of the frog, 
spread out the interior living membrane, 
called the peritoneum or mesentery, and 
there observe the course of the vessels. 
Now if the frog suffers pain that is as 
painful a thing as can be done." Such 
experiments as these, which serve no useful 
purpose, Dr. Acland abhors, and he also 
considers that, when an experiment which 
may have been deemed necossary has 
once been performed, its repetition should 
not be permitted. In a few well-chosen 
sentences Dr. Acland gave the Com- 
missioners an outline of the whole subject, 
and touched on the real cause of the public 
outcry. Coming from him, the distinguished 
professor, the following statements will 
nave a force that they would lack if from 
the mouths of outsiders : — " Modern civi- 
lisation," he says, " seems to be set upon 
acquiring, almost universally, what is cal led 
biological knowledge, and one of the con- 
sequences is, that whereas medical men are 
constantly engaged in the study of anatomy 
and physiology for a humane purpose — that 
is for {he purpose of doing immediate good 
to mankind— there are a number of persons 
now who are engaged in the pursuit of 
these subjects for the purpose of acquiring 
abstract knowledge. That is quite a 
different thing. I am not at all sure that 
the mere acquisition of knowledge is not a 
thing having some dangerous and mis- 
chievous tendencies in it. I know that 
would be thought by many persons a very 
arrier^ and foolish opinion. Nevertheless 
I am not at all prepared to say that the 
mere desire to attaiu so much more know- 
ledge is a good condition of mind for a 
man : at all events, it was not the way in 
which all this mass of physiological and 
biological learning was added to the world, 
because it was added to the world by men 
who were obtaining it for the sake of doing 
good with it — doing good, I mean, to their 
fellow-creatures by relieving suffering: 
that was a chief incentive to biological 
studies. But now it has become a pro- 
fession to discover, and I have often 
met persons who think that a man who is 
engaged in original research for the sake of 
adding to knowledge is therefore a far 
superior being to a practising physician 
who is simply trying to do good with his 
knowledge; that he is a superior being 
because he is devoted to pure research." It 
is unfortunately true. Numbers of men 
are making cruel and wanton experiments 
upon animals merely with the hope of dis- 
covering something, and these are just the 
men who say, as one of the witnesses said 
in answer to question 

"364L Then, foryour own purposes, you disregard 
entirely the nuestiou of the suffering: of the animal 
in performing a painful experiment ?— I do.' 



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and who, "with brutal effrontery, reply, " If 
I do experiments for my inquiries in patho- 
logical research, except for convenience sake, 
as for instance on dogs and cats, I do not 
use them" [anaesthetics]. Comment of any 
kind would mar the force of such opinions. 
Let them stand naked in their barbarous 
brutality. 

When wc turn to the evidence of Sir 
Wm. Fergusson We turn to one who has in- 
curred no little displeasure from "scien- 
tific " men for his outspoken opinions on 
the subject of vivisection. Sir William 
threw a great deal of light on the subject, 
and showed conclusively that all assertions 
as to the benefits conferred by vivisection 
must be taken up very carefully— or rather 
must be disputed till their truth is firmly 
established. Some of the most striking 
experiments that hare been performed on 
the lower animals with reference to surgery 
have really been already performed, not ex- 
perimentally, but on the best judgment on 
the human subject, and proved on the 
human subject ; and, therefore, said Sir 
Wm. Fergusson, there is scarcely any 
necessity for the repetition of such opera- 
tions on the lower animals to prove the 
fact. The famous John Hunter is specially 
celebrated for an operation which he per- 
formed on the arteries, and long after he 
had succeeded in the " experiment " on the 
human subject, and others had repeated it, 
the fashion of tying arteries in the lower 
animals arose to demonstrate what Hunter 
had already successfully accomplished. And 
yet the operation is claimed as one of the 
results of vivisection — a clear instance of 
the suppressio veri and the suggestio falsi; 
for although it is true that the first ex- 
periment was a '* vivisection," it was per- 
formed on a human being for a definite 
purpose — viz., the benefit of the subject. 
To say it was the result of previous ex- 
periments is false, because as a matter of 
fact we believe it was not until some time 
after Hunter had demonstrated its success 
that the operation was performed on an 
animal, and then merely to settle a dispute 
as to the origin of aneurisms. Mr. Geo. 
Maoll wain, M.R.C.S., said in his evidence 
that Mr. Hunter could not make an 
aneurism in the animal although he tried ; 
"and as animals do not have aneurisms, but 
only the human subject, it is quite clear 
that there is not a shadow of a shade of 
evidence that his discovery was the result 
of experiments on animals." Sir William 
Fergusson also bats that most of the 
experiments with which he is acquainted, 
having any bearing on surgery, have 
been performed after they nave been 
tested practically, for the purpose of cure, 
on the human subject; that what has 
been done has been of service in regard to 
physiology and human knowledge, " but 
that it has not been of that immense advan- 
tage to human nature that some claim for 
it;" that he has Teason to imagine the 
sufferings incidental to such operations " ai e 
protracted in a very shocking manner;" and, 
finally, that he is "not aware of any of 
these experiments on the lower animals 
having led to the mitigation of pain or to 
improvement as to surgical details." An 
important point in Sir William's evidence, 
and one that the public will note, is that a 
person having undergone an ordinary sur- 
gical operation suffers just the same in 
every respect as if he had not had chloro- 
form at all during the performance of the 
operation. An impression has been widely 
spread that experiments performed under 
anesthesia are perfectly painless to the 
animal, as they doubtless are when insensi- 
bility is produced and kept up ; but, as a 
matter of fact, although the actual cutting 
may be performed while the animal is in- 
sensible, it is allowed in Borne cases to sur- 
vive the anaesthesia, and to exist for days 
sr weeks in agony, while in others the 



animal must regain sensibility before the 
physiological observation can be made. As 
to the experiments on animals made to 
determine the proper conditions for the 
transfusion of blood, Sir William said : " I 
do not think they would be of the Bmallest 
practical value." 

Dr. Alfred Swaine Taylor gave evidence 
as to experiments he had performed to 
settle questions which had arisen in criminal 



cases, where the results made the difference 
between life and death to the persons 
charged. It is a proof of the weakness of the 
viviseotioniste' case that they should quote 
these experiments as instances of the value 
of their experiments upon the lower animals. 
They are exceptional, performed for a 
specific purpose, and with the object of 
furthering justice. But Dr. Taylor says 
that many experiments of a similar kind 
are performed which are utterly useless; 
and speaking of the notorious Korwich 
performances, he declares that they ap- 
peared to him to be of a most cruel kind, 
and to answer no purpose justifying the 
nature of the experiment. A great deal has 
been made of Sir James Paget' s instance — 
the possibility of finding an antidote to 
snake poisons by means of experiments on 
animals; bnt Dr. Taylor points out that 
there can be no hope of anything of the 
kind, because the poison of the cobra enters 
the blood and acts directly, and any anti- 
dote must therefore be applied in the same 
manner and, practically, directly after the 
bite. Asked as to an experiment described 
in the " Handbook," in which a frog is put 
into water which is afterwards raised to 
about 100° Fahr., Dr. Taylor said it would 
be very like putting a human being into 
boiling water. It was a cruel experiment, 
and he could not see what purpose it would 
answer. He also condemned the experiment 
on the mesentery of a frog on similar 
grounds. 

Dr. Geo. Rolleston, the Linacre Professor 
of Physiology, made a long statement in 
support of nis opinion that the habit of 
making experiments upon living animals 
is liable to abuse. Prof. Rolleston says 
that "Vivisection is specially likely to 
tempt a man into certain carelessnesses — the 
passive impressions produced by the sight 
of suffering growing, as is the law of our 
nature, weaker, while the habit of, and the 
pleasure in, experimenting grows stronger 
by repetition." He quotes as an in- 
stance a remark of Prof. Schiff's, which, 
apart from its inherent brutality, is an 
exhibition of indecent levity which we 
should have thought even that vivi- 
sectionist would have hesitated before 
uttering. Prof. Schiff cuts the nerves of 
vocalisation in the dogs that come to his 
laboratory, " pour lea empecher de se livrer 
a des concerts nocturnes trop bruyants, et 
de discrediterainsi les etudes phisiologiques 
aupres des habitants du quartier." Happily 
(for him) Prof. Schiff is not an Englishman, 
and, at all events, seems to be as entirely 
uncontrolled as he could wish. Professor 
Rolleston favours legislative interference, 
and thinks it would be advisable to have all 
necessary experiments performed in a public 
laboratory, but these experiments, he thinks, 
would be very few. 

Mr. John Colam, the Secretary to the 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, was called, and gave in evidence a 
great deal that has already been laid before 
the public. He was cross-examined as to 
the lecture by Dr. Ferrier, at the London 
Institution, but it seems tolerably clear, 
although, of course, not intended by the 
lecturer, that the young people did laugh at 
his description of the contortions of the 
monkey. The question is really immaterial. 
Whatever use it may be to students of phy- 
siology or to medical students (by which 
term we do not mean young people) to 
acquire a knowledge of the localisation of 



the functions of the brain, we fail to see 
what purpose lectures at a public place of 
resort can serve when they are necessarily 
accompanied by a number of horrid details, 
and can be of little interest, or even of educa- 
tional utility, to the persons who form the 
audience. Mr. Colam related the notorious 
instance of the live lobster cut up before a 
class of young ladies, and we should imagine 
that physiological studies in schools for 
girls will hereafter be discouraged by an 
absence of pupils. It is preposterous to 
give, and absurd to receive, as an excuse the 
statement that the teacher did not know the 
lobster was alive — a statement evidently too 
ridiculous for the Commissioners. This 
lady physiologist still dissects animals 
before her class, and runs a risk of not 
knowing whether they are alive ; and yet 
Dr. Acland, at Oxford, never finds it neces- 
sary to dissect, because he has a series of 
preparations, diagrams, Ac., which answer 
the purpose. Asked by Professor Huxley 
as to the treatment accorded to lobsters at 
Billingsgate, Mr. Colam said he hud been 
there several times and failed to find any 
cruelty — the fact being that the lobsters are 
put into boiling water and die instantly. 
The operation is well known to all entomo- 
logists who dip beetles in boiling water as 
the speediest way of killing them. 

Dr. Arthur de Noe Walker states that a 
" knowledge of the healthy functions of 
animal life does not contain in itself any 
knowledge that can lead us to therapeutic 
agents for the treatment of any disease by 
which those parts may be affected." Vivi- 
sections made with the sole object of 
acquiring physiological knowledge, at the 
cost of intense suffering to millions of 
victims, have never resulted in the dis- 
covery of a single remedial agent — a point, 
says Dr. Walker, on which vivisectors 
habitually mislead themselves and their 
pupils by reckless assumptions renewed 
every year. The discovery of the circu- 
lation of the blood did not advance medicine 
a single step. Dr. Walker was severely 
cross- exanrmed, and although he acknow- 
ledged that a knowledge of physiology 
was of benefit to the physician, he main- 
tained his position that experiments on 
living animals had not in a single instance 
furnished a really useful remedy for any 
disease. For instance he acknowledged 
that all our knowledge of the first processes 
of inflammation was obtained from ex- 
periments, but denied that that knowledge 
had revealed any remedial agent whereby 
the morbid states can be neutralised. 
Similarly, experiments on sheep-pox have 
shown the disease to be due to a small 
organism, but have not disclosed the organic 
changes produced by that organism. Dr. 
Walker, however, acknowledged that the 
use of nitrite of amyl in angina pectoris 
was a "happy guess," following on the 
observation that it was found to dilate the 
arteries ; and he also stated, in words that 
should be remembered, "when an ex- 
perimenter sayB, for example, as is said in 
a very recent publication, that before and 
throughout these experiments anesthetics 
were used, it is perfectly true ; but if by 
that you choose to understand that, while 
the animal lived and was experimented on, 
he was throughout insensible, it is the 
greatest delusion that ever was." Mr. Geo. 
MacDwain, F.R:C.S., is probably the most 
emphatic of all the professional witnc sses. 
He impressed it on the miuds of the 
Commissioners that he separated entirely 
all feeling from the question of vivisection ; 
he would not enter into the cruelty of the 
subject; but having made vivisect ions 
himself, he declared that vivisection v?fs a 
" demonstrable fallacy," and would not even 
admit that up to the present time it is 
"matter of opinion." It is tolerably plain, 
however, that the results which havo 
accrued to the benefit of mankind front the 

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March 17, 1876. 



study of physiology, by means of vivi- 
sections, are still matters of opinion; for 
although there is a strong body of pro- 
fessional witnesses who declare that they 
have been of benefit, there is an equally 
strong body who declare the results have 
not been commensurate with the experi- 
ments. But we must leave the further 
examination of the evidence to another 
article. 



PRACTICAL HINTS TO AMATEUR 
ORGAN-BUILDERS. 

IN specifying the contents of a chamber- 
organ there are two important conditions 
to be borne in view. The first is that the stops 
selected shall be capable of producing a good 
"full-organ" tone, and several satisfactory com- 
bination effects ; and the second is that the 
selected stops shall comprise two or more solo 
ones, while the others furnish appropriate accom- 
paniments to them. In instruments of fifteen 
or twenty speaking stops this problem is easy 
enough to any one of ordinary musical know- 
ledge, but in smaller instruments the task is 
not so simple, and increases in difficulty in pro- 
portion as the stops decrease in number, until 
the point is reached where the instrument 
ceases to be useful or beautiful. 

The first specification for consideration is for 
an organ of 10 stops, the smallest number I 
should ever recommend to be used. The in- 
strument to have two complete manuals, from 
O C to a 3 in alt., 58 notes, and pedals, from 
C C C to P, 30 notes. All the manual stops, 
with the exception of the open diapason, to be 
inclosed in a " general swell." Such being the 
case, the term Swell Organ is not applied to 
either manual, the lower being called the Great 
and the upper the Choir. 

GREAT ORGAN. 

1. Open diapason, metal, throughout, 8ft. 

2. Lieblich (redact, woed, throughout, 8ft. tone. 

3. Flute, wood, throughout, 4ft. 

4. Gemshorn fifteenth, metal, throughout, 2ft. 

5. Oboe, metal, tenor C, 8ft. 

CHOIR ORGAN. 

6. Pierced gamba, metal, tenor C, 8ft. 

7. Dulciana, metal, tenor C, 8ft. 

8. Stopped-bau, CC to B, to draw with either of 
the above stops, wood, one octave, 8ft. tone. 

8. Lieblich flute, wood, throughout. 4ft. tone. 
•10. Clarionet, metal, throughout, 8ft. 

PEDAL ORGAN. 

11. Lieblich gedact, 16ft. tone. 

ACCESSORY STOPS, Ac. 

1. Manual unison coupler. 

2. Great to pedal coupler. 

3. Choir to pedal coupler. 

4. Full organ lever. 

5. Soft combination lever. 

6. Crescendo pedal. 

Now let us review the above specification for 
the purpose of realising what could be done 
with an instrument constructed in accordance 
with it. 

Firstly, with regard to full-organ tone. 
Draw the open diapason, lieblich gedact, flute, 
oboe, and fifteenth on the great manual, and 
couple the choir manual ; draw stopped-basB, 
gamba, dulciana, and lieblich flute on the 
choir ; draw the pedal stop and great to pedal 
coupler. The result will be a rich and well, 
balanced full effect, which can be modified at 
will by the crescendo-pedal. Fix the crescendo- 
pedal down, and the whole produces a true 
great organ when played from the great 
manual ; a bright choir organ when the hands 
are placed on the upper keyboard and the 
pedal coupler released. The great organ effect 
can at once be altered to a good swey by simply 
pushing in' the open diapason, releasing the 
crescendo-pedal, and playing on the lower 
manual. The organ, under these conditions, 
will consist of lieblich gedact, 8ft. ; gamba, 
8ft. ; dulciana, 8ft. ; oboe, 8ft. ; flute. 4ft. ; 
lieblich flute, 4ft. ; fifteenth, 2ft. ; all of which 
are inclosed in the swell-box, and under the 
control of the crescendo-pedal. When play- 
ing full swell as above, the pedals should be 
coupled to the upper or choir-organ keys. 

Of soft combinations there are several varie- 
ties, all of which can be produced with coupled 
manuals, for instance : — 



• The clarionet mar bo omitted, or only carried down 
to tenor E. 



1. Lieblich gedact, 8ft. ; gamba, 8ft. ; atopped- 
bass, dulciana, 8ft. ; and flute, 4ft. 

2. Lieblich gedact, dulciana, lieblich flute, 
and fifteenth. 

3. Lieblich gedact, oboe, stopped -bass, dul- 
ciana, and flute. 

4. Lieblich gedact, oboe, lieblich flute, and 
fifteenth. 

5. Lieblich gedact, gamba, and lieblich flute. 

6. Stopped-bass, dulciana, oboe, and flute. 

I havo not included the clarionet in any of 
my combinations ; but of course it would enter 
into several with striking effect. It is, how- 
ever, more suitable for solo playing than for 
combination effects. It is a characteristic com- 
bination stop for music of a pastoral descrip- 
tion, and imparts an orchestral colouring to 
certain full-toned combinations. 

And now for a few words relative to the solo 
and accompanimental capacities of the above 
specification. On the great keys there are three 
good solo stops — namely, the lieblich gedact, 
which is a soft-toned unison flute, with a pecu- 
liarly hollow quality, produced by the stopping 
and the high mouth voicing ; the oboe, which is 
one of the most satisfactory solo reed stops for a 
chamber instrument, and the flute, which imi- 
tates the orchestral instrument of the same 
name. The accompaniments for the great 
solos must of course be played on the choir 
keys ; and three stops are there provided, the 
gamba, dulciana, and lieblich flute, which may, 
be used in their different combinations accord- 
ing to the strength and quality desired. The 
pedal stop may either be played in staccato 
notes, imitating the bowing of the orchestral 



TEMPERING AND STRAIGHTENING 
SAWS. 

AN improved process and apparatus for tern- 
peri ng and straightening saws and other 
articles of steel, or of steel and iron, has been 
recently patented in this country by Mr. G. F. 
Simonds, of Boston, Mass. The invention con- 
sists, as indicated by the title, in a process and 
apparatus for tempering and bringing to their 
ultimate form saws, and other articles of 
steel, or steel and iron combined, without 
hammering. 

In the drawing, which is a vertical cross 
section of the said apparatus, A A represent 
the walls of an oven ; B, the roof ; C, the fire- 
box; and D, the tempering and forming 
chamber. Above the fire-box is placed the fire- 
proof tile, a, to distribute the heat in its passage 
to the tempering and forming chamber. This 
chamber is made air-tight, and of any suitable 
material, but preferably of boiler iron, with 
hot-air chambers on each side and above it. 
The door which closes the tempering chamber 
is lined with asbestos, or other non-conducting 
material, to prevent the escape of heat by 
radiation, but this is not essential to the suc- 
cessful working of the process. 

The formers, c c, are suspended in the tem- 
pering chamber by means of the revolving 
shafts, 6 6', provided with necessary bearings 
in the framework. The outer ends of these 
shafts are provided with screws by which they 
can be moved longitudinally, and the formers 
can be closed or opened within the tempering 
chamber. By means of the wheel, F, the 




double-bass ; or the pedals may be simply 
coupled with the choir keys without the 16ft. 
lieblich gedact being drawn. 8uch matters as 
these of course must be left entirely to the 
taste of the performer, and the requirements 
of the music to be performed : I only allude to 
them here for the purpose of showing the flexi- 
bility of the organ as specified. 

On the choir keys there are also three good 
solo stops — the gamba, more or less imitative of 
the violin; the clarionet, imitative of the 
orchestral instrument, and in its lower octave 
or so, of the bassoon ; and the lieblich flute, a 
soft toned 4ft. flute of pleasing quality- The 
gamba and clarionet may be appropriately ac- 
companied on the lieblich gedact of the great ; 
and the lieblich flute may either be accom- 
panied with its own bass or the bass of the 
flute on the great. 

At this point I may pause, having in the 
above hasty notes indicated the considerations 
upon which a specification should be based. 
The two desirable conditions are by no means 
allied ; an instrument designed to produce loud 
combinations and full effects would of neces- 
sity be very limited in solo effects ; and one, on 
the other hand, arranged for the production of 
many solo and orchestral effects would cer- 
tainly prove imperfect in combination tone. 
Such being the case my readers and amateur 
organ-builders in general will always find it 
difficult to arrange a specification for instru- 
ments with less than ten speaking stops. In 
larger specifications the problem becomes 
much less complex, as will be shown later on. 

G. A. Audaley. 



shaft, b, may be readily revolved, and when 
the formers are brought in contact or closed on 
an article to be tempered, it is evident that the 
shaft, 6', will also be caused to revolve with 
the shaft, b, and the two formers may be 
revolved within the chamber, D. This revo- 
lution of the formers may become desirable in 
order to secure more certainly a uniform tem- 
perature. The great purpose of this construc- 
tion is to place the article to be tempered and 
formed entirely out of the reach of any 
draught, and thus secure an evenness of heat 
essential to success. The heat in the hot-air 
chambers may be readily regulated or directed 
from one portion of the chamber, D, to 
another, by means of small vents through the 
top of the furnace. 

When the saw or article to be tempered and 
brought to its ultimate form had been properly 
hardened, it is placed between the formers, 
c c, the door is closed, and the article is secured 
in position by the gradual movement of the 
screws until the pressure is sufficient to bring 
the piece to the desired form, where it is held 
subjected to the perfectly uniform and desired 
amount of heat until the article takes a per- 
manent set to the required form, when it can 
be removed to make place for another. 

The formers, c c, are of a novel construc- 
tion. The face instead of being a smooth 
flat surface, is grooved in such a manner as to 
divide it ap into numerous small surfaces 
resembling somewhat the face of a waffle iron- 
Behind this face is a series of radial ribs to 
strengthen and support the same. 

The inventor finds it desirable to make the 

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March 17, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE: No. 578. 



5 



formers double, by interposing between the 
tace plate and the backing an open space so as 
to admit the heat freely over the rear of the 
face plate, which being of uniform thickness 
is thus more certainly heated to a uniform 
temperature. 

It is evident from the description given that 
by using a long horizontal tempering and 
forming chamber, band saws of any length or 
size may be successfully made. Instead of 
employing the formers used for pressing the 
ordinary circular saws, band saws may be 
stretched while being subjected to the heat in 
the tempering and forming chamber with 
perfect success. 

The leading object of this invention is the 
production of a perfect saw without the neces- 
sity of hammering, and in order to readily 
straighten the saws and leave them sufficiently 
hard, it is necessary to use a more highly 
carbonised steel than is or can be successfully 
worked by the present mode of straightening 
by hammering, by which means in connection 
with the improved oven and devices, the in- 
ventor claims that he not only secures the 
desired object, but produces articles much 
superior to those made by the old method. 
The saws or other articles tempered and 
formed by this improved process, being free 
from "buckle" or uneven strain, if slightly 
out of position, can readily be brought back 
by any ordinary method of straightening, pro- 
vided care be taken not to buckle the steel in 
so doing. 

The formers may be arranged within the 
air-tight chamber otherwise than vertically, 
without departing from the spirit of the in- 
vention, the essential feature of which is the 
means for securing a perfectly uniform tem- 
perature in the formers and tempering 
chamber. 



PRACTICAL MECHANISM.*— XLI. 

Lining out Connecting Bods. 

CONNECTING rods, bo large in sum as to be 
cumbrous to handle, are generally made by 
forging the ends to which the strap is attached by 
themselves, and afterwards welding them to the 
body of the rod: the advantage being that the 
machine work done to the rod ends oan, in that case, 
be done in small machines and at a higher rate of 
catting speed than would be possible if, the rod 
being solid, its whole body had to be chucked in 
order to operate on the ends only. If any finishing 
is required to the body of the rod, it is in such case 
done after the rod ends are welded to it and made 
true to the already finished block end of the rod. 
If, however, the rod is forged solid, the whole of the 
marking off should be gaged to suit the body of the 
rod. For instance : If the stem of the rod is round, 
the marking off of the ends should be performed 
from a centre marked off true with the round ttem 
and on the end face of the rod. Tha first operation 
should in this case be, after marking off the said 
centre, to pnt the rod in the lathe and face off the 
block end faces thus giving as a face, at each end of 
the rod, true with the stem of the rod, and therefore 
useful not only to receive tho marking off lines but 
also as a face whereby to true the other faces on the 
block or stub end. If the ends are forged separately 
from the body of the rod, it is better to face off one 
of tho side faces, and to mark off on that side face. 
To mark off a rod end that is forged solid with the 
stem of the rod, we proceed as shown in Fig. 200, 
A representing the centre, true with the body of the 
rod ; B B shows the diameter of the rod end struck 
with the compasses from the centre, A, and C C, 
the thickness of the rod struck in like manner. If 
there should not be sufficient metal on the block end 
to permit the marking off to be performed from the 
centre, A, when true with the body of the rod, that 
centre must be moved sufficiently to allow the rod 
end to be cleaned up ; this is, however, to be avoided 
if possible, for tho following reasons : If the body of 
the rod runs mnch out of true, the turning of it in 
the lathe will be a slow process, because snch rods 
are liable, from their length, to spring in con- 
aeqneuce of the pressure of the cut. Hence it is not 
practicable to take heavy cats along it ; and if in 
consequence of the body of the rod running much 
oat of true, it cannot be cleaned up at one out, the 
tool will scrape, dnring the first cut, against the 
scale, necessitating that the catting speed of the tool 
be mnch less than it otherwise need be. 

After the segment of circles, B B and C C, in Fig. 
220, are struck, which may be done before setting 
the rod on the marking off table, the rod should be 
set on the marking off table with one of the broad 
faces downwards, and with the scribing block needle- 
point level with the mark, C, on the upper face ; 
and the rod should be tried along that face to 



• By Mr. Joshua Rose in the Scientific American. 



ascertain if there is sufficient metal to clean it up all 
across. The scribing block should then be carried 
to the other end of the rod, and tried with the upper 
mark, C ; and that being found correct, the scriber 
point should be set to the lower mark, C, at each 
end of the rod ; and thus the two lines across the rod 
end, representing the thickness thereof, may be 
drawn by the scribing block at each end of the rod. 
The lines representing the breadth of the block end 
of the rod may then be drawn by simply placing a 
square on the snrface table, with the edge of the 
square placed in each case level with the extreme 
diameter of the segments of ciroles, B B, Fig. 220. 
No other lines in this case will be required, because 
the rod ends, having been turned in the lathe, give 
the machinist two true faces whereby to set the rod 
at eaoh chucking. If the rod ends are not welded to 
the rod, the better plan U to have one of tho broad 
surfaces on each rod end surfaced up in a planing 
machine, and to then perform the marking out on 
the surfaced faces. The marking out should be 
made about true with the stem of the rod, as shown 
in Fig. 221. The surfaced face is to be set, by a 
square, to a right angle to the marking off table 
face ; and the centre line, A A, of the stem is found 
from the body of the stem, and carried from end to 
end of the forging as a guide to set the work by, the 
lines, B B or C C, being too short to serve the 
purpose. These latter lines are struck equidistant 
from A A. The line, D, should be struck with a 
square resting on the marking table, and any 
surplus metal should be taken off the end face 
rather than out of the corner where the butt joins 
the Btem ; because it is easier to take the metal off 
the end than ont of the shoulder. The round 
corners need not be marked, it being preferable to 
make a gauge to shape them to. The edges thus 
marked being shaped off, the thickness of the butt 
end may be marked off by a scribing block, the 



Jig 220 



"Fig 221 




J 



~P — srr 



l fc jI 



Tig 221. 





planed surface of the butt end lying flat on the 
marking table. The strap should first have one face 
surfaced, and then a centre face should be placed 
between the jaws, being made just sufficiently tight 
to be held, and not so tightly as to sensibly Bpnng 
the jaws open ; otherwise, while the thickness of the 
jaws would be marked off correctly, the width 
between them and their outside diameter would be 
too small when finished. The strap should then be 
placed on the marking table, and marked as shown 
in Fig. 222, tho lines, A A, B B, and C C, being 
marked off to the required widths apart and 
equidistant from the centre line, marked across the 
centrepiece and across the crown of the strap, at 
D E. The centre of the centrepiece having been 
obtained from the inside of the jaws, and carried 
across, at D E, after tho strap is set upou the table 
with the inside faces of the jaws parallel with the 
face of the table, the width between the lines A A, 
should be marked less than is the width of the block 
end on which they fit, for the following reasons : 
A connecting rod strap will, by reason of its shape, 
spring open between its jaws very easily indeed; 
and were the width between the jaws made the same 
as that of tho block end of the rod, the strap would 
fit .very loosely to its place. It i9 therefore 
necessary to make allowance for this in the width 
between the jaws of the strap, making them 
narrower than the blo?k end of the rod. The amount 
of this allowance depends upon the size and stout- 
ness of the strap, an ordinary proportion being about 
one sixteenth of an inch to a strap five inches wide 
between the jaws. This amount of allowance will 
enable the strap to spring over the rod end, and be 
a good fit, that is to say, not so tight but that it oan 
be easily pulled off by the hand, and not so loose as 
to fall off of its own weight if unsupported. Then, 
again, any ordinary amonnt of metal removed in 
fitting the strap to the rod end will not seriously 



affect their fit together. Now it is obvious that, if 
the rod end faces on which the jaws of the strap fit 
are made parallel to each other, the strap, in being 
sprung on, would spring open so that its jaws would 
only touch the block at its entrance end, the end of 
the jaws standing open from the block end. To 
obviate this, the block end faces, B B, in Fig. 221, 
are made slightly toper, that is to say, about one- 
thirty-second of an inoh or rather less in a length 
of six inches, the diameter of the end being the 
smaller. It is not necessary to mark so small an 
amonnt of taper in the marking, it being sufficient to 
run the centrepunch dots a little inside tho line at 
the end of the block on each side. The lines A A, in 
Fig. 222, representing the inside jaw faces should 
also be a little taper, first to allow of fitting the strap 
to the block end, and next to maketbe fitting of tho 
brasses into the strap an easier operation. It is 
obvious that, if the inside jaw faces of the strap are 
parallel with eaoh other, so soon as the brass is 
reduced to the size of the top of the strap, it will 
slide clear down to its bed ; whereas, if those faces 
are made a little wider apart at the open end than 
at the crown end, the brasses, after entering at the 
open end, will have metal sufficient to be taken off 
them before being let down to the crown to permit 
of their being fitted nicely to the strap. For these 
reasons, the faces of the strap, A A, in Fig. 222, 
are made wider apart, in the proportion of nearly 
one-sixteenth of an inch of taper to a strap having a 
jaw 12 in. long. The line, D, in Fig. 222, repre- 
senting the amonnt of metal to be cut out of the 
crown of the strap, should only need that sufficient 
metal come off to allow that face to just true np : 
because it ia an awkward face to operate on, and it 
is much easier to take any surplus metal off the 
outside crown of the strap, as represented by the 
line, E, in Fig. 222. The lines, F F and Q G, are 
marked at the requisite distance from the crown, D, 
of the strap, with a square resting on the fare of the 
marking table. The round corners and curves are 
marked off with the compasses, using the blocks of 
wood shown in our lesson on marking off a double 
eye, previously given. The finishing, however, ef 
such corners, both in the machine and in the vice, 
is usually done to a small sheet iron gauge. Such 
corners can, it is true, be cut on a slotting machine 
table to a correct curve without the use of a gauge ; 
and there are many shaping machines with special 
attachments for the same purpose. Slotting machine 
work is, however, comparatively a very slow process ; 
and in most cases it is fonnd, in the end, more 
expeditious to shape out small corners with the cross 
and the up-and-down feed of the machine than to 
bother with such attachments. 



VIVISECTION EXPERIMENTS- 

THE excellency of this method lies in the fact 
that the animal can be kept under observations, 
without the use of any narcottsing drug, for a long 
time in a i>erfectly natural condition. The frog is 
used both in the larval and adult state. To observe 
the circulation in the tail of the tadpole, the animal 
is placed in a moderately strong solution of curare, 
care being taken to remove it before it is completely 
paralysed— the moment, in short, that its motions 
become sluggish. It is also possible to secure it, 
without the aid of curare, in a holder of construction 
similar to that of the instrument I hare just 
desoribed— a method which has this great advantage, 
that the animal is in a more normal condition ; for 
even when curare is given with the greatest care, 
the action of the heart is weakened by it.— The 
"Handbook," p. 229. 

Recurrent Sensibility. — This is never witnessed 
in the frog. It can only be shown in the higher 
animals, tbe cat or dog being best adapted for the 
purpose. The method adopted is very similar to the 
above, the arches of one or two vertebra: being 
carefully sawn through or cut through with tho 
bone forceps, and the exposed roots being very care- 
fully freed from the connective tissue surrounding 
them. If the animal be strong and have thoroughly 
recovered from the chloroform and from the opera- 
tion, irritation of the peripheral stump of tho 
anterior root causes not only contractions in the 
muscles supplied by the nerve, but also movements 
in other parts of the body indicative of pain or 
sensation. On dividing the mixed trunk at some 
little distance from the junction of the root", the 
contractions of the muscles supplied by the nerve 
cease, but the general signs of pain or of sensation 
still remain.— The " Handbook/' p. 403. 

Irritation of tbe roots of the pneumogastric, in 
Bernard's famous experiment of puncture of the 
fourth ventricle, has the same effect as similation of 
its trunk. This experiment is performed bv push- 
ing an instrument like a bradawl through the skull 
and cerebellum till it reaches the olivary fasciculi in 
tho medulla oblowrata.— De. Beunton, British 
Medical Journal, No. 680, pp. 40 and 41. 

For the experiments »ion-narcoti?ed dogs were for 
the most part employed, the surface of the brain 
beinj? stimulated by weak induced currents. In 
general, tbe facts already known were confirmed. 
After stimulation with quite weak currents, after 



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movements, dependent on the stimulated oentre, 
were manifested by the muscles, which movement* 
often passed into general convulsions, but could 
only be produced from the points which were to be 
regarded as so-called centra.— Journal of Anatomy 
and Physiology, Feb. 1875, p. 210. 

On October 25th he divided the right hypoglossal 
nerve in a rabbit, and took out a piece about a 
quarter of an inch is length. Immediately after the 
operation, and during the whole time that the animal 
was under observation, the tonene was strongly 
protruded to the right side. On November the 27tb 
the rabbit wag killed.— Mb. Clarke, " Doctor," 
Jan. Let, 1872, p. 24. 

Professor Bennett read a " Be port on the Action 
of Mercury on the Secretion of Bile," in which he 
reiterated the statements made at the meeting of 
the British Medical Association at Oxford— vis., that 
in whatever doses mercury may be administered it 
fails to influence the secretion of the bile ; in fact it 
diminishes it. An animated discussion followed, in 
which Dr. Crisp called in question the accuracy of 
the committee's facts, because the dog was not at 
all like man in the general formation of his alimen- 
tary canal. In their wild state dogs are carnivorous, 
in domestication they become omnivorous. He agreed 
with Mr. Flower that the pig would be a better 
animal for experiment tban the dog. He thought we 
were bound to analyse with great care the nature of 
these experiments, and should not hurriedly abandon 
our long entertained views regarding mercury. 
Professor Gross, of Philadelphia, said that whilst 
acknowledging the accuracy of the facts, he was 
yet not disposed to ignore the nction of mercury. 
An experiment on a dog was one thing, but a care- 
ful observation on the human frame, performed at 
the bedside, was another and wholly different one. — 
Lancet, No. 2,348 p. 292. 

Experiments on animals, already extensive and 
numerons, cannot be said to have advanced 
therapeutics much. I have seen Dr. Bichardson 
give a pigeon enough opium to kill a strong man, 
and yet the bird was in no way affected ; and I have 
heard of goats feeding on shag tobacco and rabbits 
on belladonna leaves without taking any harm ; yet 
from these experiments to infer that belladonna and 
tobacco were innocuous to man would be a grave 
error. Probably calomel given to a healthy dog 
might cause a temporary irritation and congestive 
obstruction of the animal's biliary apparatus, thus 
showing that calomel has an action over the liver ; 
but I cannot see my way clear to infer the action of 
mercury on a sick man from what we see of its 
action on a healthy dog.— Dr. Thobowqood, 
Medical Times and Qaxette, October 5, 1872. 



All ARGUMENT FOB VEGE- 
TARIANISM- 

IN a paper recently read by Mr. G. Fleming 
Veterinary Surgeon, Royal tCngiu eer, before th ; 
Society of Arts, the following passage occurs s — 
There cannot be the least hesitation in assorting 
that a regular traffic iu diseased animals is carried 
out on a largo scale in town and country ; and if 
the flesh from them is not absolutely hurtful it is 
at the very least less nutritious than tnat of healthy, 
properly-conditioned animals. But there is every 
reason to fear that much of this flesh must be 
credited with increasing the bills of mortality to an 
extent that we cannot at present imagine. It is 
only now and again, and by mere chance, as it were, 
that instances of the traffic we hare mentioned are 
lighted upon ; and that we hear of the poisonous 
flesh of animals which have died or been killed in 
consequence of a fatal malady, being seized by an 
nspector. It is still more rare to hear of poor people 
actually suffering from consuming this kind of flesh. 
Yet, comparatively speaking, very few cattle, sheep, 
or pigs, which dio from, or are slanghterod for 
disease, find their way to the knacker, or are buried. 
It is, we fear, not at all unusual to kill and dispose 
of the flesh of these creatures after they have been 
medically treated, and made to swallow drugs 
which will act as poisons on those persons who are 
so unfortunate as to consume this flesh ; and when 
the -animals are suddenly seized with a fatal malady, 
t is the custom to call in the butcher to kill them, 
and dress their carcases for the market. 

The flesh of the ox, sheep, pig, and goat maybe 
injurious, nay, absolutely poisonous, from disease j 
or it may bo most pernicious from the presence of 
parasites, which will infest the bodies of the people 
who consume it. Recent researches have shown, in 
the clearest manner, that scrofula or tuberculosis — 
a contagions disease — is very common in cattle, and 
especially in dairy cows— and that not only will the 
flesh of these produce consumption in other animals 
fed upon it — and particularly young animals — but 
that their milk also will infect. We dare not 
experiment upon human beings, to ascertain whether 
such a terrible result is possible with them, but 
judging from analogy, we cannot venture to doubt 
it. The flesh and the milk of scrofulous cattle outer 
regularly into the diet of probably thousands of 
people every year. That contamination may take 
place from the milk is, perhaps, the most serious 



reflection, as this is rarely boiled ; for it has been 
proved that a high temperature will destroy the 
infective property, and hence the flesh, if thoroughly 
cooked, may be rendered inert. 

When we remember that milk is the staple diet 
of young children, and that infantile diarrhcea and 
glandular affections of a scrofulous nature annually 
carry off large numbers, while phthisis in young 
people and adults is a widespread aud fatal malady, 
we are brought face to face with the serious question 
as to the share the flesh aud milk of diseased cattle 
may have in the production of this mortality. Not 
only this, but some other diseases or local conditions 
infect the milk, so much used as an article of diet. 
Evidence in abundance goes to prove that in " foot- 
and-mouth" disease the milk is positively iujurious ; 
it will kill young animals, and it affects children, 
and even adults, who partake of it. 



A SIMPLE BLOWPIPE APPARATUS. 

/~\NE of the Berlin technical journals illus- 
tratea the annexed form of blowpipe, 
which, as drawn, or with any of the modifica- 
tion which readily suggest themselves, will be 
found handy by those requiring a continuous 
blast for a short time. It will be seen that 
th6 apparatus can be arranged in all sorts of 
places, and is easily constructed out of the 
fittings of an ordinary laboratory. A couple 
of gallon bottles are connected, as shown, by 
means of a rubber tube, and fitted with per. 
forated rubber "corks" or stoppers. One of 
these bottles is filled with water and placed on 
a shelf or other elevation above the working 




table ; to the other is attached the blowpipe, 
on shown, by means of the bent tube fitting 
the perforated stopper. The blowpipe is 
mounted on a stand by means of a universal 
joint, so that by means of a moveable Bunsen 
burner the flame can be applied in any desired 
direction. Two bottles of the size mentioned 
will, properly fitted, give a constant current of 
air 016 in diameter for a period of 10 minutes, 
at the end of which time it will be obeerved it 
is merely necessary to reverse the positions of 
fche bottles, and shift the bent t-.iba, to obtain 
a further supply of blast for another period of 
10 minutes. If the upper bottle is placed 
about a yard above the lower one, a reducing 
flame as much as 3Jin. in length may be ob- 
tained, with an oxidising flame of 2 t in. to 3in. 
It is obviouB that by means of a tap or a pinch- 
cock the flow of water, and consequently the 
current of air, may be regulated to suit the 
purposes of the operator. 



The Phylloxera Prizes.— The Phylloxera Com- 
mission at Paris baa reported thnt none of the 
specifics submitted to them are entitled to the priz? 
of 300.000f. voted by the Assembly. They state that 
by applying insecticides to thp stock and roots be- 
tween the 1st of February and the 1st of April the 
vines may be protected from the disease, and they 
recommend the formatiou of committees iu each 
Department to furnish advice aud assistance to the 
vine growers. The Minister of Agriculture has 
accordingly addressed a circular to the Prefects 
directing them to confer with the agricultural 
societies in order to carry out this recommendation. 



Scientific societies. 



ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 

THE first meeting of the new session was held at 
tho Society's Rooms, Burlington House, on 
Friday, March the 10th, at 8 o'clock ; Mr. Huggins, 
president, in the chair. 

Since their last meeting the Society has received 
a valuable present of some 200 books, which have 
been selected from the library of the late Mr. 
Sheepshanks, who was for many years one of its 
secretaries. The Society has also reoeived a valu- 
able present in the sun-spot manuscripts of the lnte 
Mr. Carrington, which have been presented to it by 
Lord Lindsay. These manuscripts consist of five 
volumes of pictures of the sun, on a scale of 12in. 
to the solar disc, and of several volumes of observa- 
tions of the positions of the spots, and of the reduc- 
tions of these observations, which were made by 
Mr. Carrington in determining the heliographic 
latitude and longitude of the spots. This collection 
is particularly interesting, as it forms the data 
from which the most accurate determination of the 
position of the sun's axis and the time of rotation 
of the photosphere at various distanoes from the 
sun's equator have been determined. The Society'a 
library is now very rich in sun-spot manuscripts. 
It contains thoseof Pastorff , Chevalier, Lawson, Shea, 
besides several other minor collections of less note. 

Two papers by the Astronomer Royal were read — 
one on the observations of the November meteora 
made at Gicenwich, and the other on micrometrical 
measures of the positions of the satellites of Saturn 
in 1875. The Astronomer Roja' said, with regard to 
the latter paper, he was anxious to impress on the 
Fellows of the Society the importance of preparinR 
ophemerides of events before they ocenrred. If any 
one wished to hare astronomical observation* made 
of any particular event, the beet step he could take 
would be to predict beforehand, as far as possible, 
whatever could he predicted with respect to the 
phenomena, and if such predictions were published 
the phenomena would bo sure to be observed, and 
the discrepancies between the predictions and tho 
actual occurrences would be carefully noted. 

Dr. BoyBton Piggott read a note on a star illu- 
minated transit eyepiece. In the focus is placed a 
sheet of glass on which a thin film of silver is 
deposited ; instead of wires, fine lines are carefully 
drawn by a machine on the silvered surface. 
As the star passes across these lines it is seen to 
flash out brightly ; in the interval lietween these 
lines the silver is not deposited thick enough 
entirely to blot out a fairly-sized star from view. 

Mr. Duukin said that tho instrument only ap- 
peared to be suitable for taking transits of largo 
stars, such as would be visible through the film. In 
the ordinary form of instrument with the illumi- 
nated wires difficulties as to illumination only 
occurred with small stars, and there seemed to be 
no advantage with this instrument in observing fch# 
larger stars. 

Captain Noble said that there would be a serious 
practical disadvantage in observing with one of 
theso instruments. With the ordinary illuminated 
wires, in dividing or estimating parts of seconds, 
the observer was aide to note the place of a star 
with respect to the wire by means of his eye as 
well as his ear. At the lustant of the last tick 
before the star came up to the wire the observer 
noted with his eye its distance from the wire, and 
again he was able to note the position of the star at 
the first tick after the transit, and, by comparing 
these distances, the observer was able to estimate 
with considerable exactness the fractions of a second 
at which the transit of tho wire took place. He 
also thought that the element of surprise in wait- 
ing for a little flash, rather than in observing a 
disappearance, wonld greatly affect the personal 
equation of tho observer. 

Dr. Piggott said that particular care was taken 
to keep the film of such a thickness and trans- 
parency that the star could be seen during the 
whole of its passage. 

Mr. Ranyard asked whether tho lines were visible 
when the star was not upon them , for if they were 
not, the eye method of estimating the fraction cf a 
second could not be made use of. 

Dr. Piggott said that with large stars the lines 
were visible before the Mar came up to them, but 
with smaller ones it was not so. 

Mr. Bidder suggested that, in dealing with stars 
of various magnitudes, films of different degrees of 
thickness would be required. Gold could be de- 
posited so thin that very faint objects can be easily 
seeu through it, tinged with a green tint, and pos- 
sibly this might he useful for stars of the sixth and 
seventh magnitudes. 

Tho Astronomer Royal said that, in looking 
through the little instrument which was upon the 
tuble, he had been struck with the fharpness of the 
lines. Dr. Piggott had mentioned that the ordinary 
lines drawn upon gln«3 were ploughed in, and had 
rough edges, owing to their irregular fracture : 
bnt this was not necessarily the case ; the way to 
draw lines upon gloss for optical purposes was to 



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Maech 17, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE: No. 578. 



7 



etch them in. By etching the most delicate lines 
could he obtained upon glass with perfeotly clean 
edge**, hut such Mnes acted as little lenses, and for 
Dr. Piggott's purpose, no doubt, it would be better 
merely to rem ore the film of metal from the surface 
of the glass. 

Captain Abney read a paper on photographing 
the least refracted end of the solar spectrum. He 
said tbat within the last two years there had been 
many attempts made to photograph the ultra red 
rays. Dr. Vogel, in 1874, and more recently 
Captain Waterhonse, of the Bengal Staff Corps, 
had made use of aniline dyes in the collodion. They 
stated tbat with a red dye the collodion was found 
to fee moat sens Hi re at the red end of the spectrum, 
aud similarly with a blue or violet dye the collodion 
became more sensitive to the short wave-lengths. 
Captain Abney had carefully repeated the experi- 
ments of Dr. Voijel and Captain Waterhouse, but 
bad obtained only partial success. On consider- 
ing tbechemh'tryof tho question, he had undertaken 
experiments with various gum resins, and bad found 
that with one of his preparations he oould obtain an 
image far below the A hue. He had not brought 
the plates to the meeting simply because he had not 
been able to bring the hnes in the ultra red spectrum 
into focus, and he therefore could not at present 
speak of the distance below A to which the com- 
pound was sensitive. He had been able to make 
bet few experiments during the past winter, owing 
to the bad weather, which only permitted him to see 
the sun at intervals. 

The President commented upon the extreme im- 
portance of being able to photograph the ultra red 
rays. He said that it had long become evident in 
spectrum analysis that the position of a line could be 
much more satisfactorily obtained from measuring 
a photograph than by measuring the line itself. He 
asked Captain Abney if he had made any experiments 
to determine whether the process was sufficiently 
sensitive to photograph the bright lines of elements 
between A and B, obtained with a voltaic arc. 

Captain Abney said that be had net made amy 
each experiments, bat that the process was very 
sensitive. You could obtain a photograph of the 
solar spectrum down to A, in ten minutes. 

Mr. Nelson asked Captain Abney to mention what 
was the particular compound of gum resin that he 
had used. 

Captain Abney said that be preferred to make 
further experiments in improving the process, and 
then he would lay them before the meeting. He hod 
only brought this forward as a preliminary paper, 
to show that he was at work upon the subject. 

Mr. Dnnkin read two papers, one by Prof. 
Smjth, of Edinburgh, and the other by Mr. Stone, 
on the proper motion of the small star, B.A.C. 793. 
He said that he had himself also looked up the ob- 
servations with regard to this star at the Greenwich 
Observatory, and he had come to the conclusion, 
when all the evidence was before him, that there 
was not sufficient evidence to warrant the assump- 
tion that the proper motion of the star was rapidly 
changing— in fact, tbat the Greenwich observations, 
as well as those at the Cape, showed that the proper 
motion of this star had not changed during the 
present century. 
_ The Astronomer Royal thought that the conclu- 
sion which Mr. Dnnkin had arrived at was very 
important, and one which be felt relieved to hear, 
for if the result had been different we should have 
only had two alternatives before us : either we must 
have rejected the early observations, or we must 
have believed in the remarkable changes in the 
proper motion which had been spoken of in connec- 
tion with this star. These implied the existence of 
forces in the nni verse of such enormous magnitude, 
that we had nothing else to compare with them, and 
the assumption of the existence of such forces was 
to his mind a very nnpleasant assumption in connec- 
tion with the duration of tho universe. He was glad 
that Mr. Dnnkin had helped us out of such a 
" mare's-nest." 

Captain Noble said that he wished to bring before 
the attention of the Society a book which he had 
received from M. Nortnaud " On the Occultation of 
Stars by the Planets." M. Normand had, in a 
communication to the French Academy, proposed 
that the occultations of stars by Mars at its next 
opposition should be made use of for determining 
the solar parallax. No doubt, if suoh a method was 
feasible— that is to say, if the oeoultation of a 
minute star at the limb of a planet was observable 
with the precision with which an occnltation oould 
be observed at the dark limb of the moon — it would 
afford a very excellent method of determining the 
son's distance. M. Normand had written to him 
requesting to know with what degree of precision 
such an observation could be made, and he had been 
obliged to respond that he never had had an oppor- 
tunity of making such an observation. It required 
very large instrumental means for such a purpose, 
and he hoped that, before the next opposition of 
Mors, the owners of some of the largo telescopes 
would give their attention to the subject, and see 
with what degree of precision such an observation 
could be made. He doubted, however, whether it 
was possible to make such an observation with any 



great precision, owing to the brightness of the 
planet, and the extreme faintness of the minute 
stars which we might expect to find occulted. 
The meeting adjourned at ten o'clock. 



LIKNEAH SOCIETY. 

De Bary's Beport on the Potato Fungus. 

AT the meeting of this society, on March 2, Mr. 
Carruthers, exhibited the preparations sent 
over by Prof. De Bary, and gave a resume 1 of the 
opinions arrived at by the distinguished botanist 
from his recent studies of Peronospora, The 
parasitic fungi, Peronosporem, De Bary now pro- 
poses to divide Into three genera. In Cystopos the 
conidionhores grow in large bunches, the cocidia, 
or bud-cells, being developed in single rows in 
basipetal order. In Peronospora, from a tree- like 
mycelium oondiopheres arise singly or in small 
bunches at the end of the branches, and have no 
successors in the direct line. Phytophthora, to 
which the potato fungus is referred, differs from 
the last in its multiple aud successive conidia, which, 
when shed, leave swellings on the branches. The 
ripe conidia in all, when placed in water, produce 
zoospores or nuceleato movable cells provided with 
cilia. These penetrate the plants, and, ceasing to 
move, develop, threads or mycelium. By another 
sexual method of propagation the oogonia, bladder- 
shaped female cells, after being fertilised by the 
small male cells, antheridia, produce from their 
protoplasm a thick-walled oospore. Mycelial 
threads sprout from this latter, and the above pro- 
cess is repeated. A considerable period of inactivity 
may, however, precede the germination of the 
oospore, which in this case hibernates for the winter, 
whilst its boet decays. The conidia, De Bary states, 
propagate and spread the fungus during the summer 
season only, but do not live through the winter. 
He has, moreover, found in decayed potato tubers 
bodies exactly corresponding to oospores. On expe- 
rimenting with the oogonia of these, and planting 
them in potatoes, he obtained minute plants which 
conducted themselves precisely like zoospores, and 
in most respects resembled those of Pytkram. 
Other experiments with them, on the moistened legs 
of dead fries and bodies of mites, resulted in their 
complete phases of development, which was watched 
step by step, the zoospores producing a plentiful crop 
of mycelium, Ac. As this new fungus in many ways 
differs from the Phytophtora infestans, he names it 
Pythium vexans, on account of his trouble there- 
with. He regards H as a true Saprolegniea. The 
fungus named by Montague Arto tragus, and the 
warty bodies connected therewith, he is inclined to 
believe are two forms of fungi locally associated, bat 
neither clearly determined. He questions Mr. 
Smith's interpretations and conclusions as to the 
precise relation of the mycelial threads, reproductive 
organs, and restuur-spore of his Peronospora 
infestans. Professor De Bary has likewise in- 
vestigated the question of the perennial royeelium 
of Phytophthora occasionally discharging the func- 
tion of hibernation where the oospores are not 
found in the diet riot. He believes he has established 
by proofs that there are two methods by which the 
conidia may pass from the tuber to the foliage. 
From this and the foregoing facts he seems to think 
answers to the questions are truly (riven, as to the 
why and wherefore of the peeuliaiities of this 
terrible scourge— the potato Wight. The Gardeners' 
Chronicle, however, points out that Prof. De Bary's 
views are not likely topsss unchallenged, unless it 
can be proved that Mr. Smith's drawings are 
incorrect. 



Chroma-Steel. — Experiment* prove that by 
using chromeisen instead of spiegeknsen, extremely 
soft steel is obtained ; rods made for experiments 
were very easily bent, even by hand. It is seen, from 
these attempts to replace spiegeleisen by chrom- 
eisen. that the use of tho chrome iron alloys is 
limited, and the steel obtained is for most purposes 
too soft for the manufacture of such materials as 
rails, axles, tires, Ac. During some experiments 
with the chrome iron alloys, a strange phenomenon 
was observed. It is well Known that chromium is 
extremely hard, and scratches even hardened steel ; 
meanwhile an alloy was obtained which was malle- 
able, and in a fresh state could be easily bent. It 
was also remarked that sometimes in opening the 
crucibles nothing but sing was found : but in break- 
ing the crucibles, the alloy was found to be in the 
bottom of them. That may be attributed to the 
corrosive properties of the liquid alloy, which often 
penetrated even through the bottoms of plumbago 
crucibles. The abovementioned alloy was analysed, 
and the following average composition was found : 
—Metallic iron, 6fi"40 per cent. ; metallic chromium, 
2*30 per cent. ; carbon, traces ; lime, silica, 1'30 ; 
total, 100 00. By melting a mixture of cast-iron, 
tin and lead in the following proportions a very 
liquid alloy is obtained :— Cast-iron, 79*000 per 
cent. ; tin. 10° 30 per cont. ; lead, 1'50 ; total, 100 00. 
The alloy has a very handsome appearance, and fills 
perfectly well tho costing moulds j thus it could bo 
used for casting small articles. The alloy is to 
some degree malleable. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 



*TTHE exhibition of scieutiflc apparatus at 
J- Sooth Kensington, which, it was stated, 
would be opened on April 1, will cost the 

Sublic something like .£25,000, asd the 
overnment are already alluding to the expen- 
diture for this exhibition aa a reason for not 
f urniflhing the funds for other and more useful 
purposes. The really honest workers in science 
are asking themselves whether this money 
could not nave been spent in a more profitable 
way, for what they are to learn from the 
exhibition they fail to see, and as to the public 
— well, a less costly exhibition would have an- 
swered all purposes. A meeting of presidents 
of the learned societies has been held recently 
at which it was determined to decline the in- 
vitation of the Science and Art Department, 
that the societies should hold several con- 
ferences for the benefit of the foreign -visitors 
who may be expected to accept the invitation 
sent from Sooth Kensington. We believe, 
however, that con versa rioni will be arranged. 
Twenty-five thousand pounds is a large sum of 
money, and as it will be reckoned by the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer to the credit of 
science we are anxious to see what will be the 
result. We are afraid the exhibition will 
savour too much of eke advertiehag type ren- 
dered familiar of late. 

The clerk to the Commissioners of Patents, 
Mr. Bennett Woodcrof t, has resigned the post 
he has held since 1852, when the present law 
came into operation. The resignation has 
been accepted ; but, pending the result of the 
debate on the Lord Chancellor's bOl, Mr. 
Woodcrof t will still continue to perform bis 
duties. If the bill should become law, many 
changes will be made in the personnel of the 
Patent Office, and the appointment of clerk to 
the Commissioners wffl very likely be abolished. 

An annular eclipse of the sun takes place 
on the 25th inat.; but it will be invisible in 
Europe. Vancouver Island and British Colombia 
will witness the greatest amount of eclipse, 
which will be partial over nearly the whole of 
North America. 

Magdalen College, Oxford, is leading the 
way in an " innovation " whioh will be heartily 
welcomed. It has commenced free courses of 
lectures on botany, zoology, and chemical 
physics, free to artisans resident in Oxford, 
and delivered by Prof. Lawson and Messrs. 
Chapman and Yale, on Saturday evenings, in 
Lent, Easter, and the long vacation. 

A new steamship on the twin principle is in 
the hands of Messrs. Leslie, for the English 
Channel Steamship Company. The Castalia 
resumes the service between Dover and Calais 
in the course of a few weeks, and the new 
vessel, which is guaranteed to attain a speed 
of 1* knots, will, according to contract, be 
ready in the autumn. 

Whatever may be said about Mr. Plimsoll's 
burning zeal and sensational stories, a few 
facts like that he elicited from the President 
of the Board of Trade last week will convert 
even the obstructive shipowners. Mr. Plim- 
soll had asked what number of steamers had 
been lost in the Bay of Biscay since the adop- 
tion of the load-line, and what number in the 
corresponding period preceding. Sir Charles 
Adderley replied that from Feb., 1874, to Feb., 
1875, before the adoption of the load-line, 26 
steamships and 176 lives were lost in the Bay 
of Biscay, but from Feb., 1875, to Feb., 1876, 
since its adoption, the numbers were 2 steamers 
and 26 lives. 

A vessel is being constructed for conveying 
the 81-ton gun and its carriage, altogether 
120 tons, to the long range at Shoeburyness, 
this being the only method of solving the diffi- 
culty of ite removal. 

A. real ice rink is to be put down at the 
Lillie Bridge grounds by Messrs. West and 
Duvallon. The ice is produced by a modifica- 
tion of the brine and ether process which 
they have used for some time in the produc- 
tion of artificial ice. The rink floor is a 
shallow reservoir with a thin sheet iron floor, 
the underside of which is divided into cells, 
through which tho brine, previously cooled by 

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8 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 573. Maech 17, 1876. 



being subjected to the influence of vaporising 
ether, circulates. The extent of the rink is 
about 180ft. by 90ft., and it is calculated that 
a fine skating surface can be kept up at an 
expenditure of about a hundredweight of 
coal per hour, and about 6d. a day for the loss 
of ether. 

Prof. Silliman has obtained a patent for a 
method of imparting resonant qualities to 
Britannia metal, pewter, white metals, and 
other similar alloys. It consists in submitting 
the articles for a short time to a temperature 
just below their melting point. A bath of oil 
or paraffin is most suitable for the purpose, 
but care is necessary to prevent any thing 
harder than themselves touching the articles 
whilst undergoing the tempering, as they are 
then too soft to withstand a touch. The theory 
of the process is that the molecules are re- 
arranged or are crystallised. 

Glass bearings are being made in the United 
States. Those of ordinary glass sustain a 
pressure of 10,0001b. per sq. in. before crack- 
ing, while others made of a special glass re- 
quire upwards of 27,OOOlb\ to break them. 
They do well without lubricants, but a little 
oil is an improvement. Some are in use on 
goods waggons, and others have been tried in 
saw-mills with good results. 

At a recent meeting of the Swiss Society of 
Naturalists at Andermatt, M. Hagenbach, a 
member of the Glacier Committee, gave in a 
report on an investigation recently conducted 
by M. Gosset, on the Bhone glacier. The 
measurements obtained, when compared with 
previous data, afforded ground for some de- 
duction ad to the progress and retreat of this 
glacier. M. Gosset placed four rows of stones 
at different heights on the glacier, each row 
being of a distinctive colour. Since 1856 it is 
found that the end of the glacier has retired 
about 660 metres, and sunk about 95 metres. 
The rows of stones are, respectively, at 500, 
1,100, 3,500, and 5,000 metres from the end of 
the glacier. At the first two the sinking has 
been 6 and 5 metres in the year, but at the 
third there is, on the contrary, a rise of 2 
metres, and at the fourth a rise of 1 metre. 
This rise of the upper part would appear to be 
the precursor of a new period of advance of 
the glacier. The observations made this year 
will no doubt decide. 

A recent case of spontaneous hypnotism is 
described in Les Monies by M. M. Bouchut. 
A little girl of ten had been apprenticed five 
months for the sewing of men's waistcoats. 
One day, after a month of diligent but not ex 
cessive work, and while sewing a button-hole, 
she lost consciousness and slept one hour. 
Awakening, she resumed the work, but with 
the same result. This hypnotism did not occur 
with any other work of sewing. M. Bouchut 
made observations on the girl ; he gave her a 
button-hole to sew ; she had hardly sewn three 
stitches when she sank from her chair on the 
ground and fell fast asleep. M. Bouchut raised 
her and noted catalepsy of the arms and legs, 
dilatation of the pupil, slowness of pulse, and 
complete insensibility. The sleep lasted three 
hours. Next day he made a similar experi- 
ment; the girl slept only one hour. While 
the girl was not thus affected by other kinds of 
sewing, M. Bouchut found he could bring on 
the hypnotism by getting her to look intently 
at a silver pencil held about 10 centimetres 
from the root of her nose. The case in ques- 
tion was evidently one of Braid's hypnotism, 
only occurring spontaneously, and not brought 
on by way of experiment. 

To remedy the inconveniences which, in 
certain countries, prevent the use of dynamite 
during winter, M. Girard (of the Paris Chemi- 
cal Society) has been seeking for bodies pos- 
sessing explosive properties themselves, and 
which might hinder the freezing of nitro- 
glycerine. He gives a preference to nitrate of 
methyl. You mix with the nitro-glycerine, 
before incorporating it with the kieselguhr, 10 
per cent, of nitrate of methyl; this is suffi- 
cient to preserve its fluidity, and prevent it 
being frozen in a cold of - 10°c. The vola- 
tility of nitrate of methyl (it boils at 66°c.) 
might be urged as an objection; but, incor- 
porated with nitro-glycerine, the substance 
volatilises more difficulty ; and to separate it 



completely from the nitro-glycerine it is neces- 
sary to produce a long-continued temperature 
of 80°, and even 100°. Besides, it is common 
now to use metallic envelopes of cartridges for 
dynamite, and these might be fitted with a 
screw-stopper, so that no vapour could be 
emitted. 

According to calculations recently made by 
M. Puschl, of the Vienna Academy, as to the 
lowering of temperature of the maximum of 
density of water by means of pressure, this 
lowering is one degree for 87 atmospheres. 

M. Stefan, of the same academy, has been 
studying the conductivity of gases for heat. 
He made observations on the cooling of a ther- 
mometer in a chamber full of gas. The velo- 
cities of cooling, which are nearly proportional 
to the conducting powers of the gases, are: 
Carbonic acid, 0*64; protoxide of nitrogen, 
0-66 ; olefiant gas, 0*75 ; carbonic oxide, 0*98 ; 
air, 1; oxygen, 102; marsh gas, 1*37; hydro- 
gen, 6 - 72. The biatomic gases give numbers 
which agree with the dyna mi cal theories of 
gases. These numbers are too small for the 
multiatomic gases. 

The fall of hill masses is a phenomenon not 
uncommon in Switzerland. The nature of 
such catastrophes is investigated in a small 
work recently published by JDr. Baltzer. He 
distinguishes in every snch fall three regions — 
the place of origin, the course of the rushing 
mass, and the region of deposition. Most of 
the phenomena are due to the softening of 
impermeable marl, clay, or clayey rocks, in 
whose layers the water stagnates. The mass 
is gradually loosened and loses its hold. 
Fissures first arise, as certain pieces of the 
surface break away before others. When the 
last attachments are sundered the mass slides 
down (like a ship from the stocks) on the 
slippery underlayer, or tumbles over, breaking 
into pieces. There are frequently, however, 
falls of greatly inclined masses, without any 
softened layer being present. The masses 
have been saturated with water, which has in- 
creased their weight, and they glide down over 
their solid, rocky foundation, simply in conse- 
quence of dissolution and increased weight. 
Further causes are earthquakes and loosening 
of the rocks through frost. The phenomena 
still, however, present many problems to the 
geologist and practical engineer. 

At the desire of the French Boeiitt Medicate 
dee HSpitaux M. Kegnauld has recently procured 
exact information as to the consumption of 
tomifuges (or remedies for tapeworm) in the 
Parisian hospitals during the ten years 1864- 
1874. The remedies used in Paris are the 
flower-tops of Kousso, the seeds of gourds, 
the bark of the root of pomegranate, and the 
root of male ferns. A very considerable in- 
crease of consumption of all of these appears 
from the table ; and one may infer that the 
number of individuals attacked by tenia has 
increased during these years. Fro.r personal 
observations M. Begnauld was led to think 
that the quality of certain animal species con- 
sumed in an exceptional manner, during the 
siege of Paris, played an important r6le in the 
unwonted transmission of entozoory parasites. 
Should this be so, there ought to be a marked 
difference between the mean annual prescrip- 
tion of tenifuges during the years preceding 
1870, and that during the years after it. This 
he finds is the case. Thus the mean annual 
consumption before and after 1870, respec- 
tively, was, of Kousso, 3,900 kil. ; 9,000 kil. ; 
of gourd seeds, 3,006, 5,311 ; of bark of pome- 
granate root, 13,008, 14,025; of rhizome of 
male fern, 5,147, 12,000. The first and fourth, 
most in repute, have thus more than doubled. 

A well-known French organ-manufacturer, 
M. Cavaille-Coll, was lately (the Abbe" Moigno 
informs us) admitted, along with a Parisian 
architect, and one or two others, to an audi- 
ence of the Pope, and laid before him the 
coloured plan of a colossal organ for the 
Vatican Basilica. The instrument projected 
is said to be quite a chef-d'oruvre of magnificent 
art. The Pope received his visitors with much 
good will, and w irmly complimented M. 
CavailKj-Coll on his plans. There seems to be 
good reason for anticipating that the project 
will be realised. In alluding to his captivi 
*• I will repeat," said His Holiness, " the w 



of the prophet king : Super flumina Babylonia 
illio sedimuB et flevimus. In salicibus medio 
ejus suspendimus organa nostra. . . . Quo- 
modo cantabimus eanticum Domini in terra 
aliena Y' 

The BocUti IndustrielU de Mulhouse is about 
to celebrate, in the month of May, the fifteenth 
anniversary of its foundation. It is expected 
that not only the members of the society, but 
a large proportion of the population of Haut- 
Bhin, will take part in the f&te. It is due, in 
great part, to the vigorous enterprise of the 
society during these 50 years that the neigh- 
bouring industries are in such a prosperous 
condition. The society is organising an exhi- 
bition of manufactured products; it will be 
mainly reserved for Alsatian articles manufac- 
tured by members of the society, but the com- 
mittee also admit products from neighbouring 
manufactories that are, in some sort, within 
the industrial radius of Mulhouae. 

In place of the ordinary ventilating appara- 
tuses of mines, the blowing apparatuses by 
which air is injected through the orifice 
of the galleries from without, and which have 
the effect of accumulating deleterious gases 
at the bottom of the galleries, M. Buisaon 
(Comptes Rendu*) propones to substitute pipes 
conveying, directly to the bottom of the mines, 
pure compressed air. This air, allowed to 
escape by opening cocks placed at the extremi- 
ties of the branched pipes, and proportional to 
the number of galleries, would drive back 
into the ventilating shafts, by an action a 
tergo, or from within outwards, the more or 
less vitiated air of the mine. This would also 
have the effect of renewing and freshening 
the interior atmosphere, the temperature of 
which is generally too high, from a hygienic 
point of view. 



USEFUL AND SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 

Fargier's Carbon Process.— According to the 
Moniteur de la Photographic, Fargier's new carbon 
process may be rammed up in a few words. A 
sheet of paper is allowed to float upon a solution of 
fire grammes of chloride of iron and a similar 
amonnt of citric add, which are, dissolved in one 
hundred grammes of water. This paper is after- 
wards dried in the dark, and placed under a nega- 
tive to print, until a weak image is produced. This 
print is taken and floated upon a bath of coloured 
gelatine solution, when it is found that the gelatine 
attaches itself to the portions of the surface that 
have been acted upon by light. There remains 
nothing but to wash the sheet in water, and the 

S'cture is finished. If, instead of a coloured sola- 
on of gelatine in water, softened tissue were em- 
ployed, the printed chloride of iron paper being 
pressed into contact with the same, warm water 
being used subsequently to separate the two surfaces 
again, there would perhaps be a step further gained 
in the simplification of the carbon process, for the 
pictures would be risible at once during the printing 
operation, and could therefore be controlled. Dr. 
Liesegang, writing in the Archiv, is of opinion that 
an improvement in the carbon process may be 
effected in this direction, and that the Fargier 
method indicates a branch of the subject which 
might be investigated with advantage. — Photo- 
graphic News. 

Causes of Barometrical Depressions.— In the 

Austrian Journal for Meteorology for January 15, 
Professor Mohn has published some remarks on the 
reason why barometrical depressions are, as a role, 
more serious in winter than in summer. He cites 
the opinion of Buchan and Wojeikoff that, as the 
air is shown to ascend over such areas, and to 
descend over areas of barometrical elevation (anti- 
cyclones), it is clear that in the upper regions of the 
atmosphere the conditions of pressure must be 
reversed as compared with those at the surface of 
the earth. In other words, over an area of low 
pressure, a cyclone, there must be an excess of pres- 
sure at a certain level causing an outflow of tbe air 
which is rising. Conversely, over an anticyclone 
there must be a defect of pressure at a certain 
height, which has the tendency to attract the air 
towards the region of its existence. These prin- 
ciples being once admitted, it is evident that as the 
contrast in temperature between land and sea in 
these latitudes is greatest in winter, the conditions 
then prevailing will be most favourable to the pro- 
duction of extensive depressions over the heated 
area, the sea, while in summer the conditions arc 
reversed, and the areas of low pressure appear over 
the land. Prof. Mohn seeks to explain the origin 
of the well-known deficiency of pressure in the 
South Polar regions on the above principles. He 
concludes with pointing ont the obvious moral of 
his remarks, to the effect that for a satisfactory 
study of weather by means of telegraphic reports, 
the area of observation should be as extensive as 
possible. 

Google 



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March 17, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 573. 



9 

— — • 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



[W* do set hold ourtoWm retponeibU for ttu opinion* a! 
our eorripon&mU. T\e Editor rmp*ct}ua V r*q*4ttt that all 
ewwMMcatwu *o*id U drawn wp a* brUfa U ym tt h .] 

AU amummittrtvmj Mi t>« addrmud to tho Editor tf the 
Esoura Mxcxajnc, 31, Iweistocs ttroot, Co v m t ga r de n 
W.C. 

AU Choqym and Poet-eJIoe Orion to be w ait pa y a b le to 
i. PASsnons Howaase. 

*.* In order to faciUtaU nfiraiot, Correspondent*, when 
totiim of «ny letter yrooioudy inaerUd, will ekKge by 
tu*tw*ina tht mmUr of tkt Ltttor, at w*Q at tkopaot on 
ohic\ it ayptart. 

" I would hare everyone write what he knows, and as 
much m he knows, but no more : end that net in this 
only, bat in ell other ntbjeota : For inch » person may 
have some particular knowledge and experience of the 
nature of each a person or such a fountain, that as to 
ether things, knows no more than what everybody does, 
end yet, to keep a clutter with this little pittanoe of his, 
will undertake to write the whole body of pbysioks : a rice 
from whence great inoonTenicnoes derire their original." 
— Sfo/tfeitfiu'l Bssoys. 



VIVISECTION. 
[10597.] — As I am so far away from home that 
my replies cannot be published till fire or six weeks 
•Iter the remarks hare been published which called 
for them, I think " £. J. P. should be more care- 
ful than he has shown himself in letter 10356, 
p. 508, to aroid misrepresenting me. The tone he 
adopts throughout that letter is one which could 
only be justified if I were an adrocate of vivisection— 
which I am not, and never hare been. He knows 
perfectly well that my primary object in writing- 
shout his remarks was to prevent the mischief 
which they seemed to me, ana seem still, calculated 
to work to the very cause of which he claims to be 
the adrocate. Nothing could be more likely to pre- 
rent measures from being quickly taken to protect 
animals from persecution than the tone assumed by 
"E.J. P." 

I would remind him that I never used the words, 
" silly sentimentalism," in speaking of his remarks ; 
so that his sneer about " judicial calmness " was, 
at least, not justified by the personal comment 
which seems to hare offended him. The question 
being, howerer, simply how beet to serve the causo 
of suffering animal?, I think any weakness which 
would injure that cause is, if not silly, at least 
regrettable. And possibly there would be occasion 
for a severer tone of comment, if it were not weak- 
ness alone which caused such exuberance of emo- 
tional expression, but partly the wish to display a 
somewhat cheap magnanimity. It would be re- 
grettable if a surgeon who had to perform some 
difficult operation were to allow his natural emo- 
tion* of pity and sympathy to unnerve him ; but if, 
having the power of self-restraint, he acted as 
though he were unnerved, and so injured his 
patient, then regret would probably not be the only 
feeling which others would experience. 

For myself, I cannot claim that calmness which 
" E. J. P." attributes to me, and which, seeing that 
it is a most useful faculty, I should desire to pos- 
mh. I am so constituted that the sensation of pity 
for roffering tortures me. I could readily, by merely 
recalling to mind occasions where I have witnessed 
aerere suffering, bring on an attack of what in men 
corresponds to hysteria in women. This is a pecu- 
liarity which I consider to be most unfortunate, as 
it diminishes my power of being useful when acci- 
dents happen, and so forth. But such peculiarities 
are the result of bodily constitution, the conforma- 
tion of the brain and nervous system, the energy of 
Hood circulation, and a number of other conditions 
over which the will has little or no control. And 
though by long practice control may be acquired, 
the course of training is exceedingly painful, and 
for one not having frequent occasion for exerting 
control over such emotions it is hardly worth while to 
undergo the pain necessary for acquiring the power. 
Thus I hare very little of that philosophic calmness to 
boast of which " E. J. P." attributes to me. If I 
bad it, I should certainly not use it against the 
interests of which he seems to regard himself as the 
principal defender. For, as I think, this is a ease 
where those interests may best be served by calm- 
otss, a and where a display of mere sentiment is 
positive cruelty. Unfortunately, too many who feel 
t»e sentiment of pity for suffering very strongly aro 
*pt to think that that implies a very good and great 
quality in themselves — not (as is really the ease) 
» mere constitutional peculiarity. And, not content 
with displaying their tenderness, they lavish abuse 
on all who try to keep their emotions a little below 
the surface. I deny flatly that I have '* maintained 
that in certain extreme cases it would be justifiable 
to resort to vivisection." What I said was, that 
those who maintained suoh a view ought not to be 
•based and vilified as those deserve to be who advo- 
cate vivisection as an ordinary means of scientific 
unrcstigation. I disclaimed at the outset having 
any opinion such as " E. J. P." attributes to me, 
j«wgu I acknowledged (and I fancy he himself 
•dinitted as much) that if wife, or child, or dear 
friend of mine were labouring under a torturing 



disease which could end only in death after pro- 
tracted suffering, and if I were assured that by the 
vivisection of an animal (I think I added, " under 
chloroform ") a remedy for the disease could be 
obtained, I feared it would go hard with the animal. 
And truly I think it would. " E. J. P." might have 
strength of mind (judicial calmness, shall we say ?) 
to " strive to look at such a question out of the 
animal's eyes ;" but I frankly admit that I should 
look at it differently. 

But, observe, I do not say — not, indeed, knowing 
certainly — that we eon be assured of such direct 
benefit from ririsection. The question is one for 
experts. And this leads me to remark on the 
absurdity of speaking of the casuistry of science in 
regard to vivisection, as though any but a very, 
very few men of science had offered any opinion at 
all upon the subject. What have astronomers, 
geologists, botanists, chemists, physicists, or ninety- 
nine hundredths of scientific men to do with this 
question, more than men who are not student* of 
science? 

Lastly, I would point out to " E. J. P." that if he 
must advocate legislation against vivisection which 
shall prevent the employment of vivisection for the 
discovery of means of alleviating or coring painful 
diseases, he would do well to make his arguments 
apply to that view of the subject. Because hitherto 
every one of his strong points — in fact, every single 
argument from facts which he has employed (so far 
as I can recollect) — applies only to that kind of 
vivisection against which all right-minded men 
agree in protesting. But, if he is really anxious to 
snow himself a friend to animals, I would advise 
him to be a little more considerate of their real 
interests. It would be all very well to let the world 
know how tender his emotions are, if no mischief 
could follow from the display. But experience has 
shown that the only safe way of endeavouring to help 
a cause such as ours is to secure step by step what 
can be secured, not to run the risk of losing all by 
trying to grasp all at the outset. 

Biohd. A. Proctor. 

Milwaukoe, Feb. 21st, 1876. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOB MAKING SMAIiXi 
INDUCTION COIL SUITABLE FOE EX- 
PERIMENTAL AND MEDICAL PUB- 
POSES.— I. 

[10598.]— Th* writer of these simple hints does 
not pretend to place anything new before your 
readers, but simply to give his experience for the 
benefit of those who, having had very little elec- 
trical knowledge, are desirous of possessing the 
above, of a good quality, and as cheap as pos- 
sible : — 




Get a piece of beech or other hard wood turned in 
the lathe, 9in. long by lAin. diameter. This should 
have a hole drilled in each end, exactly in the 
centre, Am. diameter. Into these boles drive two 
pieces of iin. iron or steel wire, leaving lin. pro- 
jecting. Square one of these pieces for i of an inch, 
so that you can fit a handle on for use when winding 
the coil. Next get a piece of pine, 15 x 12 x lin. 
(this is to form a stand for winding the coil in) ; into 
one side of this, near one end, mortice a piece of 
hard wood, 7 x 2 x gin. One inch from the top of 
this, and in the centre of it, drill a hole to fit the 
wire in the end of the wooden mandrel just 
described. Next get a piece of iron, 8 x 1 x Jm. ; 
bend 2in. at right angles, so as to form a square — 
this will leave it, when standing on the short end, 
about 6in. high— stand it against the wooden up- 
right morticed in the stand, and mark it for a hole 
same height as the one drilled there to fit the 
mandrel. This hole must then bo drilled or punched 
to fit the other end of the mandrel, and, with the 
wooden upright, will form the bearings for the 
mandrel. There mnst also be a iin. hole put in the 



piece that was bent. This is for fixing it to As 
stand, which can best be done with a small bolt and 
nut ; and if a row of holes are drilled across from 
the one upright to the other, the stand can, by 
simply shifting the iron upright, be used for building 
coils of any description, and is far superior to the 
lathe for this class of work, and will amply repay 
any little labour incurred in making. There should 
also be two small wooden uprights fixed at the other 
end of the base, to carry the bobbin with the wires 
as it comes from the coverers. The annexed sketches 
will make all plain. 

Fig. 1 is a aide view of winding stand, showing 
wooden uprights, B, for holding the mandrel, also 
wooden upright, A, with holes drilled in the centre 
and cut through to the outside in one of these, so 
that a piece of iron rod can be pushed through, and 
carry the bobbin that the wire is wound on. 

Fig. 2 is an end view of same, showing holes for 
shifting the iron upright so as to fit mandrels of. 
different lengths ; a, b , c, d, show these holes : A is 
the left side of stand, B, the right, the uprights to 
carry the bobbin of wire are not shown. The, 
shaded parts are made of wood, and the dark parts . 
of iron. 

Get now a quire of good stout white paper, like ' 
that used for printing on, eat a piece 7in. by lfiin. : 
this is to form the cylinder : melt a little glue and 
have it rather thin, tako the paper and give it one 
turn round the wooden mandrel, and glue the paper 
with a brush, roll it tightly round the wood, and be 
careful to have it as smooth as possible, also well 
glued, but no glue should be allowed to touch the 
mandrel. When this is done, slip it off sod allow 
it to dry ; be sure to have the inside edge of the 
paper well glued, so as to have the tube quit- 
smooth inside ; if you do not succeed the first timo, 
just try again. When finished, you should have a 
strong firm tube, and much stronger than if made 
of wood. When thoroughly dry, push it again on 
the mandrel ; if it is not quite, make it so, by first 
putting a turn of paper round. 

Now take all the paper you have left, and out it 
into gin. strips ; these must then be all joined into 
one length, just like a ribbon, with a little glue or 
shellac varnish ; wind all the paper on a piece of 
wood so that you can handle it easier. You are 
now ready for the primary wire. As a great deal 
depends on using the proper sise and amount, a few 
words on the selection of this may not be out of ' 
place, as by using wire too small in sectional area ' 
we make the resistance too large, and thereforb 
should require more battery power to overcome tha ( 
resistance- 
Then, again, by using wire too large we do not ' 
get enough turns to get the best effect, so that in all 
cases the primary wire should be suited to the sise 
of the oou and the battery power intended to be 
used. Taking all things into consideration, and 
meaning to work with small battery power (one- 
cell Buna en), I would use No. 19 for primary : Kb. 
will do, and will give two layers, which, I believe, 
are better than three. Fasten one end of the wire 
to the left-hand side of the tube or side marked A 
(Fig. 2), about gin. from the end, and leave about 
12in. for connection ; wind the wire close and firmly 
across to B, again leaving tin. of the tube bare ; 
return to A, and finish there in the same way. again 
leaving a piece out for connection. Now take the 
end of the strip of paper and fix it on the top of the 
wire at A ; tins can be done with shellac varnish 
(this is made by dissolving a little shellac iu spirits 
of wine). Now wind the strip of paper in a spiral 
over to B, each turn overlapping the hist for half of 
its breadth ; this gives two thicknesses all the way 
across. Now return a third of the distance towards 
A, then back to B, now over to A, back for a third 
towards B, back to A, over to B, and finish there. ' 
If this is done exactly as described, and the spirals 
kept overlapping all through, there should be 10 
thicknesses of paper at each end of the coil and six 
in the middle. The reason for keeping the insula- 
tion thickest at the ends is because there is most 
danger of a spark passing there, and of course 
everything must be done to prevent this, as a spark 
passing once will always leave a path, and of coarse 
will be just so much power wasted. 

The Secondary. 
We are now ready for the secondary. I would ' 
use about about 60s. of No. 40 silk-covered wire : ' 
when this is got it will be wound on a bobbin, and 
before being used must be tested for continuity — 
that is, to see if it is all in one piece. I will endea- 
vour to explain how this can be done, as most . 
amateurs are badly off for proper appliances to do 
this with. I have often used a pocket compass for 
this purpose, and have found it do very well. If 
you should hare one proceed as follows: Connect 
one end of your wire to one pole of your battery ; . 
any kind will do, but a Bunsen is strongest ; then 
connect the other pole to other end of wire : have the 
compass underneath the bobbin, and the needle 
pointing right across the bobbin. If all is right, 
when you moke the hut-mentioned connection your 
needle should deflect to one side ; by changing the 
connections— that is, putting the one that was to 
carbon to sine, and vice versa— the needle should 

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ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 573. March 17, 1876. 



deflect to the opposite side ; this will also be more 
easily seen if you have a pi* oe of iin. iron wire inside 
of the bobbin. If you cannot get a compass you 
should buy a small one ; they are advertised in the 
English Mechanic as low as Is. each, and are 
Tory useful for this, kind of work. Some people can 
use their tongue for testing, but, with a high 
resistance like this, and using small battery power, 
it is not reliable. If your compass does not show 
any deflection you must wind the wire all on to 
another piece of wood or bobbin, passing it through 
your hand and watching carefully for any flaw, as 
the broken ends are sometimes twisted, and are 
thus liable to be overlooked. When you find where 
it is broken, carefully scrape the ends clean and 
twist them together ; they should then be moistened 
with weak chloride of zino ; a small piece of tinfoil 
or solder is then rolled round the joint and held in 
the flame of the gas for a second or two. until the 
tin melts ; the joint should then be neatly covered 
with a piece of thin silk, and touched with shellac 
Tarnish to secure all. When this is done, test the 
wire again, and, if all is right now, wind all the wire 
on to one bobbin, and carefully test it, as you wind 
each layer on the coil, before you Insulate. I will 
give directions how to build the secondary in my next. 

W. McW., Telegraph Lineman. 



MOTION. 

fl0599.]-E. P. Tot (10548) has argued closely— 
and I won't say unphilosophically — to force a con- 
clusion on the most difficult problem in life — in fact, 
life itself, for what is life without motion ? I wish 
to try and get some of " ours " clear of a difficulty 
they seem very liable to be sucked into— i.e., the 
vacuum difficulty. "Nature abhors a vacuum," so 
said the ancients, and they were better philosophers 
than you or I. So says modern science when it fills 
all space with ether ; and, if this ether should itself 
prove to be made up of atoms science will not hesi- 
tate to float these atoms in somothing yet finer than 
the ether. Let the reader honestly try to imagine a 
perfectly true vacuum. Let him screw the tentacles 
of his mind into the middle of it and bring back 
word what it is like inside. Is the evidence given by 
the mind that this idea of a vacuum is all nonsense, 
except for comparative purposes, to be gainsaid? 
By no means. Surely what cannot be imagined 
cannot exist : it is impossible. We must only con- 
clude that the sapient philosophers of the middle ages 
were wrong when they declared that Torricelli bad 
really at last formed a vacuum, and said they, " the 
ancients were wrong in supposing that Nature 
abhorred a vacuum. 

Of course " E. P. T." and others will know that 
this view of the matter, as I now place it, is not new 
to modern scientists, nor do they speak of the 
vacuum of the radiometer unknowingly, while yet 
it may be a question as to how much air remains in 
the most perfect vacuum we can produce. Having 
gone this far I will now ask what is the use of con- 
jecturing as to the result of firing cannon balls 
against something that does not exist. But if, when 
we read " the limit of space occupied by matter," we 
mean by this matter something to us more ponderable 
than the matter beyond (for we have seen that space 
cannot be without matter), why not make the dis- 
tinction to begin with ? It is very bold, no doubt, 
but perfectly philosophical, to suppose that there is a 
limit to the ether, or something else, beyond which 
light and heat cannot penetrate. Now, some of the 

Sitts put forward in the above letter may be eluci- 
ted by these considerations, but assuredly the 
fundamental problems connected with motion can- 
not be so readily solved. This is just the very 
fountain-head from which truths ore going to be 
drawn for all time to come. We can never penetrate 
beyond the world of relativities, because the absolute 
is unthinkable. Everything absolute is unthinkable, 
as we saw when we used the expression " perfectly 
true " as applied to a vacuum. It felloes from this 
that any word or sentence can be used in an absolute 
sense, but what does that sense really mean ? Simply 
nothing, unless it be a higher form of the relative. 
So the relative means very little unless it ha* an 
absolute close at hand to prop it up. This could be 
more easily illustrated by a reference to the absolute 
and relative pitch in musio, and it is very instructive 
to trace thus how so much delightful harmony (to 
us) may be made out of two opposing yet inalienable 
principles, the very attempt to consider which 
separately would plunge us into a maze of unspeak- 
able confusion. One word more on this point s The 
mind is the two-foot rule that measures the universe ; 
it can measure everything else but itself, for to sup- 
pose anything different would be about as wise as 
trying to lift yourself up by your waistband. For 
further particulars go to Hegel. 

Now that we have been obliged to give up the 
" infinities " as a bo-' job, is there any harm in ask- 
ing what is force ? None at all if, unlike tbe infini- 
ties, it may lead to something practical. The former 
involved a paradox to begin with, but the latter only 
secondarily. A force is a bundle of rhythms all 
within certain limits. That is to say, heat and light 
are forces, and their wave-lengths in the ether within 
sextain bounds constitute them what they ore. This 



same principle, however, of naming forces would, if 
carried out, give the name of a separate force to 
each particular wave-length. When speaking of 
heat in an answer to '' Fiddler," I intended to bring 
a word in here after this quotation from Tyndall : — 
" The law of conservation rigidly excludes both 
creation and annihilation. Warns may change to 
ripples, and ripples to waves; magnitude may be 
substituted for number, and number for magnitude. 
. . . . It (force) rolls in musio through the ages, 
while the manifestation of physical life, as well as 
the display of physical phenomena, are but the 
modulations of its rhythm." If I apprehend it 
rightly this theory might as well be called the theory 
of the conversion of forces as that of the conserva- 
tion of force ; but what I wish to mention particu- 
larly now is that it seems to me desirable to multiply 
the number of thermometers so as to have one 
specially for each part of the beat spectrum , thus , as it 
were, making seven different heat forces out of the 
seven grades (oerrespondential to the grades of the 
light spectrum) of that spectrum. The word 
spectrum, as applied here to heat, is probably a 
misnomer, but it may be quite intelligible ; perhaps 
the word oetave would be better if in connection. 
This same principle, if applicable to the more accu- 
rate differential measurement ef heat, might, I 
fcfarnk, also be applied to the other forces or forms 
of vibration. Now, as those considerations are all 
naturally the outcome of an inquiry into the nature 
of motion, we may hereby see bow big a subject it 
is. There are many objections likely to be urged 
against this wholesale way of treating the subject, 
but it roust be remembered that there are general 
as well as special methods, each suitable only to 
that view which is definitely within its own field of 
view. It may be urged that electricity is a fluid ; to 
which I reply— yes, partially so. In "Heat as a 
Mode of Motion" we find the following note: — 
" May not the condensed ether which surrounds the 
atoms be the vehicle of electric currents P" It is 
certain from philosophical considerations that the 
ether dose condense around what we call solid bodies, 
for there is no snch thing's* a solution of continuity 
in all nature, and consequently there must be a 

Kdual grading off of some kind, however minute, 
ween matter and •pace (i.e., the solid and leu 
aofcd). It is only reasonable to suppose that some 
bodies, such as metals, would condense more of this 
ether about them than the earth's, while the latter 
would more easily condense the gases, so that 
around metals these would be formed, either in + 
or — , a 'fitting medium for the propagation of those 
force waves called electric Force is nowhere with- 
out matter, and any particular force, such as heat, 
light, or electricity, requires its own particular 
medium, without which it cannot exist. Where 
would sound be without its own proper medium of 
transmission — the air P And yet sound is evidently 
as much a force as heat, for it breaks windows 
sometimes. It would seem all right at first sight to 
make the statement that " media transmit their force 
wares of decreasing size directly as their elasticity 
increases," but this would not be correct in all cases, 
for air is more elastic than metal, yet transmits 
sound more slowly. This difficulty, I think, arises 
from tbe fact that the density aud elasticity of 
bodies do not keep side by side, and possibly the 
explanation is to be found in the difference between 
the inter and ultra-atomic forms of pressure— i.e., 
attraction and repulsion — the latter being again 
overruled by the earth's attraction on the atmo- 
sphere. It must be absurd, then, to try and learn 
anything about a force without also making our- 
selves acquainted with its medium of transmission, 
and here we come face to face with a great puzzle. 
Suppose we have already proved that sound, elec- 
tricity, heat, and light are all forces grading down 
in subtlety from first to last, what are wo to say of 
motion proper P It is evident that a stone flying 
through the air is as good an example of force as 
any, but where are the wavee gone to? This I 
explain as follows : — " The normal motion — which 
is equivalent to the above-mentioned wave-length — 
of ail independent cosmic matter in the position of 
the earth's orbit is the full swing of that orbit." 
When a stone falls to the ground it is arrested 
before it can complete its circuit, and its normal 
course would be, not to settle down at the earth's 
centre after it had passed and re-passed it a few 
times, but to circle round that centre in more or 
less of an ellipse. This example of cosmic matter 
(the stone) is not " independent," because it is 
within the sphere of the planet. It will not at first 
seem very clear that there is any resemblance 
between an orbicular and wave motion. I cannot 
go fully into this now, but will merely observe that 
the ordinary pendulum vibration, if brought round 
in a circle, would exactly correspond with the 
orbital motion of a planet. It would do the circuit 
in the same time as the beat, and its point of 
greatest motion would be analogous to the earth's 
perihelion point. The same holds for the vibration 
of a tuning-fork, only it gives as an example of 
unstable equilibrium. I saw a letter in last week's 
Naturf from a Mr. G. Hick?, which I think I can 
here answer. The repulsive force of light, he 
argues, would tend to check, and not to accelerate, 



the earth's motion by a force of 3,000 millions of 
tons. So it would most decidedly if the earth's 
orbit was an exact circle, but bear in mind that the 
earth makes a fall in towards the sun of throe 
millions of miles annually, and recovers the same 
by going into aphelion in obedience to the repulsive 
force of light. Then the motion of the planets on 
their own axes is a secondary affair to this groat 
annual vibration, and, if any proof wa> required 
that it was so, it is to be found in the fact that tfao 
inclination of planetary axes ore always greater for 
those planets having the most eccentric orbits. 
There is one question I will not attempt to answer ; 
What is the medinm of this greater force the modi- 
fications of which are so common to us as motion ? 
UnlesB it be the ether, which we know is the medium 
for light, I cannot conceive. Might not the ether 
be the medium for both, for we know now that the 
light waves may be converted into motion proper ? 
If this is the solution the true explanation of the 
radiometer will be quite as unique as the instrument 
itself is. Dr. H. M. M. 



WOODS. 

[10600.}— In the articles referring to the woods of 
different countries I could not see the yellow wood of 
the Cape mentioned. It is one of the most useful ; 
and there is one thing I would mention about it — 
it don't seem as if the beetle which attacks old 
furniture would touch it. At least, a good many 
years ago I had 2ft. of it put to my lathe, and 
though I am, and have been, a good deal troubled 
with the beetles eating the beech-wood of which the 
greater part of the lathe stand is made, they have 
never touched the yellow wood. £1. T. Soott. 



STAINS FOB WOOD SECTIONS. 
[10601.]— The following extract from a paper by 
Dr. G . D. Beatty, of Baltimore, published in Science- 
Qoesip a few months bock, will be interesting to 
microscopists, and answer query 24924, p. 517. I 
have used, very successfully, the ordinary aniline 
dyes (magenta and mauve) dilated with alcohol. 

Deedalns. 

I have lately discovered that benzole fixes the anUinea 
when they are used in staining vegetable and animal 
tissues. It not only instantly fixes any aniline colour 
in vegetable tissues, but also renders them as trans- 
parent as oil of cloves. 

Finding that benzole possessed this property let) 
me to try double staining upon sections of leaves 
and sections of wood. The results have proved 
highly satisfactory. I have found the following 
processes successful ■ — A section, say of wood, 
being prepared for dyeing, is put for five or ten 
minutes in an alcohio solution of " Boaeine Pore " 
(magenta), one-eighth or one-quarter of a grain to 
the ounce. From this it is removed to a solution 
of " Nicholson's Soluble Blue Pure " one-half grain 
to the ounce ef alcohol, acidulated with one drop of 
nitric aeid. Iu this it should be kept for thirty or 
ninety seconds, rarely longer. It should be frequently 
removed with forceps during this period, and held to 
the light for examination, so that the moment for 
final removal and putting into benzole be not missed. 
After a little praetioe the eye will accurately deter- 
mine the time for removal. 

Before placing the object in benzole it is well to 
hold it in the forceps for a few seconds, letting the 
end touch some clean surface, that the dye may drip 
off, and the object may become partially dry. By- 
doing thiB fewer parts of insoluble dye rise to the 
surface of tbe benzole, in which the brushing is 
dene to remove foreign matter. The object should 
then be pat into clean benzole. In this it may be- 
examined under the glass. If it is found that it baa 
been kept in the blue too short a time, it should be 
thoroughly dried, and, after dipping in alcohol, be 
returned to that dye. If a section of leaf or other 
soft tissue be under treatment, it should be put in 
turpentine or oil of juniper, as they do not contract 
so much as benzole. 

When hsamatoxylon is used instead of magenta, it is 
followed by the blue as just described. As neither 
of these dyes comes out in alcohol or in oil of cloves, 
the section may be kept in the former for a short 
time before placing in the latter. 

The hsematoxylon dye I prefer is prepared by 
triturating in a mortar for about ten minutes two 
drachms of ground Cam peachy wood with one ounce 
of absolute alcohol, setting it aside for twelve hours, 
well covered, triturating again and filtering. Ten 
drops of this are added to forty drops of a solution of 
alum ; twenty grains to the ounce of water. After 
one hour the mixture is filtered. 

Into this the section, previously soaked in alum- 
water, is placed for two or three hours, or until dyed 
ef a moderately dork shade. When dyed of the depth 
of shade desired, which is determined by dipping it 
in alum-water, the section is successively washed for 
a few minutes each, in alum-water, pure water, and 
fifty per cent, alcohol. Finally it is put in pure 
alcohol until transferred to the bine. 

Carmine and aniline blues produce marked stain- 
lags, but they are rather glaring to the eye under 
the glass. I use an ammoniaoal solution of the 

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March 17, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCLENCE : No. 573. 



11 



former, double the strength of Beale's, substituting 
water for glycerine. In this a section is kept for 
several hoars. On. removal it should be dipped in 
water, and then pat for a few minutes in alcohol 
seidnlated with two per cent of nitric acid ; then in 
pure alcohol; then in the half -grain blue solution 
before spoken of, from which it should be removed 
to alcohol ; then to oil of cloves. Much colour will 
be lost in the acid alcohol. The acid is to neutralise 
the ammonia, which is inimical to aniline blue. 
Magenta aniline or baematoxylon may be used with 
men instead of blue aniline. The brand of green 
I prefer is the iodine brand, one grain to the ounce 
of alcohol. 

Double stainings of sections of leaves in which 
red is first used, have the spiral vessels stained this 
colour, other parts being purple or bine. Radial 
and tangential sections of wood have the longi- 
tndinal woody fibres red, and other parts purple or 
Hue. 

This selection of colour is, I think, due to the fact 
that spiral vessels and woody fibres take up more 
red than other parts, and are slower in parting 
with it. The blue, therefore, seems first to over- 
come the red in parts where there is less of it. It 
will entirely overcome the red if sufficient tiam be 
given. 

If the bine be used before the magenta aniline, the 
•election of colour is reversed. 

I would here call special attention to the import- 
ance of examining these stainings at night, as the 
red in them has a trace of blue in it which does not 
show at that time, but comes out so decidedly by 
daybght as to change, even spoil, the appearance of 
the specimen. I think they should be mounted in 
Canada balsam, softened with benzole, as the pre- 
sence of the latter may be beneficial in preserving its 
magenta. 

I would offer a few words upon section-cutting, 
and upon preparing sections for dyeing. To out a 
thick leaf, place a bit of it between two pieoas of 

Gtato or turnip, and tie with a string. Cuts may 
made along the midrib, or across it, including a 
portion of leaf on either side, or through several 

j J ? ne snaTiD K« of wood may be used, or pieces 
rubbed down on hones. 

Sections of leaves may be decoloured for staining 
by placing for some time in alcohol; but I would 
recommend the use of Labarraque's solution of 
chlorinated soda, for a few hours after the alcohol. 
Specially do I recommend the Labarraque for all 
bads of wood. In twelve hours wood is pens rally 
bleached ; too losg a residence in it will, however, 
often cause it to fall in pieces. 

After removing from the soda, wash through a 
period of twelve or eighteen hours in half a dozen 
waters, the third of which may be acidulated with 
ahaut ten drops of nitric acid to the ounce, which 
fff "»»t be washed out. Next put in alcohol, in 
witch sections and also loaves may be kept indefi- 
nably, ready for dyeing. 

Magenta, when used for leaves, should be of the 
•earth of one-eighth or one-quater of a grain to 
"•Bounce of alcohol, and purples and iodine-green 
wp or three times as strong. These anilines are 
isfensr to the blue iu bringing out all the anatomi- 
cal parts of a leaf, including the beautiful crystals 
» often met with. On removal from the dye, 
leaves should be thoroughly brushed with camel-hair 
Ptneui. 

One week, instead of forty-eight hours, is fre- 
required to effect the decoloration of largo 
•fW chlorinated soda, even when they are on* 
«*» *twfs»I pieces, which is advisable. Mr. L. R. 
caw, oftbhis city, whose stainings in ^ni 1 ™* are on- 
"Mfee d! for beauty, flunks better results are 
wtMusd'hy commencing with a weak dye, say from 
^O^winatsth to one-twelfth of a grain, undalowly 
iDcwasiust the strength of the dye, at intervals of 
Iromoaato three hours, until the required hoe is 
obtained. This process certainly guards against too 

andcr" the^bMS^ ""^ * fiMr toae to 

EXPRESS ENGINES— SPEED OS" 
TRAINS. 

[10602.}— '■ Exrarss Dbivbb" in writing of 
~* Great Northern bogie engines, and the Abbot's 
«Ptoa accident, evidently koowns very little of 
either. He says, '« it is a general opinion that the 
en«uu* left the rails so easily because of the bogies, 
»m that, had they not had bogies, they might have 
eat through the coal train without being thrown 
<*• I am at a loss to understand why it is said 
~*7 left the rails easily, for in my opinion they had 
jwi cause to do so. But, however, it happens that 
ue engine which ran into the coal train had not a 
bope, but rode on one pair of leading- wheels, and 
awreoTer the coal train was not broadside to the 
«>*re»s, but very nearly parallel, so that no engine, 
J»wever heavy, could have cut through ; therefore 
the general opinion is easily proved to be a false 
oae. 

Al regards the down train, which was drawn by 
» bogie engine, the first obstruction which this met 
*rtn wa» the tender of the up express engine, which 
rood across the line, and considering that this 



was loaded with about two tons of coal and about 
nbe tons of water, it is not surprising that the 
engine was thrown off the line. The weight of 
these engines is 40 tons, of which 15 tons are on the 
driving wheels, leaving 25 tons to be put on 6 
wheels, so that if " E. D." Getter 10556) included 
them among others as having only 2J tons on each 
wheel it will easily be seen he is wrong. 

In reply to his qaery at the end of the letter, 
the heating surface of 225 tubes, 1 Jin. diameter by 
lift. 9iin. long, would be 1215 -46 square feet. 

A wheel, 4ft. diameter, will turn 420 times in one 
mile; 5f t. , 336 times ; 6ft. 8iin., 250* times; 7ft, 
240 times. Iu all the correspondence on express 
engines the consumption of coal has not received a 
gTeat amount of attention— in fact, I have not seen 
any mention made of the Great Northern 8ft. 
engines. Taking four of them at one station the 
average consumption is 25 -6ft. per mile. I will en- 
deavour to give the consumption of a few single 
and coupled engines for the present week, which I 
expect will be very heavy, as the wind is very 
strong. Locomotive. 



[10603.}— In letter 10556 (p. 689) your corre- 
spondent " Express Driver," in his great dislike to 
bogie engines, goes a long way from home to have a 
fling at those on the Glasgow and South Western 
Line. His information is not correct. The bogie- 
wheels do not run hot, as stated, nor do they ever 
give the least trouble in this way ; the weight on 
each bogie-wheel is not 2} tons, as stated, but 
3 tons 7cwt. When the Midland ran trains to 
Glasgow these very bogie engines will run the trains 
between Carlisle and Glasgow. " Express Driver " 
is also wrong when he says that an engine without a 
bogie might have cut through the coal train at 
Abbott's Ripton . The coal train was backing into 
a siding, so that the express engine would strike the 
coal waggons at an angle of about .22° ; and as the 
engine and several waggons of the coal train were 
still on the same line of rails as the express, the 
latter would have required not only to out through 
the coal train from the point of contact at the angle 
stated, but also to have gone clean over several 
waggons and the engine of the coal train before it 
could have reached the rails again. I think this 
would be a feat too great for even the ideal express 
engine of " Express Driver." Driver. 



[10604. J— " Expanse Duron's " letter of last 
week rather surprises me. He cannot know much 
about small wheels, or he would know that It is the 
practice in America to put wheels in bogies varying 
from 2ft. 6in. to 3ft. under engines which run at 
speeds of from 45 to 50 miles an hour, and that the 
Pullman cars in America are fitted with wheels of 
the above sixes. As to the weight on the wheels of 
the G. and S. W. R. engines, it is 3\ tons each, and 
not 2} t as said by him, and in the G. N. R. engines 
the weight on the leading-wheels of the bogie ia-3± 
tons each, and on the trailing- wheels 4 tons each; 
and I certainly disagree with 7 ' Express Driver" as 
to the bogie being the cause of the dote* train 
leaving the rails. The engine which was on the 
up train — No. 269— is a rebuilt engine, being one of 
the engines which I mentioned some time ago had 
been o n a oajad . from coupled into single engines ; and 
it has osuy one pair of leading- wheels. 

Will "Express Driver" say what reason there 
was for Tebulding any of the Midland engines, a«d 
putting larger cylinders in them, when the 17 x 24 
engines were giving such great satisfaction ? 

I quits agree with " E xpr es s Driver " as to long 
doubts-bogie carriages heme the best and safest ; 
bat. there is one great objection to them, and that is, 
so much more dead weight has to be carried per 
pass e ng e r than with the ordinary coaches ; but as 
to them superseding the others, that will, I think, 
never come to pass, as there is no occasion for such 
coaches for local traffic and stopping trains. 

The heating surface of 225 ljin. tubes, lift. 9tfn. 
long, is 121371ft. ; and the number of revolutions 
of a wheel 4ft. in diameter in a mile is 420}, those of 
a 5ft. wheel 836*. those of a 6ft. 8*in. wheel 248, 
and those of a 7ft. wheel 240. 

Before leaving the subject of the G. N. R. 8ft. 
engines I should like to know what "Express 
Driver's " opinion is of the engine which runs the 
Leeds special express from Peterborough to KingV 
cross every day, always to the tick of time, whether 
the weather be bad or not. This engine — No. 53— 
has only missed three or four turns since it was put 
on in November last, and has done its work in a 
most satisfactory manner. 

March 9. H. B. 



[10006.1-Thb heating surface of 225 tubes ljin. 
diameter and lift. 9}in. long, will be 1210 5 square 
feet. Number of turns of wheels per mile : 4it. = 
422 4, 5ft. m 336 4, 6ft. 8iin. = 2514, 7ft. = 241. 

Itooom., Newcastle. 



RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. 

J106M.}—! notice in your issue of the 4th insjt* 
usion to the late Huntingdon railway accident, 
likewise suggestions to lessen the chances of such 
catastrophes. It does not appear to me a very 
difficult matter to introduce some efficient mode of 
communicating to advancing trains "danger ahead." 
Electric bells, at certain distances apart, could be 
set in motion, and sounded along the line by a 
train in passing, and this automatically. If no 
bells were sounding there was a mishap somewhere, 
when an advancing train would be on its guard and 
lessen speed, and thus prevent 9 outof 10 accidents. 
This would be seme thing gained. I merely throw 
out the idea for others to perfect J. Kilner 
Major-Gcneral late Royal Bombay Engineers. 
Fredericton, New Brunswick, 19 Feb., 1876. 

ARITHMETICAL. 

[1060?.}-I oan accept all, or nearly all, that Mr. 
T. Mitchesoa writes (latter 10547) in disapprobation 
of my oommunieatini under this beading, and yet 
conceive myself to be perfectly justified in forward- 
ing that communication ; and for this reason : — 
The pages of the English Mechanic may be not 
inaptly compared to a large co-operative supply 
store, containing a vast and an exceedingly miscel- 
laneous collection of literary wares. This being so, 
it must necessarily be that many customers— I mean 
readers — will be continually finding articles placed 
before them, as if for their acceptance, for which 
they have neither use aor liking, and which, there- 
fore, will naturally elicit their adverse criticism. 
But although, as in the present case, my arith- 
metical small wares happen hot to suit Mr. M., nor 
even the majority of our readers, I have no donbt 
but that there are to be found those who will find 
my hint worth taking up and putting into practice. 
Like everything else appearing in these correspond- 
ence columns, my suggestion is strictly limited in 
its application ; and to transgress those limits is to 
put it to uses for which it is unsuited, and for 
which, of course, it was never intended. 

Furthermore, let me put this to Mr. Mitcheson. 
Supposing all the correspondents of the English 
Mechanic — commencing with those two eminent 
leaders of ours who for so many weeks of the past 
year re-enacted that which was so characteristic in 
the divinity of Castor and Pollux, down to a poor 
paradoxer like myself — resolved within ourselves to 
write nothing, and the Editor on his part to admit 
nothing, but what is strictly true and universally 
useful and acceptable, which of us could presume to 
write at all ? And, consequently, what a large gap 
such a wholesale excision of correspondence would 
leave in the pleasure with which we welcome the 
postman every Friday morning. Aletheue. 

THE METRIC SYSTEM. 
[10608.]— I quits agree with " Iostephanna " 
Getter 10577), that it is desirablo to be well ac- 
quainted with the metric system, but it is not every 
one that can get it to his fingers' ends straight from 
the book. I donbt if half the readers of the 
EnoidBH Mbohamic have any idea of what a milh- 
metro is, and if they were to see it mentioned, they 
would either pas* it by , or on looking it ap, if books 
were at hand, they would probably find 393708in., 
and not a few would still be in the dark. Now I 
think that the best way for us all to become ac- 
quainted with these terms is, that those who use 
them should give the English equivalent in round 
numbers, both for our eBUghtment and instruction. 
I have proposed this before, but it has not been 
taken notice of by correspondents. A. Trotter. 

SPELLING BY 8 Q TUTU. 

[10809.1— I AM exceedingly pleased that E. Jonas 
{10609, p. 612) has brought forward thenaoeasity of 
a spelling reform for discussion by practical folk 
like English mechanics in so wsdaty circulated a 
journal. 

No one can differ from E.J. as to the present 
orthographical system being in the highest decree 
barbarous, and wholly wasting in the first and 
essential eharacteristie that alphabetic symbols 
should possess— viz., single simple signs represent- 
ing single simple sounds. 

Latham, the philologist, in his elaborate work 
entitled " The English Lansrnage," gives six rules 
necessary to obtain a perfect alphabet and a perfect 
orthography :— 1. That for every simple single 
sonnd (incapable of being represented by a combi- 
nation of letters) there be a simple single sign. 
2. That sounds within a certain degree of likeness 
be r e p re sented by signs within a certain degree of 
likeness, whilst sounds beyond that de termined 
degree of likeness be represented by distinct and 
different signs, and that uniformly. 8. That no 
sound have more than one sign to express it. 

4. That no sign express more than one sound. 

5. That the primary aim of orthography is to 
express the sounds of words, and not their histories. 

6. That ohanges of speech be followed by corre- 
sponding changes of spelling. 



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The foregoing conditions are absolutely essential 
in an alphabet that can correctly represent the 
sounds as spoken in a language. But does the 
English alphabet conform to these requisites ? Iu 
no one respect whatever, but very far from that. 
Hear what says Sheridan, author of a pronouncing 
dictionary : — " 8uch is the state of our written 
language that the darkest hieroglyphics or the most 
difficult ciphers hitherto invented were not better 
calculated to conceal the sentiments of those who 
used them from all who had not the key, than the 
state of our spelling is to conceal the true pronun- 
ciation of our words from all ezoept a few well- 
educated natives." 

Walker, in the preface to his " Pronouncing Dic- 
tionary," states that, " unfortunately for the English 
language, its orthography and pronunciation are so 
widely different that Dr. Watts and Dr. Jones [not 
our E. Jones, I calculate] lay it down as a maxim in 
their treatises on spelling that all words which can 
be sounded different ways mutt be written according 
to that mode which it the moat distant from the 
true pronunciation, and, consequently, in such a 
language a pronouncing dictionary must be an 
essential necessity. H. B., Yarmouth. 

| We can find room for the first portion only of 
"H. B.V letter.— Ed.] 



A SIMPLE CLOCK REGULATOR. 
£16610.}— What a strange muddle "J. A." 
(10470) does make ! Can he possibly imagine that 
dials are set to the magnetic south, or that the true 
meridian can change in " 20 or SO years ?" 

Jas. mil*. 

REMOVABLE BICYCLE STEP. 
[10611.]— I bird a sketch of a step upon which 
I carry a friend (6st. 131b), when the roads suit. 
My bicycle is a 52in. Ariel, having a 22in. trailing 
wheel. The step hooks on the backbone, just above 




the fork, one arm of which is clipped by the ears at 
the lower end of the support. It is useful for carry- 
ing luggage. I have of course a permanent step 
besides. A. Trotter. 



FORTY-BIGHT CELL BATTERY. 
m [10612.}— I sxnd yon a description of a forty- 
eight cell battery, as constructed by myself, of the 
bichromate form : as also a few facts relative to its 
performances. So many inquiries have appeared 
in your columns relative to this class of battery 
that I make no apology for troubling yon. 

Having purchased from Mr. Browning one of his 
large lanterns, electric lamp, prisms, Sec., wherewith 
to illustrate lectures on spectrum analysis, I deter- 
mined to make my own battery, one of forty-eight 
cells — to be contained in four boxes of twelve 
elements each — and the whole to be of the plunge 
form, which I considered would be particularly 
suitable to the character of the work required. 
^ The sixe and form of sine determined upon, was 
8* x 2" x i", carbons of same dimensions— each 
element or cell to contain two zincs and three 
carbons. As the arrangement and build of this 
battery is, I think, new, you will permit me to de- 
scribe it somewhat in detail. 

Take one carbon, place it on its flat side before 
you on a table (Fig. 1), the left hand end to be 
bottom of element, the right hand end top of 
element, next place a slip of deal (Jin. x and 
in length equal to the breadth of carbon) on each 
end of carbon, and flush with the ends thereof — on 
these slips of deal place your zinc, then two more 
slips of deal, another carbon, and so on till 
you pile up three carbons and two zincs, all of 
course separated by the deal slips (Fig. 1). Now 
take three slips of sheet copper j'' wide and 4" long, 
insert one end of each of these in between ton 
carbons and slips of deal, and in right-hand corner, 
farthest from yon (Fig. 1), as shown at C C C. Next 
take a slip of sheet copper, 9" long x j", split one 



end down the centre for a length of 4in. , open this 
double end, and insert one in between each of the 
two zincs and slips of deal, corner next to you 
(Fig. 1), shown at Z». 

A head piece constructed of such a size as to rest 
on top of glass jar, and also to act as a damp to 
securely hold the upper end of element closely to- 

father, and thus insure perfect metallic contact, 
his head piece is made of deal, and measures 
4" x 1" x 1" (Fig. 2), notched on one side of each 
piece i" deep, to receive carbons. These head pieces 
are now screwed together by bolts made of 5 wire 
nails, and secured by a small brass nut. The head 
piece is put on, slightly tightened, and element stood 
on ead (Fig. 3), square it by a gentle tap on table, 
screw up nuts until all is thoroughly firm, ana 
copper slips of carbons and zino quite immoveable. 
Should the lower ends of elements have a tendency 
to open out, tie them around with a string previously 
painted with oil paint (and dry). Thus have I built 
all my 48 elements. We have now the clamp or 
connection screws to deal with ; these can be made 
of sheet brass \" thick, i" wide, cut off into lengths 



en d of which has been bent into an eye 1" 
d'* I Ueter, through these pass a piece of iron gas tube 
of «Uch size that it will revolve easily ; on one end of 
this tube fix a wood handle, say 18" long x 3" x 1", 
the tube end passing just through the centre of the 
handle ; fix it by putting an iron pin through handle 
and tube (Fig. 5) ; a smaller diameter of tube is now 
laid on centre of box and lengthwise ; this is attached 
to upper revolving tube by strong gut, which is. I 
may mention, passed through a hole iu upper tube, 
ana a knot made. If we now revolve handle, the lower 
tube will gradually rise ; a pin or long nail can be 
put through handle which will rest against iron up- 
right, and keep lower tube or rod any height we 
please. We have yet to suspend the elements to the 
lifting rod, A A ; to do this quickly and well, and 
having the elements in their respective glass cells, 
with the head pieces athwart ships— screw an addi- 
tional piece of deal 1" x 1" x 9" on top of each 
head piece by means of one screw (Fig. 6), leaving 
enough roem underneath, and in between real heart 
pieces for the lifting tube or rod, A A. When thus 
finished we can lift up the elements, not clear of 




of 1J", and bent in the form of a letter U, the 
screws of brass wire §", on which the screw plate 
has been run ; this may be cut off in lengths of }" 
for screw heads ; cast a round rod of brass f " 
in diameter, and cut off slices J" thick, centre them, 
tap and screw them — and then screw in the screw 
pieces and solder outside (Fig. 4). 

Procure four boxes, my own measure 2* 10i" x 
101" wide x 9|" deep, all inside measurements, 
sides and bottoms \" thick, ends 1". Let us set up 
12 cells, or in other words connect the elements ; the 
strip of copper from the two zincs of 1st element 
must be bent over and placed in between the top of 
the three copper Blips from carbons of No . 2 element ; 
one of the U clamps is now screwed on this join of 
elements (see Fig. 3), and for construction and per- 
fect continuity the plan seems both simple and 
effective. Continue thus with the 12 elements, join- 
ing them lengthwise in the box, and returning back 
to alongside No. 1 element. To make the battery 
thus far built up, and arranged in 12-cell form into 
a plunge battery, I proceeded thus (Fig. 5) : — Bore a 
J hole in the middle of each of the ends of box, 
perpendicularly— in these stand a i" iron rod, the 



rim of jars, but taking care to keep, at least, one or 
two inches of element below jar, so that when we 
lower it, everything finds its proper place. 

If required, we can connect the four boxes succes- 
sively, as also our revolving tube ; one person can 
then plunge the whole 48 elements. I claim for 
this particular form or construction of battery the 
best metallic connection with metals and between 
elements ; no harm can arise by over-filling cell, be- 
cause the overflow on plunging elements cannot 
reach head of battery. It can be taken to pieces 
very quickly, and the zincs are clear of all connec- 
tions, and ready to clean and amalgamate — the 
carbons also, free of all copper connections. I have 
taken the extra pains to electro-plate all my copper 
slips and clamps with silver, and on the whole the 
battery works very well. For the information of 
those interested, I may say that, on attaching the 
48 cells to Browning's large automatic lamp, the 
power was far too great for the lamp ; the carbon 
points, iin. square, melted away very rapidly. I 
have since reduced the working number to 24 cells 
with very great success. When showing the spectrum 
of a metal on a 10ft. screen, I plunge the battery 



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13 



deeper and deeper, until I obtain the precise 
battery power necessary to show the spectra of the 
vapour of the metal, without the electric light 
spectra — for sodium, thallium, Ac., of course only 
one or two inches of plunge are required ; for the 
former, indeed, the wet on end of elements, after 
being lifted, is quite enough. H. A. Severn. 
Graham's Town, N.Z., January 8th, 1876. 

References. Fig. 1, side view building element ; 
Fig. 2, plan showing head of element ; Fig. 3, side 
deration showing connection, clamp, and head 
pieces ; Fig. 4, clamp ; Fig. 5, box for twelve ele- 
ments and jars ; Fig. 6, plan of 2 elements ; A A, 
lifting rod; B B, deal steps. 



WATCHMAKER' 8 COMBINATION 
LATHE. 

[10613.] — According to promise I have sent 
three photos of watchmaker's combination lathe. It 
will be observed that the head and bar of lathe are 
the same in each case, the mandrels being removable 
by means of a jointed piece in the head stock. No. 1 
shows the pivoting mandrel in place, with waste 
chuck for turning in staffs, pinions, Ac. No. 2 
shows the lathe with universal head, being identical 
with the ordinary Swiss mandrel. No. 3 shows the 
wheel-cutting attachment, for the purpose of cutting 



PRACTICAL MECHANISM— DIVIDING 
CIRCLES. 

110614.}— In No. 574 you gave three columns of 
Mr. Joshua Rose's plan (taken from the Scientific 
American) for dividing circles. Allow me to de- 
scribe a plan adopted some years ago by an engineer 
and myself to divide the rotary top slide of a slide- 
rest bo that by it cones might be truly turned to 
any angle, so as to truly fit each other, by simply 
setting the rest at an angle according to the scale or 
division plate. Of course the slide-rest was made 
perfectly square with the mandrel (both ways) and 
with the bed. Then the slide-rest was removed 
from the lathe, and a pin turned to revolve in the 
centre of revolution. To this pin a long arm (3 or 4 
feet long) was made fast. Then, with great care, 
two pieces of steel were fixed to tho arm, one piece 
within the diameter of the circle to be divided, and 
the other at the end of the arm. These two pieces 
were carefully filed, so that the sides radiated truly 
from the centre of the hole, and not from the side of 
the arm, thus making straight edges. Then the top 
of the slide and the pin were placed firmly on the 
floor, care being taken to have the pin at right 
angles to the floor. A large Oft. to 8ft. circle was 
then described on the floor by a pencil placed on 
the arm. The exact half and then the exact 

rrters of the circle were found by compasses, and 
subdivisions were made. Each division was so 
large on the 6ft. to 8ft. circle that there was no 



rice 




sll descriptions of flat wheels— same as ordinary 
wheel-cutting engine. The chucks under No. 2 are 
t« use for various purposes with the lathe arranged 
Mm >o. 1, and should have been shown with No. 1, 
hot were shown with No. 2 by mistake. 

The chuck, A, No. 2, is for shaping and drilling 
or opening jewel holes. B, No. 2, is made of 
Tsrious sizes, to take different sizes of brass wire for 
jewel settings or steel wire for screws. C, No. 2, 
a a thin mill dressed with diamond dust for slitting 
jewels, Ac. D, No. 2, is the uprighting slide to be 
n»ed with mandrel head, for the purpose of putting 
in new bushes, Ac. E, G, and H are extra clogs to 
mandrel head, for damping work flat on face-plate, 
r u a circular saw, or cutter of steel. T and J are 
*rge-sized cement chucks for cementing on wheels 
•ad other largo pieces. The three pieces, 0, are 
three diamond laps of various degrees of fineness, 
the left hand one being of grain tin for polishing 
Jewels, tho other two of copper, for cutting and 
thaping jewels. 

What I claim for the lathe is, that it* price places 
it within the reach of any ordinary workman, and 
the various other parts not supplied with it can be 
"Mde by himgelf . The lathe, as I got it, consisted 
oUhe parts 1 and 2, and the tail stock shown on No. 3. 
Ihe wheel-cutter I made myself , also the chucks, laps, 
•Cm and a number of others not shown. The origi- 
nal cost was about £12, the cost of the remainder 
net more than £2, leaving out my labour. 

I will, if desired, describe how to use the wax 
chocks for pivoting, Ac. Seconds Pivot. 



difficulty iu making the divisions with accuracy, and 
testing them when made. The next step was to 
describe the circles on the slide, so as to form the 
outside of the scale. The last point was to draw the 
radiating lines, which was done by setting the outer 
straight edge to the division points on the large 
circle, and with a scriber marking the scale on the 
slide-rest. The result was such an accurate scale 
that when an outside and an inside cone was turned 
by simply setting the slide to the scale the two cones 
accurately fitted each other. The result exceeded 
our expectations. B. F. A. 



BWIMMINO. 

[10615. 1 — Suppose a piston to move quickly and 
horizontally along a square tube full of water. The 
water is driven forward, and causes a considerable 
resistance. Now remove the upper side of the tube ; 
the water is raised and overflows the sides of the 
tube, and the resistance is decreased. Now let us 
suppose the tube to bo indefinitely wide, the bottom 
remaining as before, the water is still raised in a 
wave on each side of the piston, but flows off easily, 
and soon finds its level. Now let the depth be in- 
creased ; the displaced water can now pass down- 
wards as well as sideways— it is no longer raised so 
much as before, and the resistance is decreased 
still further. Perhaps something like what I have 
here tried to point out may be the reason why it is 
easier, as it certainly is, to swim in deep water than 
in shallow. Treeeilian. 



"FIDDLER'S" FINGER-KEYED VIOL. 
[10616.}— I hope it is perceived that I intend the 
strings to be played on their side by the advancing 
and returning bow. This is because a very much 
larger amount of resonance is the result, as the 
Bonedboard is vibrated from and to its middle in- 
stead of from side to side, which would be the case 
if the strings were bowed in front or parallel to the 
soundboard. Supposing, then, that the bow-frame 
is made, and moves backward and forward without 
noise or touching any part that is stationary, we 
have, in playing this instrument, to connect each 
string with its particular bow, so that when the key 
is pressed the bow by its motion shall vibrate the 
string either loud or soft. In the Fig. is C, the 
connecter that presses the bow, B, against the 
string, S. This connecter is a piece of soft iron 
wire (No. 10, or thicker, will do), no steel or hard 
wire may be used because the bow will cause it to 
i peak, or rather squeak. Boilers on wire have been 
the fashion, but I can do without them by using this 
soft wire, and making the distance from C to Cl as 
short as possible. This wire is bent, so that the top 
bend has an arm that goes through a screw eye in 
the wrest-plank, W, then it comes straight past the 
bow, takes another turn at Cl, and down through 
the other screw eye in top of soundboard. After it 
has so passed it is turned at right angles or parallel 
to the soundboard, and has a side bearing towards 
the keyboard, K, so that when this side arm is 
pulled forward the connecter, of which it forms a 
part, will turn right about ftce, or as a Venetian 
blind. Next, the key has a block of wood, with a 
sticker fixed in it a little behind the centre pin under 
the key ; a hole is made in the top of the sticker, to 
pass a piece of gut or fine strong twine through, 
which is fixed to the arm of the connecter and 




wound tight as necessary by a screw eye in the 
middle of the sticker. It will be seen that when the 
key is pressed down the top of the sticker will come 
forward, polling the arm by means of the twine, 
and also turning the connecter towards the bow ana 
pressing it with varying force against the string, 
according to the pressure exerted upon the key by 
the finger. The connecter requires to be held up in 
its position by a spring fixed at C and to the back of 
the wrest-plank — a piece of elastic will last for years ; 
the spring will keep the connecter from pressing on 
the bow when the key is not used. There are no 
rollers to make a noise, there is no friction but 
where it is required between bow and string; the 
action is like that of a fiddler's bow arm ; the ex- 
pense of the whole instrument is under £A, and it 
stands in a small compass. 

The most common of this class of finger-keyed 
viols is sure to sound louder than most pianos, 
because the action is sustained, and it has other and 
many advantages — expression, for instance — which 
are developed in playing it. I respectfully desire our 
readers to suggest improvements in its construction ; 
the soundboard in particular wants a better defini- 
tion, Ac., Ac., so that we may be the means of 
introducing a new musical instrument to the world. 
I know the outline, though slight, that I have given 
is correct in principle. Fiddler. 

ORGAN-BUILDING. 
[10617. } — Thirk are some important questions in 
the building of organs upon which I trust Mr. 
Audsley will give us his opinion. There is not an 
organ-player who has not experienced the disad- 
vantages arising from no two organs being alike in 
parts, which, if organists and organ-builders would 
bnt meet in committee and agree upon, might be 
settled once for all, and not left to the individual 



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ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE: No. 573. March 17, 1876. 



caprices of builders, who, after all, are not- obliged 
to play on the instruments they build. The points 
on which uniformity ia more than desirable are : — 

1. The height of the keyboard above the pedals. 

2. The position cf the pedal-board. 3. The situa- 
tion of the swell pedal. 4. The composition pedals — 
i.e., whether the forte should be in the centra or ex- 
treme right (the former being preferable). 5. Ditto 
oi regards the swell, &o. 

I need not point out the special disadvantages in 
each of the above cases ; but their remedy is to be 
obtained if the subject is properly ventilated aud 
attended to. I am anxious that those points should 
be finally settled, and I do not believe that their 
settlement will at all hamper the designs of builders, 
as the convenience of the performer should be con- 
sulted. There is one point upon which I will just 
touch— the general swell. It is undoubtedly a 
defect, when a solo is being played on the " great," 
that no expression such as could be obtained by a 
■well can be given to it. In the Carmelite Church 
at Kensington the effect of the general swell is 
astounding. 

Jersey, March 7. J. W. B. 

OLD MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 
[10618. J— Mat I ask you to make it known to 
the readers of the Enoljhh Mechanic, that the 
committee of the Exhibition of Scientific Apparatus, 
shortly to be held at South Kensington, in the 
acoustical and musical department, would be glad 
of any information as to disused or forgotten con- 
trivances, such as scrap bines, awlo-pantalone, 
sostincnte pianofortes, and the like. They would 
also entertain proposals as to the exhibition of such 
contrivances, if not occupying too much space. It 
is not proposed to include large instruments of a 
purely musical character, unless illustrating some 
new and definite principle. W. H. Stone. 



BADIOMJBTEB, 

[10619.1— I tbied a single experiment this evening. 
1 took a large Bunsen burner and lighted it with a 
true Bunsen rose burner flame. It gave out great 
heat, and made the radiometer revolve quickly. But 
when I left the same amount of gas burning, but 
turned off the supply of air, then though the flame 
was smaller in circumference and gave less heat, 
the radiometer revolved very much quicker. 

Is there a ladiometer made in which different 
vanes and different degrees of exhaustion can bo 
tried atpleasure ? B. P. A. 

6th March. 



1.10620.}— As a general rule it is of very little use 
to attempt to discuss a subject of physics without 
being familiar with what has been already written 
upon that Bubject. Many of your readers are now 
discussing the phenomena exhibited by the radio- 
meter, without having previously mastered the 
multitude of experiments, the facte, and the deduc- 
tions, which have been published by Mr. Crookes 
on the subject in the " Transactions of the Royal 
Society." A few of tbem have even been writing con- 
fidently upon light and heat, without being ac- 
quainted with some of the elementary principles of 
the subject— as for instance, " surely the rays of 
heat are not visible," p. 668 of the present volume. 
This kind ef discus b ion ia wide of the mark, and 
takes up yonr space unnecessarily . I beg to assure 
" H. A. C." and " Treadle," that my radiometer is 
as sensitive as any that Mr. Browning has received 
from Germany. When placed within three boll- 

f [lasses, it rotates almost instantly when a match is 
ighted at a distance of 12in. ; this, however, is not 
due to either light or heat alone, but to the combined 
action of both. When placed behind am alum screen, 
there is no effect. Mr. Cunnington will find the 
1 ' theory of exchanges' ' explained very clearly in Prof. 
Clerk-Maxwell's ^Theory of Heat," price 3a. 6d., 
published by Longmans— a most admirable book on 
a very diflicult subjeot. H. C. Kej. 

[10621 .]— The following account of an experiment 
with a radiometer may be interesting to many who 
possess these little instruments. I placed one large 
glass jar within another, leaving about jin. space 
all round between the two, which was filled with 
cold water, and so arranged that this water could be 
drawn off from the top, and replenished by a pipe at 
the bottom, so that this space would be constantly 
emptying and ro-fillinc. The inner jar, containing 
the radiometer, was filled with a strong solution of 
alum, so that there was ljin. of the liquid between 
the globe of the radiometer and the jar. The tem- 
perature of the alum solution was 12° C, and the water 
Hi C. I then placed round the outside jar, and at 
a distance of ljin. from it, sixteen large carriage- 
lamp candles, at such a height that, the longer they 
burned, the more light could affect the discs of the 
radiometer. When the second candle was lighted, 
slow repulsion of the black discs ensued; eight 
candles produced one complete revolution ia 140 
seconds, sixteen candles one in 50 seconds. The 



water bad been allowed to rise 5°, and the alum bad 

ri-ien 1°. Motion gradually decreased, and in 10 
minutes ceased entirely ; the alum was then at 14°. 
When the candles were blown out " reverse motion " 
ensued. 

The experiment was repeated, starting with the 
alum aud water at 12^ C. The sixteen candles 
were lighted at once, and produced one complete 
revolution in 36 seconds ; this motion became less 
and less, and in 40 minutes ceased entirely. The 
alum was then at 15}° ; the water was never 
allowed to exceed 15'. When the candles were 
blown out rapid reverse motion ensued, the discs 
making one complete revolution in 20 seconds. The 
experiment was again repeated. This time the water 
was not changed at all, but allowed to get as hot as 
the candles could make it, and to warm the inner 
jar aud the alum solution. After the sixteen candles 
were lighted the motion gradually quickened until 
it bad acquired a velocity equal to one complete 
revolution in 2*2 seconds (this in about 10 minute* 
after the candles were lighted). It then gradually 
decreased, and in 70 minutes ceased— the water 
having risen 25° C, and the alum 20 C. When the 
candles were blown out very slow reverse motion 
ensued : the disos only made 1± revolution. During 
this experiment I took the temperature of the alum 
and of the water, and counted the velocity of the 
rotation every two or three minutes. I find that the 
velocity does not decrease unless the alum becomes 
warm, and that the warmer the alum the less the 
velocity. I have reason to believe tVat the alum is 
raised in temperature more by the radiant heat from 
the radiometer than it is by heat obtained from the 
water which surrounds it. My letter of last week 
will, I believe, explain this and the bearing of the 
foregoing experiment. 

HI Alfr ed CuBDington. 



FLASHING POUKBB QV MUfBBAL 

OILS: 

[10622.}-Mb. A J. Grkenawat's letter (10551, 
p. 638) affords an admirable ill nitration of the trite 
maxim that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. 
If Mr. Greenaway has read with surprise ray state- 
ment that the Petrol eusa Act does not take cog- 
nuance of the rate at which the heating of mineral 
oils is to proceed when they are being tested, 
otherwise than by specifying the use of » small 
flame, he will probably be still more surprised to 
learn that there is no such thing as " the Petroleum 
Act of 1872," to which he makes reference. 
Nevertheless, both statements are true. I am well 
aware that a bill to amend the Petroleum Act now 
in force was introduced during the Parliamentary 
session of 1872, for I was consulted in reference to 
the proposed measure, which provided not only for 
a fixed rate of heating, bat also for a totally dis- 
tinct form of apparatus and a different standard. 
This bill, however, never became an Act ; for it was 
withdrawn, and accordingly tha Act of 1871 re- 
mained, and still remains, nna— dad. This year 
we are likely to have a* change ; hast I am not at 
liberty to say more on. this point at present. I 
cannot but think it a pity that before Mr. Green- 
away took npon himself to write a letter calling in 
question the veracity ef my stsieseeut (a letter 
which, from pressure of work, I did not see until 
this morning) he did not adopt the precaution, which 
most people consider necessary where facts, and not 
opinions, are at issue, of proving tha truth of his 
own assertion. I would oornirtand to hie careful 
consideration the extract from the admirable essays 
of Montaigne with which you have prefaced the 
" Letters to the Editor." 

Boverton Redwood, F.C.8., 
Consulting Chemist to the Petroleum Association. 
85, Gracechnrch-street, London, March 9. 



OXYGEN. 

[10623.] — I think Mr. Darnell's (letter 10546, 
page 637) explanation of the anomaly observed in 
the proportions of oxygen and hydrogen, which give 
the best results in the limelight, is in all probability 
the correct one, and the chemical readers of the 
English Mechanic are indebted to him for clear- 
ing up the mystery. 

When some one has led the way it is easy for 
others to follow, and I may, therefore, point oat that 
the effect of excess of oxygen in the oxy-hydrogen 
blowpipe flame is comparable to the influence of 
atmoiphera on many chemical reactions. Thus, 
when oxide of iron is heated to redness in an atmo- 
sphere of hydrogen, metallic iron and water are the 
products, while water is decomposed at a red heat by 
metallic iron, with evolution of hydrogen, formation 
of oxide of iron. In the first case, the water 
vapour, formed in the reaction, is swept away by 
the current of hydrogen before it has time to 
sensibly reaot on the iron, while in the second case 
the evolved hydrogen is carried away before it has 
time co reduce any sensible quantity of oxide. 

A very interesting instance of reciprocal reactions 
has been investigated by Mr. Lowthian Bell, in con- 
nection with his researches on the chemistry of the 
blast furnace. Oxide of iron is reduced by beating 



in carbonic oxide gas (CO), with formation of 
metallic iron and carbonic dioxide (carbonic acid, 
COj). On the other hand, the last product is decom- 
posed by metallic iron, with formation of CO and 
oxide of iron. Here are two opposing reactions. 
Mr. Bell finds that neither is complete except under 
extreme conditions, the proportions of CO and CO] 
required to produce chemical equilibrium being a 
function of the temperature. Hence, if CO be 

Ksed through a long tube, filled with oxide of iron, 
ted to a given temperature, partial reduction will 
ensue, and the issuing gas will contain CO and CO* 
in particular proportions, which will be dependant 
on the temperature. Conversely, if CO* be passed 
over metallic iron at the same temperature, the 
resultant gases (aud the contents of the tube) will 
have exactly the same composition as in the former 
case. 

Given a sufficiently long tube, and exactly similar 
results would, no doubt, be obtainable from the re- 
action between red hot iron and steam. 

Sheffield. Alfred H. Allen. 



SOLAS ENERGY (10540). 

[10624.]— The general practice ef writers noticing 
theories put forth in the pages of the English 
Mac ha nic has been to produce arguments pro or 
con. " Isbtar " condemns " Sakha ,r (10493, p. 609), 
to the general contempt of " ours," without ad- 
vancing one argument of his own to combat 
" Sakha's " theory. This, I contend, is mere waste 
of Mr. Editor's space. What though all knowledge 
on this subject may have been " cut and dried, ' 
according to "Ishtar's" notion, by " those whose 
achievements in'seience entitle them to oar re- 
spect "—may not seme small individual pre— ■ to 
think for himself, and possibly improve usmn old 
theories especially as science is progressive? 

" Ishtor" saks on what bMe"S.'s" ''third and 
chiefly" rests. He will find it in the axiom ex- 
pressed by " S." iu the words "where there is no 
matter there those forces can do no work, and no 
energy can be expended." If "Ishtor" can prove 
that this is not a fact, let him de so ; in the mean 
time I, for one, join firmly with " Sakha," and leave 
him, as he has had the bonoar of leading the way, 
to follow the theory up to its just conclusions. 
"Ishtor" follows up with some "fine" writing 
about "higher and more widely-embracing conser- 
vation of energy," " dim-visioned humanity," 
" distant and undreamt-of nascent forms of crea- 
tion," Ac., Ac. One line of argument would have 
helped " feeble human wisdom " to some better idea 
of the subifct in hand. With fear of " Ishtor " in 
my heart I still venture to pnt forth a notion that 
has struck me whilst reading the numerous letters 
of late concerning the universe gradually losing its 
heat, &o., and that notion is that, although the 
universe is infinite, yet in all our considerations of 
the matter comprising it, the forces acting on that 
matter, and the qualities of the matter anc forces, 
we may still assume the infinite universe to be an 
entity to which nothing can be added and from 
which nothing can be taken. O. Pinnington. 



ASTBONOMIOAL REPLIES. 

[10625.] — In answer to several recent inquiries I 
beg to communicate the little that 1 know. As far 
as observation is concerned it is but little, the 
weather having laid an almost continuous embargo 
upon all telescopic proceedings. I made an effort 
on Saturday night ; but the rapid flutters of defini- 
tion and the continual passage of clouds aided a 
powerful moon in almost frustrating the attempt. 

? Persei (10316) had got into an unfavourable 
position, and I failed to pick up the 5th star. As to 
the others, the first impression was still that of 
magnitude increasing with distance ; but, on more 
careful examination, I felt doubtful whether the 
nearest wonld not equal the 2nd, if the primary 
were hidden. 

On looking at p 1 Orionis I was of my former 
opinion — that the smaller component of that beau- 
tiful pair was overrated at 8 5 mag., and should 
have deposed it at least half a magnitude. As to 
the authority for the magnitudes as well as other 
data in " Celestial Objects," it will be seen by a 
reference to p. 192 (3rd edition) that, unless speci- 
fied to the contrary, it is always that of Admiral 
Smyth. With regard to magnitude estimates in 
general, there seems to be much that is unsatisfac- 
tory — as, for instance, in the remarkable example 
of 9* AndromediE. And not only do tho values 
given by different observers vary, but those of the 
same observer at different times — in ' 1 Secchi's Double 
Star Catalogue " frequently to the extent of one, and 
even two magnitudes. If Mr. Simms is interested 
in the possibility of variation in pairs, he may turn 
his instrument on 26 Auriga?, where B seems to me 
more like 9 - 5 than 8 mag. (I may also note that I 
thought A, Feb. 29, 1876, pale yellow instead of 
dusky white.) Burnham's 3rd star, glimpsed with 
65, is a " staring" object with 212 on my 9-88in. 
mirror. 



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15 



32 Ononis (25806).— I bad not looked at this star 
for a long time, and I might as well bare omitted 
doing so on Saturday for all tbat I conld make out 
of H ; nor in such air as we have at present is there 
any prospect of doing better. Even n, which, under 
favourable circumstances, my beautiful "With" 
rpeeulum will split by nearly the disc of the smaller 
star, was qnite impracticable. I should recommend 
"Jyks," when he can get a steady night, to 
examine the behaviour of his object-glass upon i. 
He would probably notch or just divide it, and when 
he had rendered his eye familiar with the object he 
would be able to form a fair judgment of the 
appearance of 32, which is probably now a closer 
pair. Some object-glasses are not free from false 
uaages ; and certain states of air will produce them. 
I once saw i triple in this way with the reflector. 

The companion of Sirius has been repeatedly 
measured with the 26in. telescope of the Washington 
Observatory since 1873; but I have not seen the 
results. I have never caught thi3 object. The 
fault mav lie in this air — which I do not think very 
favourable— or in my eye, as I havo never been Tery 
successful in detecting minute points in the neigh- 
bourhood of a strong light ; the instrument is cer- 
tainly not to blame. 

Reference has been made to my mention of the 
"younger Tulley." He was the son of the justly- 
oelebrated optician, but did not, I believe, attain an 

Sua] reputation, and, I think, has been long dead, 
s had an uncle who made eyepieces, and an un- 
married aunt, from whom I purchased, where it 
lav among a quantity of optical rubbish, a deep 
Hnyghenian eyepiece, about 450, on 7ft. foens, which, 
from its beautiful quality, I think may have pos- 
sibly been used by the elder Tulley in the trial of 
his object-glasses. T. W. Webb. 

THE PATH OP THE MOOT. 

[10626.]— It is not necessary to enter into the 
history of the discussion, as the same error is 
to be perceived in " F. E. A. S.'s " letter (10485, 
p. 607). _ In order that the point of the hand 
of the piece of mechanism should always move 
concave to the post, the hand most perform 
Ha revolution in the same time as the locomotive. 
In this case the extremity of the band makes a 
circle concentric with the line of rails. It need not 
be said that this does not adequately illustrate the 
moon's motion, as in that case one phase of the 
moon would be constant. I next wish simply to put 
is juxtaposition "F. B. A. S.'s" reply to qaery 
24721 and the construction I have put upon that 
reply. The answer given is that a table conld not 
'«* -Aiuj.ui*iu, ''-'inasnruOn %a, tne factor, the star's 
distance from the meridian, is changing \i nrery 
instant." I have construed this to mean that Iwa 
fact of the variation of the hour angle prevents the 
formation of this table. I shall be in absolute 
accordance if In my last letter I substitute for " no 
astronomical table," an astronomical table. 

Charles H. Prodaham. 

[Mr. Prodaham has apparently omitted to notiee 
that part of the context (p. 451) which reads, " no 
tables could be computed whence the quantities he 
requires could be taken out by inspection." This 
omission makes a great difference ; but why does 
•ot Mr. Frodsham supply the tables, and so confute 
Us antagonist by the best of all means ?— Ed.] 



LUNAR MAPS AND CATALOGUES. 

[10627.}— I trust yon will allow me to say a 
few wards, having reference to the answers I have 
received to my qaery respecting the beat lunar 
«>ap and catalogue for the use of amateurs. Allow 
me. in the first place, to tender my thanks to 
"P. B. A. S." and Mr. Birt for their answers. I 
regret, however, tbat the former seems to hare mis- 
mjderstood, to some extent, my remarks with refe- 
rence to Mr. Webb's most excellent work, " Celestial 
Objeots." 

I flan well believe that *' F. B. A. S." is perfectly 
earreet in stating that there is no other work in the 
English language containing such amass of general 
information on the subject of the lunar surface, but 
at the same time allow me to point ont that this 
very fact would make it quite impossible for Mr. 
Webb to have gone into elaborate detailed descrip- 
tions ot every tract or formation on the moon's sur- 
face— at least within the limits nf a work like the 
one under discussion, in which suoh a mass of general 
information on observational astronomy is treated. 

"F. B. A. S." says also, " tbat the map of the 
aoon and chapter it illustrates in (Celestial Objects 
Cor Common Telescopes), might very well serve any 
•mateur with practically inexhaustible work." In 
this I also fully agree with him, but at the same 
nme I cannot bat think that a work treating of the 
■noon's surface more in detail, accompanied by a 
food map drawn to a barge stale, must necessarily 

_ * useful addition to the library of an amateur who 
»"bes to make the moon his special study. 

Thurso, Canada. David Siman*. 



LUNAR TOPOGRAPHY— POBI-] 
DONIUS. 

[10628.]— I examined this walled plain on 
January 31st, 1876, with my 4}ln. Witb-Brownmg 

reflector. 

The accompanying sketch represents its appear- 
ance as I saw it at 8.15 p.m., using powers of 167 
and 280. The sun was jrtst beginning to rise on 
the west wall of " Bessel." Mr. Webb mentions, 
in speaking of this formation, iu " Celestial Ob- 
jects," that a drawing of it by M. Gaudibert, has 
already appeared in your columns in Maroh, 1872. 




N 

It has occurred to me that, perhaps, my sketch 
(taken very probably under a very different angle 
of illumination) might be worthy of publication 
for the purpose of comparison with his. Unfortu- 
nately, I can form no definite opinion on this point 
myself, as I do not possess the volume of the 
Mechanic containing M. Gaudibert's drawing, 
nor indeed have I ever seen it. 

The ridge marked G> G* G 3 on sketch appears to 
be the ruins of the wall of an interior crater. 

The surface between G l and G s appears to be as 
unbroken as any other portion of the interior of 
Posidonius, and the extremities of the ridge at these 
two points, instead of ending abruptly, both come 
down gradual 1 y to the level of the floor, suggesting 
the idea that at one time the ridge was continuous, 
and has since been submerged. At the point marked 
G s , this ridge or range of mountains attains a con- 
siderable elevation, approaching, at the same time, 
very closely the wall of Posidonius, the valley be- 
tween them being very narrow at this point, and 
at the time of my observation filled with black 
shadow. There is no mention made of this ridge, 
in " Celestial Objects," neither in the text nor on 
the nap. At B on sketch is figured an oblong 
crater or (regression on the'summit of the ring, being 
very easily seenat the time of my observation. D 
and C are two smaLcraters also on the ring ; these 
are figured on map in '* Celestial Objects." At F 
there is a well-marked gap' n. the wall of Posidonius, 
connecting with the valley between invadge ^ft O G, 
and the outer wall. This gap is bounded on the 
west by a range of mountains extending from the 
ring of Chocornic (A on sketch), and forming the 
ridge. G G G, at H. Three small hillocks were 
plainly to be seen near the central crater, E, they 
are fig jred 1 , 2, 3, on sketch. At J I saw two deep 
and well-marked ravines on the outer slope of 
wall. M. Gaudibert's cleft I did not succeed in 
detecting. David Bimms. 

Thurso, Canada. 

MINUTE MIOBOSCOPIC LENSES. 
[10629.]— Having found some difficulty in de- 
termining accurately small differences of thickness 
in minate lenses for the microscope, I hit upon 
this dodge, which answers admirably, and give it to 
you for the nse of others who grind object-glasses 
for amusement. Procure a bit of wood 2ft. long or 
more, A, nail to each end two bits of brass, B, and 
through these run two screws. Bevel part of the 
wood, E, and, with a good scale divided into lengths 




of inches, mark on the wood a scale as far as 20in. ; 
these need not be strictly accurate. On one of the 
screws solder a swivel, and to it attach two fine 
brass or steel wires. Do the same at the other end, 
and draw these wires tight by the aid of the screws. 
Now carefully file a bit of brass so that it shall be 
precisely Ath of an inch wide, and opposite the 
figure 20 there place this between the wires. These 
wires will now be together at one end of the wood, 
O, and just Mh of an inch apart at 20m. A 
small lens is easily run between these wires until it 
tone bee both surfaces, and if this happenj opposite, 
aay No. 10, this glass is -05 thick. 



I found it convenient to stick a slip of glass on 
the wooden bevelled snrfaoo with Canada balsam, and 
on this I "have, by the aid of a writing diamond, 
marked my scale, which, being also subdivided be- 
tween the inches, measures very accurately to the 
third decimal. Thus in the above example the contact 
might be No. 10 and 4-tenths ; then the thickness 
would represent the '054. 

By the use of this instrument, and owing to the 
kindness of Mr. Wenham, in his communications 
tfarongh yon, I have made one or two high powers, 
which resolve all usual teats with ease. 

I find muflh difficulty, even by the aid of a fine 
screw-cutting lathe, to bore the holes in my brass 
work with mathematical accuracy, and I fail to 
satisfy myself with any plan for moving the inner 
tubes of these high -power objectives (without 
springs, which are very objectionable) my collars 
always lose time— thus the figures on the outside are 
useless. Can any mechanic devise a plan for moving 
one pipe inside another, by a screw collar, without 
this loss? 

The amount of valuable information now afforded 
by your paper is worthy all praise, but very few give 
the microscope a lift. Why is this P 

The Ghoet. 

MB. OBOOKES' LUCEBOMETEB. 

eS 0630.]— On reading the first meagre descriptions 
lished about Mr. Crookes' experiments, I (doubt- 
s as many others did) jumped at the conclusion 
that at last we had got that much desired object, a 
reliable actinometer, by which we could regulate 
our exposures, time our carbon prints, and test the 
yellow or ruby lights of our dark chambers . It 
read like it, but on reading a fuller description these 
notions were rudely dispelled, as it was found that 
the interposition of yellow light caused the instru- 
ment to revolve at a greater speed, while blue had a 
retarding effect, just the opposite action of these 
colours in an actinic sense. Notwithstanding these 
facts, I see by a number of the English Mechanic 
just to hand that Mr. Crookes purposes to nsehisinstru- 
ment as a test of the power of gas or candle lights. 
But what test will this be P Simply tbat a large 
yellow flame would show a far higher power than a 
small white or bluish light. 

The action of light in rendering amorphous 
selenium more or less a conductor of electricity, 
seems to offer a better teat— that is, supposing it is 
not affected by the yellowness or blueness of tho 
light as in Mr. Crookes' instrument. 

"Walter B. "Woodbury. 
Castellamare.Feb. 28th, 1876. 



THE REFLECTION OF POBCE. 

[10631.] — As the truth of my statement concerning 
the reflection of heat does not appear self-evident to 
the mind of " Bamus" (letter 10374, p. 636), I beg to 
offer a few remarks thereon. I know it is impossible 
to demonstrate its truth by direct experiment, 
because the necessary conditions do not exist in our 
sphere. Still, I think it can be shown analogously 
to be probably correct. To proceed, let us consider 
the phenomenon of thunder. There is first the 
exploanAo^hich we will suppose takes place a mile 
above the surfaofcof the earth. It will be admitted 
that the sound is propagated all around from the 
centre of the explosion- Consequently, a part ascends 
to the' limit of the atmVpbere, where the medium of 
sound has become gradually less dense. We hear 
the sharp, distinct, and stunning report of the 
explosion. But the sound is prolonged for some time. 
It gradually becomes softer to our ears. What 
becomes of that portion of the sowd which has gone 
upwards P The •vir becomes more attenuated the 
hrgher it gets. Is not a small part rejected down- 
wards conttaously until all the energy o\ the sound 
wave has been expended ? 

If the density of the atmosphere were the same at 
its limit as at the earth's surface, the refleetionof 
thunder would still occur, only instead of being 
softened in its effect, it would be sent back to the 
earth sharp and clear like an echo. Let us follow 
in imagination a wave of sound to the limit of snob 
an atmosphere. Upwards it travels, so many feet 
per second — at length it arrives at the very limit. 
Can it proceed any farther P Were it not for the 
force of gravity it would — a part of the air would 
fly away into space ; but gravity pulls the particles 
of air back. The direction of the wave is now 
completely reversed. So of course the wave proceeds 
downwards. 

Let us now consider mechanical force travelling 
through a solid. At present, I oan only think of the 
following for an example. Suppose we have a very 
long solid bar of iron, suspended horisontally by 
means of strings, so as to hang freely. Stand near 
one of the ends, and give it a blow with a hammer. 
The force of the blow will travel to the other end of 
the bar, and when the limit of the bar has been 
reached, what would occur? The atoms of the iron 
bar having a very powerful attraction for it-elf, 
would prevent a part of the end from flying off —that 
is, the direction of the motion would be oomph 
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would be communicated to the atmosphere as sound. 
After a time the reflected blow would arrive at the 
end from which it started. 

Let ns now consider a ray of light travelling 
through a solid substance. Suppose the ray fall 
perpendicularly on a thick plate of glass. A part 
would be reflected on striking the glass. The 
remaining part would enter the substance of the 
plate, going straight through to the other side. On 
arriving at the limit of the glassy medium a still 
further part would be reflected back into the plate. 
The second reflection is from the limit of the glass 
itself, and the ray would be reflected wholly if there 
were not another medium which receives the 
remaining force. 

Now, does it really require a very great " stretch 
of the imagination, Ac. P A. H. B. 



LATHE SCREW. 
[10632.}— It may interest some of your readers to 
know that I was once acquainted with a practical 
engineer, who used for the leading screw of his 5 in. 
lathe only a common wood screw cut by a wood 
turner. And, thus, after baring it in use for a con- 
siderable time, he substituted for it one of metal, 
cut by its aid in his own lathe. V. Q. Coombs. 



OVERHEAD GEAR FOB LATHES. 

110633.1— I am glad to see " Amateur Turner's " 
(10595) testimony to the economy of my arrange- 
ment. I think 10s. is about what the necessary 
ironwork should cost where the centring and harden- 
ing of tho shafting cau be done at home. But I 
was anxious not to understate the cost, and so gave 
the price I had paid myself for the ironwork com- 
plete, including the centring of shafting, brackets, 
Ac., and steel blanks for centre-screws. 

I take this opportunity of amending a direction of 
my own at p. 651, col. 1, line 26. Instead ' of " set 
dming pulley, E, so that groove No. 1 shall be 
perpendicularly over F on the slide-rest," read in 
the same vertical plane as F. Practically it is 
always best to let the driving pulley on C stand a 
little to the other side of the pulley on the slide- 
rest handle. There are few slide-rests entirely free 
from back-lash. In practice the tool is always 
pushed up to its work by the screw, and a pull from 
the opposite direction might draw the tool further 
in to the extent of any back -lash that might exist. 
Although it would require more than a trifling 
obliquity to do ibis, it is well to keep the possibility 
in mind in arranging the standing position of the 
frame. When doing work where both slides may 
be wanted in turn, the frame is brought forward so 
that the driving pulley, E, shall stand over the 
handle of the transverse slide. This avoids fair- 
leaders, and if there be a pulley on each slide, and a 
second pulley (as described) on the driving shaft, C, 
the band can be connected with either slide at 
pleasure. As an illustration of handinesB in use I 
may add this : When sliding wood work (which 
admits of the same tool being used either to right 
or left without any change of adjustment) the right 
and left trips are taken without even checking Kb 
fly-wheel. One hand disconnects,, h» t uV "pull and 
the other twists or untwists thr band as required, 
and casts it on again after settiig the tool. 

d. h. o. 

" F. B. A. S.'s " BLTJE-RE8T — SUPPLE- 
MENTARY. 
[10634.]— HATiHThad the advantage of reading 
the four lotter on this subject in No. 571, 1 will 
give what I vomised about teste, and where I do 
differ from the other " doctors," ae " J. L." prog- 
nosticate, 1 will give my reason, which, by the bye, 
the laryera always tell you is about the worst thing 
yoj can do to fortify your evidence. If you have a 
r ace-plate, and (1) it does not wobble, then the test 
for level or parallelism with bed of the mandrel is 
with a good large square, and mind it is a good one, 
such as the D. B. and S. ones are ; (2), if the face- 
plate does wobble, find out its two diametrically 
opposite worst places, and, having marked the inter- 
mediate diameter at right angles to them, test by 
that ; if you have not a face-plate, the true rim of a 
large cop-chuck will do. But the best test for this, 
as well as, and at the same time, for straightness of 
mandrel with poppet, is the one given in 1872, by 
" Hone Ko Io,' ' referred to in my first letter. I shall 
return to this below. 

I don't like the point test, as the shadow always 
prevents my seeing whether the points are true with 
one another, and I have a defect in one eye which 
prevents my middling any object truly. So I always 
use a narrow straight edge, applied as in Fig. 1, on 
either side and above and below, to see whether the 
points coincide, and I believe this to be the very 
best test for this purpose. The way I always serve 
an untrue poppet-head is to chuck it on the planing 
machine by means of a boring bar with split cone 
centres of hard wood, or preferably of metal, driven 
into the barrel (see Fig. 6), and plane the sides and 



bottom parallel to the bar, and then, if necessary, 
which is almost sure to be the case, screw a good 
thick plate on one side, to make up for the reduc- 
tion in thickness, of course cutting away enough to 
leave room for a thick plate, and then take the 
mandrel-head and treat it likewise (for this hard- 
wood cones do well enough), and put in a couple of 
set-screws, S S (Fig. 2), of exactly the right length 
to go between the beds, instead of plates, to bring 



Figl 






f To*. 











the head right. The setting of the screws is by no 
means difficult, the routine being first to move the 
front or right-hand one till the cone-centres coin- 
cide, and then, if under the test for straightness, 
the left-hand one must be moved, take care to move 
it just so many times as much as the front one (but 
both the same way), as its distance from the point 
of the cone- centre (measured horizontally) is greater 
than the distance of the right-hand one from the 
same point— thus, if from o to p is four times the 



distance of c to p, then the left-hand screw must be 
moved four times as much as the left. 

The. way I manage the test for straightness is 
shown in Fig. 3, A B being any (flat) bar of metal 
centred at the ends ; C D and A D two other bars, 
connected, as shown, by cramps or hand vices ; 
E, F, a bar of, say, Ain. square, and, say, 18in. 
long, stuck through the square hole of the driving 
centre chuck, or still better, as shown, bolted to the 
face-chuck, if that carries a cone-centre. Having 
tried the contact of F and D on both sides of the 
centre, as at F and H, try it similarly with £ F, 
pointing vertically upwards, and if the amount of 
contact is the same as before, you may conclude 
that your mandrel is level. The long block of wood 
in " B. P. A.'s " letter is, in my opinion, not long 
enough for a test, and in " D. H. G.'s " it is long 
enough to droop a little by its own weight. I 
deceived myself in that manner into believing my 
old lathe to be true when I first put iron bearers to 
it, and never found it out till t tried to square a 
prismatic piece of iron by successive cuts of a 
circular face-cutter, when, on coming to the fourth 
plane, I found the accumulated error of the other 
three to be something considerable. 

To ascertain whether the slide-rest is square with 
the bed, wedge a centre punch, C, into one of the out- 
side holes of the face-chuck, and, having removed 
the lower leading screw, mark a place on the top 
plate, P, at which the point of the punch just 
touches it, and then, reversing the chuck and sliding 
the plate from you, see that it touches equally on 
that slide. P and P show the plate in its two 
positions (Bee Fig. 4). 

The easiest and best way to test parallelism of the 
top slide of the rest is to bang a small bar, B D, 
between the centres, Fig. 5. Find its centre, C; 
measure with your rule the total traverse of your 
top slide, and set off a little less (say iin. less) than 
half of that on one side of the middle of the bar, as 
at A, and there screw on a carrier. Next, without 
taking out the screw of slide, as in no caso is it 
likely that you will have to run it backwards and 
forwards above twice, run the top plate as far as 
you can to the left, and put a tool in the holder in 
such a position that its point shall be as nearly aa 
may be vertically over the centre line, E F, of the 
turntable of the lower part of the rest. Place the 
bar between the centres, as shown with the carrier 
to left of C, and make contact between the point of 
the tool and the most prominent part of the carrier. 
Next reverse the bar, bringing A to A. and traverso 
the plate to the other end of its run (shown dotted), 
slack the screws of the turntable, and adjust. It 
ought to come right the first time if due care has 
been need, but test again, at any rate, and readjust 
if necessary. I alwaw .(vaufaafe my rests with 3U 
degree* ji* divisions on each side of the centre line, 
j& far from the middle of the turntable as they will 
go in, and use an index as in Fig. 5. A finely-cut 
scratch in the middle with a magnifying glass, if 
you cannot see without, will enable you to set your 
rest true enough without the set pin that " B. P. A." 
recommends. I never saw a slide-rest with one. 
The index is, of course, adjusted after the slide is 
got true. N.B. — In all the sketches a y is the line 
of centres. 

Now a word about cone-points. I always make 
them at an angle of 60°, using a gauge, which is very 
readily made by filing a notch in the edge of a piece 
of steel plate with a 3-square file. I always make 
the extreme point terminate in a very much blunter 
cone, say at least 100°. The slide-rest swivelled 
over to an angle of 30° enables you to turn your 
cones exactly. It is a mistake to leave the cone of 
the driving chuck too hard to admit of correction 
with a hard graver ; I never harden mine at all. 
The cone centres of the poppet-head should always 
be finished in their places in the barrel, the front 
edge of which should be rounded off, as shown in 
Fig. 1, to give a bearing in one of the holes of the 
boring collar for this purpose, and in applying the 
test in Fig. 1 I use a soft cone in the poppet to avoid 
the distortion that may occur to one in hardening. 
Aud, lastly, before commencing any piece of work 
of importance, see that the centre cone of your 
driving chuck runs dead true, which it will not if 
you have screwed your chuck on with any dirt in the 
internal screw : and, if it does not, make it do so 
before starting. J. K. P. 



ESSENCE OF CORRESPONDENCE. 



Railway Tickets and Changing. 

[316.1— John Paine suggests that railway tiokets 
should have printed on the back the names of stations 
that passengers have to change at. This simple 
plan would save parties travelling on strange lines 
considerable anxiety. 

Large Telescopes. 
[317.J— Jas. Ellis, of Dublin, says in reference to 
letter 10485 :— " The Vienna telescope, now being 
made by Grubb, is to be of 27in. clear diameter and 
32ft. long. It is just commenced." 



Digitized by 



iiuiueuueu. 

Google 



Makch 17, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 573. 



17 



REPLIES TO QUERIES. 



V In their cmewers, Oorretpondents are re- 
ntctfutty requested to mention, in each instance, 
tUMU and number of the query asked. 

[23246.1— Violin's Age.— In reply to " Curly 
Hod," 1 cannot answer the first portion of i.n 
query M to the age of violin, Ac., bat if the sound- 
post is under the second string it is too near the 
middle of the belly. It should he placed '.in. behind 
the left foot of bridge, in a line nearly with the 1-3 
string. Probably it would improve the tone by his 
bringing the sonndpost a little nearer to tho left f 
hole, and slightly nearer the bridge thnn Jin. If, 
however, the violin is a full model— that is. if deep 
in the hack and high in the belly— it will never 
become Tery loud, though it may be sweet. A flat 
model give* the loudest tone.— Musicus. 

[24136.] — Indiarubber Oaa Tubing. — Not 
that I know of ; better try tarnishing the outside.— 
Sugar, 



disturbed, even for building purposes ; and' why 
should not common decency be observed at snch 
funerals as much as or eren more than at those in 
public places ? I cannot understand why S. Mayer 
should make snch invidious use of the word 
" Christian," or why it should be used at all— as if 
a Christian was entitled to a superior mode of 
burial to that of any other human being 1 I think 
snch use of the word is more like a denial of our 
" common humanity " than would be the burial of 
a body in one's own ground.— Tovn. 

[34330.1— Skeleton Harmonium.— I am very 
sorry I bare not been able to redeem my promise 
sooner, but hope " Arizona " will pardon the long 
delay. I send two sketches drawn to the scale of 
lin. to the foot, which I think will give you some 
idea of the construction. I would willingly give 
you what you ask for, only am rather short of two 
very needfuls— time and ability — being rather a 
bad hand in getting my ideas into black and white, 
for fear I might only be wasting valuable space. I 
believe very detailed instructions were given in the 
early volumes of the Mechanic. The letters in 
both figures refer to the same thing: — A is thestop- 



-Violin (TJ.Q.).-Allow me kindly to 
correct J. B., Belfast." with an extract from 
Otto's celebrated " Treatise on the Violin :" — " In 



order to give greater fulness, and to improve the 
tone." Much depends upon the proper adjustment 
of the sonndpost as regards tone, but the above is 
generally considered the proper position, and is best 
regulated by a skilful maker. I have seen many fine 
instruments, and observed the sonndpost so placed. 
— W. Colli 88. 

124443.]— Violin (TJ.Q.).— The false note com- 
plained of does not appear so remarkable when 
playing in the key of B. Whether the C natural 
being half a tone from B natural is the cause I am 
unable to decide. To yonr second question : if yon 
do not possess a rimer, purchase a rat-tail file, and 
file the holes round ; next, glue fine glass-paper on 
several round sticks, made the same taper as the 
pegs, but not to lap at edges, fit the widest ends of 
sticks into a brace, then place the end of scroll in a 
bench vice— tail-piece end uppermost— and rimer 



F I 



F I 
















1 " 







1 




* ftr Sv -fr- rf l£f 1$ e fff fn" 



4 




[24273.]— Gauge-glass of Engine Boiler— In 
attempting to be short on this subject neither I nor 
Harry Watson have been sufficiently explicit to 
wave it without ambiguity, which Harry Watson 
appears not to recognise, although others have seen, 
it is evident, from the paragraph I quoted. I sup- 
pose the purpose of the steam-gauge is to indicate 
the resultant or working pressure of the steam upon 
the piston. There are two cases, therefore ; in the 
case of the high-pressure engine the steam is raised 
to the elastic pressure, which is 16lb. greater than 
that indicated by the steam-gauge agreeable with 
the result given by Harry Watson ; but in the case 
of the condensing engine, the steam-gauge repre- 
senting the whole force of steam on the boiler, the 
"uex is made to indicate 16lb. more than the 
ntnltant pressure upon the gauge piston. — 
UtLTD. 

'24288..]— Burial of the Dead.— If " Citrus " 
will look into the Daily Newt of February 23, he 
Jill find nnder the heading t ''Extraordinary 
Funeral " an instance of a banal on private pro- 
perty. If g. Mayer can find anything in this case 
to object to, I should like toknoVwhat it is. I 
most confess that I can not look upon such a burial 
at amounting to a denial "of - our common 
humanity," nor can I understand how our dead 
*onld he treated "like dogs'/ by being buried in 
private earth, any more than in a common church- 
yard j in fact, as far as my feelings are concerned, 
I would much prefer having the bodies of my dear 
ones hud in my own ground, where I could protect 
their graves and monuments, than in a place which 
u rery often the playground of the parish, and 
"here all sorts of filth are frequently allowed to 
^cumulate: and no spot on earth would recom- 
Bend itself to me for my own burial place so much 
M some quiet corner of my own freehold where 
orach of my life had been spent, and where I should 
j» under the care of my own relatives and friends. 
It is unlikely that deep graves would have to be 



rod, working through holes in the stop-rail, M ; B, 
the keys; C. the octave coupler ; D, the stop-levers ; 
E, the flaps; F, the pallets and stems: G G the 

fa ; H, the iron rollers to open the stop- valves ; 
J, the wind-chest, showing expression-valve in- 
side ; K, the reservoir of wind ; L, the feeders ; N, 
the valves which admit the wind to the reeds when 
opened by tbe action of the rods. H. One is shown 
open, the other closed in each sketch. The valves 
in Fig. 1 are not meant to be connected with the 
same rod, but are separate stops. O, the wad upon 
which the pan fits down ; P, the foot-boards. Yon 
will find f nil instructions how to make the pan at 
p. 686. Vol. XX.. and tbe octave coupler on p. 140 
Vol. XXII., only the coupler as there shown is 
a sub-octave coupler, and will therefore require 
making to act the opposite way.— W. N.— L. 

[24380.]— Spiegeleisen.— From his reply on p. 
641 I am afraid "Mount Abbott" did not profit 
much from his attendance at Dr. Percy's lectures 
on metallurgy. In the first place, spiegeleisen is not 
" used for cast iron in the Bessemer process." The 
cast iron used in the process is a superior quality of 
grey pig. Spiegeleisen is added after the blowing 
process to introduce carbon and manganese. It is 
perfectly true that spiegeleisen and other white 
irons, when acted on by dilute acids, give off 
hydrogen, which carries with it the vapours of 
certain hydrocarbons, which can be obtained from it 
in small quantities as oily liquids, capable of burning 
with luminous flames ; but, from Mount Abbott's 
reply, it might be supposed that the above interesting 
scientific fact was made use of to obtain illuminating 
oils, which, of course, is absurd. Foreign spie- 
geleisen is correctly stated by " Mount Abbott to 
contain 10 per cent, of manganese (that is about the 
maximum, 6 and 7 per cent, being often nearer the 
truth), but spiegeleisen is now made largely in 
England from Spanish manganiferons iron ore, and 
often contains 20 or even 25 per cent, of manganese, 
i — Alfbkd EL Allhn. 



ont, which will remove the rough marks of the file. 
Next rub the pegs over with chalk, and work them 
well in the holes; you will discover where they 
touch, and where they do not ; the parts which 
touch must be reduced till they touch all round. Fit 
the small ends of pegs very carefully and tight, 
which will prevent drawing, and finally rub them 
over with dry chalk. For last question see query 
26242.— J. BxLOBOVX. 

[24443.]— Violin (TJ.Q.).— The proper place for 
the sonndpost is Jin. behind the right foot of the 
bridge— nnder the E string— and not as "J. B., 
Belfast," says, under the foot of the bridge. In 
faulty instruments it may be placed rather nearer.— 
Musicub. 

[24511.]— Level.— May I call Mr. Lancaster's 
attention to query 24511, n. 484 P It appears among 
the " Replies, but is really a query, which is doubt- 
less the reason it has escaped his useful and kind 
notice. — Prib. 

[24681. J—Bt. Paul's 
reply on the new orgs 

June 26th, 1874, Vol. XIX., No. 483, p. SOO.^Iobeph 
William Fknnxll. 

[24821.1— Urinary Deposits.— In my reply on p. 
642, for hydrochloric acid " read nitrate of silver 
solution, as test for chlorides.— Madagascar. 

[24924.] - Stains for Wood Sections. — See 
letter in this number of English Mechanic. 

[24020.]— Compensated Seconds' Pendulum 
(TJ.Q.).— Inasmuch as even a partly compensated 
pendulum must be better than one not compensated 
at all (and not much beyond that) I suppose your 
pendulum will do. If you had said that von meant 
to make the bob weigh 30lb., or even 13lb., instead 
of 31b., it would be worth while entering into tbe 
question whether you have a clock worthy of it. I 
have a very well made bracket-dial, with a brass 
i pendulum, to which I should have put a better pea* 

Digitized by V^OOglC 



Organ (TJ.Q.).— See my 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, 



18 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE ; No. 573. March 17, 1876. 



dulam years ago but that there is no maintaining 
power whilst winding, nor room to put any, at least 
in the ordinary place. — J. K. P. 

[2406*.]— Varnish.— 8ince this qnery was asked 
I nave Tarnished several Scripture texts : they 
were in colours and gold bronze ; the backs were 
cnnvased. I gave the fronts four coats of isinglass 
size — made clear— allowing half a day between each 
coat to dry, then varnished with Canada halt-am 
(fluid) and ttrrps, in the proportion of Joz. of balsam 
to ioz. of turps, which covered a surface of 4ft. by 
6ft. I have merely mentioned this — though suitable 
to the query asked— to help others who may or 
might have a similar job to do.— J. Bblorove. 

[2."02o.l— Annuity Problem.— As I have already 
indicate!! (on p. 507) the principle upon which the 
calculation of B.'s interest is to be made, I think 
"II. W." will be able to deduce tl* value for him- 
self. It is difficult to say what would be a practi- 
cable rate fortbelast-Rurvivor endowment assurance, 
and probably a dozen offices would charge as many 
different rates ; but this ouco ds-Urmiaeu, the value 
of the whole interest of A. and 11. is immediately 
obtainable by the use of the formula given by 

H. \V.," r« being the rate charged by an assurance 
office for the endowment assurance, and d the pre- 
sent value of -£l dne a year hence (v is the usual 

Smbol for this value), and d ordinarily represents 
e discount on ^1 for a year— that is, 1 - v— so 

that the formula will stand -r— — •. - I. I do not 

d+ r x 

understand " H. W.'s " formula for the deferred 
annuity ; it is certainly not correct as printed. In 
the case of a purchaser of a deferred annuity who 
desires to realise 7 per cent, on his purchase-money 
as a certain investment, the only way I know is to 
find the value of an immediate annuity, and deduct 
from this value the sum which an annuity company 
would require to grant a temporary annuity for the 
cumber of years during which no payment is made 
in respect of the deferred annuity. The purchaser 
then buys the deferred annuity from the holder 
thereof, and the temporary annuity from the office, 
and thus places himself in the same position as the 
purchaser of an immediate annuity, receiving 7 per 
cent, on his total outlay, and the premium necessary 
to keep up the assurance, year by year. Thus, if 
A. 'a annuity, instead of commencing immediately, 
was deferred four years, a purchaser would require 
from an office an annuity of -£5G0 for four years on 
a life aged 60, which mightcost about £1,760. Then, 
as the immediate value of an annuity is XI, 090 the 
purchaser would give for the deferred annuity 
X4.090, less £1,760— that is, .£3.330— and, on buying 
the term annuity from the office, he would be in 
exactly the same position as if the annuity was 
immediate. With reference to B.'s interest it must 
be noticed that " A Barrister " assumes that B. has 
an absolute interest in the remainder of the annuity 
after A.'s death, while I have proceeded on the 
assumption that B. will only have a right in this 
annuity for so long as he may be alive after A., and 
that if he die before A. he will lose all right in the 
annuity. In the former case, where B. has an 
absolute right in the remainder of the annuity after 

A. 's death, a purchaser must, in order to secure 7 
per cent, on his outlay for the whole term, purchase 
elsewhere an annuity of .£500 payable during A.'s 
lifetime. He will thus be iu possession of an annuity 
certain for 00 years, and will recoup himself in the 
usual way, each payment of the annuity consisting 
partly of principal repaid and partly of interest. 
But if B.'s right after A. is conditional on B. being 
then alive, a purchaser of B.'s interest alone must 
purchase elsewhere an annuity payable until the 
failure of the joint existence of A. and B. — that is, 
so lontr as both are living ; and he must also assure 

B. 's life, the sum assured being payable at the end 
of 60 years or at B.'s previous death. The successive 
payments of tho annuity will then provide the pur- 
chaser with tho premium for the assurance, together 
with interest on his total outlay.— Fellow of the 
Institute of AoTUARiHfl. 

[25010.1— Tremulous Vibrations In Pipe.— The 
noise "Hydrophobia" hears for two or three 
minutes after the first few seconds of rattling noise 
(caused by air in pipes), will no doubt proceed from 
the cistern. There are a few other trifles in plumb- 
ing which mar its general perfection, and are con- 
stant sources of annoyance and expense to house- 
holders, but which nro allowed to exist from year's 
end to year's end without remedies being applied. 
I may mention two of these trifles which will have 
come disagreeably within the notice of most, if not 
all, householders— viz., the staving up of ball in 
cistern through plug of tap working stiffly, and the 
consequent draining of cistern (the supply of water 
being cnt off when the ball cannot fall), and the 
bad smell from closet containers and valve-boxes— 
not to be cured in many dozens of closets that I 
have seen, by even the infallible plumber's remedy 
— the ventilating pipe. Yot both of these annoy- 
ances might be very simply done away with.— G. Pin- 
NINQTON. 

[25085.]— Lubricator.— I think Hudson Wilton 
will find the following a more convenient and a 
more economical method of lubricating a crank pin 
than that proposed by F. H. Wenbam : — A 
Lieuvain's patent needle lubricator screwed into 
top side of strap, with the needle wire long enough 
to rest on crank pin and {in. or j|in. clear of top 
side of glass bottle. By altering the size of the 
wire he con regulate the quantity of oil used. I 



have four of these working, and they serve the 
purpose admirably.— Spring Coil. 

[26067.]— Organ Metal-pipe Manufacture. — I 
would strongly recommend " South Lancashire " not 
to dabble in making metal pipes, but to try his 
hand on some good wood ones If he is desirous of a 
musical tone to his instrument. Of course, metal 
and wood, properly combined, are, perhaps, neces- 
sary, but I think the great mistake of our present 
organ-builders is to use too much metal and not 
enough wood ; and I have heard, and believe it to 
be quite possible to construct good instruments 
entirely of wooden pipes— using wood of different 
qualities, varying the scales, and what are called 
flue pipes. Most beautiful tones are produced from 
open wood pipes, and we know the rich notes pro- 
duced from a violin, viola, violoncello, all wooden 
instruments, besides others. Try and produce a 
full, round, deep, rich tone, like good old port win*, 
not a metallic, harsh, and thin tone, a mistake for 
brilliancy.— W. Colliss. 

[25118.]— Sugar from Hags.— I once tried this, 
and the way to go about it is to dissolve some rags 
in strong sulphuric acid. Dilute with water, and 
saturate the filtered liquor with chalk. Again filter 
and evaporate. A sort of gum of a dark colour 
is yielded. Boil this for some time with dilute 
sulphuric acid. Saturate with chalk. On evapora- 
tion a crystallisable sugar is obtained. Braconnet, 
a French chemist, said ho had obtained more than a 
pound of sugar from a pound of rags, but I think 
" T. B. Y." will be a long time before he does it.— 
E. T. Scott. 

[25120.]— Eleotrio Bell.— In reply to Mr. Volk, he 
distinctly says in his instructions the edges must 
not quite meet. Now, I have at the present time 
about 100 electric bells under my charge, and better 
cannot be seen. They are all built on a thin sheet- 
iron tube, as described by me (No. 570, p. 618). and 
I know that all the sheet iron ever I saw of this 
kind was nearly as soft as copper. I have made 
not a few of this kind of bells, and can therefore 
recommend this to amateurs.— Tele Lineman. 

[25122.1 — Aniline. — R. Holgatc has probably 
used in his experiment pure nitric acid. If he will 
obtain the strongest fuming commercial acid, about 
90° or 100° Twaddell. be will Sad it attacks the 
benzole readily in the cold. I should advise aim to 
obtain his benzole from a manufacturing chemist, 
as the majority of druggists do not or will not 
know the difference between benzole, bonzoline. and 
other flight spirits from petroleum. But It. Holgate 
seems to think that tho product (nitro-beuzole) 
obtained from the action of nitric-acid ou benzole 
is aniline. To procure aniline 1 part of nitro- 
benzole, after being weD washed, is distilled with 
1 part of acetic acia and 1 J part of fine iron filings, 
a gentle heat only being required at the commence- 
ment of the distillation. -William W. Stavelkt. 

125140.] — Harmonium Beeds.— As our very 
obliging correspondent, "Saul Rvmea," does not 
seem to know what broad bent reeds are, perhaps he 
will be pleased to learn that "Alexandre's broad- 
reed organ- voiced harmoniums" (so styled) are 
made with the broad reeds bent as per " Eleve " (I 
do not mean the "Alexandre organ"— that is 
another kind of instrument, which I have not seen 
the inside of)- I cannot tell Alfred Charles where 
he is in fault that his will not speak. I have only 
seen the inside of one such instrument (one of 2 J 
rows) ; the only thing I noticed peculiar was the size 
of reed apertures, which were very large, and I think 
the pallet-hole8were correspondingly large. " A. C." 
might try the effect of a larger hole by putting tho 
middle C reed upon the tenor C channel, and see if 
it then speaks better— W. N.— L. 

[25152.]— Guttapercha.— If "Turpintindy " will 
put his guttapercha in a saucepan of clean cold 
water, and let it boil slowly, and as soon as it boils 
take it off the fire and let it stand on the hob for 
about half an hour with the cover of the pan close 
on. at the end of that time it should be soft. Do 
not allow it to boil long, or else the water will 
honeycomb it, and will be difficult to remove. Next 
removo the pan from the fire, and sweep clean a 
portion of the floor, and have ready some clean cold 
water. Wet the floor and the end of two sticks, and 
with the same remove the soft and warm guttapercha 
from the pan by first loosening any that may be 
sticking to tho edge ; then get your sticks, or poker 
and tongs, well under, and clipping them tight, lift 
the guttapercha bodily on to the wet floor and press 
the water well out by means of a flat board, which 
must bo kept wet with celd water to prevent stick- 
ing, and as the guttapercha keeps spreading yon 
keep turning the outside edges over Into the mi ddle 
and work it as a baker does dough until it is pretty 
solid. You then take hold of it in your hands, and 
breaking off a piece about 2lb. weight, work it with 
your hands in the seme manner as on the floor, 
keeping your hands wet by dipping in cold water. 
You can remove chips of wood and foreign matter 
as they turn up. When you have one piece clean, 
take another, and so on, keeping the large piece soft 
in the warm water in the meantime. — A Gutta- 
PBRCHA-WORKEB. 

[26165.]— Potential Energy.— The answers ad- 
vanced by "J. C. B. L." and " Bamus " are, to say 
the least, somewhat conflicting. The latter has 
evidently misunderstood my question. The spring 
is supposed to rust entirely through, until no metal 
is left. The former says that the energy is lost as 



oxidation advances. Just so; but how? Where 
does it go to, and what work does it perform '< Mr. 
Lancaster was so happy in his reply to the question 
of the poker and dull fire that I venture to hope he 
may elucidate this point also.— Thea. 

[25168.1- Gilder's Wax.— The following is ex- 
tracted from "Cooley's Cyclopaedia :"— " Prep. 1. 
Bees-wax, 4ox. ; verdigris and sulphate of copper, of 
each loz. ; melted together. 2. Bees-wax, verdigris, 
red ochre, and alum, of each loz. Used to give red 
gold colour to water gilding."— Natobalist. 

[25169.]— Paraffin Stoves.— These, if you get a 
good one, aro most useful things ; but C. H. B. V." 
must take a little care, and he will get no smell. 
The goodness of the liquor is one thing. I pay 
rather dear for mine. Then tho trimming of the 
lamp is another. The wick should not be nit, but 
rubbed off with a bit of rag or paper ; then, in the 
chief place, the screw where the liquor is put in 
should be seen to. It is almost sure in moving the 
lamp about to beat up through this, and conse- 
quently smell. Wipe the lamp clean before using. I 
pat a pieee of indiarnbber for the screw to go 
against. Take care of these four things and you 
will have no smell.— E. T. Scott. 

[25191. J— Canoe.— Many thanks to Mr. Jones (p. 
645) for his prompt answer. I want it for ordinary 
sailing and paddling, generally in the river, but 
sometimes at sea, not for racing, as there are very 
few here to race with. I shall give up the idea of 
carrying two, so I think the dimensions of your new 
canoe will suit me very well, and I shall be much 
obliged if you can give me the sections at different 

f laces in the length to make my moulds to ; if not, 
must make a model. I do not know the principle 
of Mr. W. Baden Powell's canoe. Is it an improve- 
ment ? What is the difference between a standing 
lug and revolving lug ? The shape you show is the 
only one I'm acquainted with, but I've had very 
little experience.— C. H. Boods. 

[26192.] —Liver.— Do yon suffer enough to take 
the trouble to cure yourself ? If so I venture to 
suggest that if you will follow the simple instruc- 
tions I offer you will lose your pain, regain your 
spirits, and be a comfort to yourself and to your 
friends, which no man "with a liver " is. Wear 
flannel next your skin. Take a cold bath, not 
lower than 65° F. in a morxing ; over night you 
may put a handful of rock-salt into it. Remember 
that in large towns the night-air is the pnrest, and 
sleep with the top of your window about an inch 
open ; I have done so ail winter, and this with the 
glass for some days down to 7° P. Drink neither 
beer, porter, wine, nor spirits unless it be a glass or 
two of Rhenish wine {while) after, not with, dinner 
—it is to be had good and cheap. Do not alio w fried 
butter or grease of any kind to enter your mouth, 
touch no pork, sausages, or abominations of that 
kind ; eat as little meat as possible, and none at 
all after the middle of the day. Eat no pastry, no 
muffins, nor buttered toast nor hot cakes. Eat no 
new bread : but toast, or stale bread, or biscuits. 
If you will eat cheese, chew it fine or eat it grated ; 
it is exceedingly nice with bread and butter or over 
boiled rice. Eat rice, sago, tapioca, in any form 
you like, with milk and sugar, but without eggs. 
Eat no jam, but as much stewed fruit, prunes, 
apples, lemon, and fresh fruits when they come in ; 
avoid much sugar with them, and do not swallow 
the skins of plums, gooseberries. See. Eat vege- 
tables, but they must be cooked thus— in much 
water, which must be changed at least three times 
while the vegetable is cooking. Buy a filter 
(charcoal), keep it clean, filter the water you drink, 
and tako at least a quart a day. Coffee may or may 
not agree with you. Take moderate exercise, and 
in all things be moderate. Avoid envies ami anger. 
If yo a will fear God, honour the Queen, and keep 
your bowels open by avoiding all drugs, and do 
what I have told you, you will presently thank the 
English Mechanic and— Sibah Nosneb. 

[25193.] — Organ.— Thanks to "Uranium" for 
information received so far. By taking a little 
weight off the bellows 1 find it has proved of great 
benefit. I should further be glad if yon would kindly 
tell me something about voicing the metal pipes, 
saying what kind of tools, Ac, are to be used, also 
insert drawing of the process of the same.— York- 
shire. 

[25805.] — Gleaning Tile Pavement in 
ChuTohea.— In answer to this query I would inform 
" Church Tiles " that we have some of the tiles in 
our hall, and could not make them look well until 
we were told how to do so. Wash them with some 
soft so? p, and let them dry, and then rob t kern over 
with some sweet oil. After a little time be will see 
a great improvement. Of course, this must be kept 
up. The church should be kept dry and well-aired. 
E. T. Scott. 

[25208.]— Merourous Bulpho-cy onide. — T donbt 
if cyanate, or cyanide, in the ICONS would cause 
any difficulty. Use snlpho-cyanide of ammonium 
(which is quite cheap and readily obtainable) in- 
stead of the potassium salt. Add it to excess of 
dilute morcurous nitrate in tho cold. Perhaps addi- 
tion of a little KClOj wonld help the ignition. If 
you try this, look out for squalls. Such a mixture 
may bo unexpectedly dangerous or spontaneously 
combustible.— Alfred H. Allen, Sheffield. 



[26881.]— Mi 
should have 




Gold.— That such a hhUoroont 
in a Bristol paper in tho latter 



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March 17, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 573, 



19 



• half of the nineteenth century is another argument 
for the necessity of elementary scientific education. 
-AL7KKD H. AlusK. 

[25^.]— CThemioal.— The white powder obtained 
by tno action of nitric acid on plumber's solder is a 
bydrated oxide of tin, called meta-stannic acid. If 

A. boils the solder in the acid till no further 
action takes pines, dilutes the liquid with water, 
boils again and filters, ho may he pretty sure of 
hiving all the lead in ' - solution and all tho tin in 
the residue.— A lfked allen. 

[2S230J-Chemical. — Solder, as stated, is an 

Pb + Sn - **** wiU not """ly dissolve in 
MHUj in consequence of the lead becoming coated 
with nitrate of lead (Pb. NO,), which will not 
dissolve in strong acid. Lead is most useful as a 
metal for mski n;r clieraical apparatus, in consequence 
of its not dissolving in strong HNOj. HC1, or HF. 
However, load can bo dissolved in a weak solution 
of HNps l.sp. gr. 1. 2). Again, HNO, operates on 
tin with great energy, giving off nitrous fumes, 
while an nndissolvakle white powder (stannic oxide^ 
u formed. 

4HNO3 + Sn = 2 H.0 + SNO, + 4NO, 

Stannic Peroxide of 
i> » ., oxide. nitrogen. 

1 eroxide of nitrogen is the brown fumes givon off 
Uy the action of HNO, upon Sn. HCI slowlv 
dissolves Sn, as a stannous chloride (SnCl,). the H 
bung given off as gas. From these conclusions you 
can separate the metals chemically from each other, 
aud test thorn so that you may know you have done 
*°j fuue »ntp one test-tube put a piece of the alloy, 
sad dissolve in weak HNOj; thu will throw down 
tt*> mnoxide of tin, and leave a solution containing 
JM. which must be drained off. Thence test with 
UU, which precipitates a chloride of lead. 
Pb + 2 HCI = Pb Clj + H,. 

u n o^ or T*, 11 fresh portion of the solution add 



central joint. I prefer the latter, because it runs 
parallel with the grain of the wood ; but its position 
underneath tho bridge should be exactly under the 
foot. The purding is let in by means of a cutting 
(.'autre, the cutter made exceedingly sharp and thin 
and long, nnd set similar to a plane iron, but up- 
right; that part which rests on tho edge must 
revolve. The outside cut must he made first all 
round the instrument. The gauge is then shifted 
for the inside one, and the pieoc is then ploughed 
out. The narrow parte near F holes are inlaid 
first, and, when dry, the inner out of tail-piece aud 
neck-end is then made, whieh operation outs the 



purfling nicely at the corners. Then plough again : 
hut. before inserting the pnrfling, mitre each end 
first, so that when finished off each corner appears 
a true mitre. The purfling can be bought at the 
wholesale shops, which, by the wording of the query, 
you are not aware of. — J. Belorove. 

[26342.]-Viouin.-In reply to "J. C, Ayr," the 
following is taken from "Otto's Work on the 
Violin " :— " The bass-bar must be placed under the 
left foot of tho bridge, with its upj>er end Jin. 
nearer tho middle joint of the belly than the opposite 
end which turns towards the cheeks. This is the 
Haitian of it iu all good instruments." — Musicue. 



?,49 4 .' w A lich Precipitate a sulphate of lead. 
2 (H-U. SO*; + Pb = PbO 80s + SO,, so 



PPt. 



, so much for 



[J* k*d ; Dissolve another piece of tho alloy in 
HCI. which will dissolve the tin into a protochloride. 
out will not <iu.-olvo the lead. 

Sn_+ Pb + 2 H« = SnClj + Pb + H, 
,,y ' Stannous Bemaining Gas. 

Alley. chloride. solid. 

ie« your stannous chloride with parchloride of 

mercury, the formula of the reaction is thus :— 

_ SnCl- + 2 Hg Clj = SnCl« + Hg,Cl». 

I .r ?? r * ™i£ g ^ Precipitate mercurous chloride, 
i no : 7° a fresh Portion of tho protochloride 

add H..S! a brown precipitato is the result, of 

ralphide of tin, SnCfc + HjS = SnS + 3 HCI — 

SS - PPt. 

L*^J-Ck«llliM»lr- number's solder is com- 
posed of lead and tin. To separate them, take 1 
xaueme or 10 grains of the solder and treat with 
BoeereWv hot dilate nitrie acid till ail action 
jeases. , By this means the load is dissolved, while 
tee ha 1* oxidised and remains insoluble as a white 
Powder, which u filtered off, washed, dried, ignited 

* a tared porcelain crucible over a Bunseu burner 
and weighed as SnO a , wbich, x 78660, aud then x 
«fV 0T lu' case may be, = the peicentage 

* j V V* Blintti from the oxide of tin is evapo- 
rated to dryness, dissolved in about 100 o.c. of water, 
»ad mixed with about an equal volumo of methy- 
}4t*d spirit. Ddute sulphuric acid is now added till 
iicewes to cause any more precipitate, and the mix- 
ture allowed to stand for a few hours, filtered, the 
precipitate washed with alcohol till quite free from 

* id dned, ignited, and weighed us PbSo 4 . which, 
» TK316. and then x 100- or 10", as the case may 
fc. = percentage of lead.— Sugar. 

l^MOj-TGeeajBd Latbe.— The purpose of the 
™* tp obtain a slow speed, which is rndis- 

Ptnmble for the execution of a variety of works : 
sod as the various materials and sixes require to be 
dnven at different speeds, the advantage of the back 
gar over the ordinary lathe will be obvious.— 

. [«240.]-O«wecl Lathe.— The advantage of this 
h taat yon increase the power of tho lathe for large 
l i* yon Dnd tDe lath e revolving slowly 
'nuijrh for large work the foot treadle would have 
w work so slowly that you would not get over the 
mad point. By using the back gear you are enabled 
w treadle quickly and yet have slow rotation of the 
"one 1 on can get some of the effect of back gear 
? .l T1 "? a ^rgo ™»ndrel and a very small pulley 
wi the wheel, tho latter being, aay. one-third of the 
"nuer . j^j eTen y, is ^ not B j ow enoa(?h for mftny 

Pwposes, when turning metal, though slow enough 
'or wood.— B. P. A, e 

Jf MOJ-Oegred Lathe.— The advantages are 

™u>J. By putting on the back gear it considerably 
waeei 1 the speed of the mandrel, thereby gaining 
Pow*r to overcome a heavy cut especially a large 
wmwler. such as surfacing a face-plate. It's all 
T *cll to have a fast speed while turning a small 
fi ETj • • as ,on brin8 " your to01 into tne larger 
m a j '?F al the Bame »P««d. your tool would 
k \ nred or blunt, your lathe would stop, and you 
"TOM find yourself ont of breath and distrusted 
*»tt year work.— J. B. Pubvis. 

pyi2.]— Tiolln.— There appears to be no fixed 
SLyi^^SFU P°«tipn of bass bar; mam- are 
mkiy with the fourth string, others with the 



[2SM3.1— Dog.— lliecoatof all animals is affected 
ire or lees by unsuitable diet. Indian meal is very 
Kting ; and as the natural food of dogs is flesh 
— at I would recommend " J. C." to give a moderate 
amount of cooked meat, or meat dog biscuits, which 
mav be hon?ht anywhere, giving up Indian meal 
and physic. Also give plenty of air, exorcise, fresh 
water, aud clean straw to sleep on, all of which are 
necessary to a dog's health.— W. 

[25241.]— Oat Cake.— There is a substance, some- 
what hko wash leather in appearance, made and sold 
in Yorkshire, and, I suppose, in other parts of 
England, under the name of "oat cake." As this 
is probably tho article which " Brewer" has tasted, 
I can awrociate his statement that it was unpala- 
table. Real oat cake, when well mode, has a very 
pleasant taste, and when eaten with some other 
articles of diet is delicious. It is many yean since 
I saw it made, but I shall try to describe the process 
from memory. The oatmeal nsed is the kind called 
coarse, as distinguished from that ground to flour, 
tret it good if you cau, but, so far as my experience 
goes, that will uot be an easy matter in England. 
Put about half a pound into a small bowl, mako a 
bole iu tho middle, so that the meal stands up in a 
wall around the sides of the dish, and sprinkle about 
a quarter of a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda and 
the same quantity of salt over it. Then pour in 
enough boiling water to form the meal into a thick 
paste. Turn it out of the bowl upon a board, on 
which you have two or three Vandfuls of dry meal. 
Knead. the dry meal into the paste until it becomes 
very stiff and short. Boll mto a cake about a 
quarter of an inch thick and cut into any shape that 
is desired. Bake ou a hot plate or griddle (a thin 
circular sheet of iron hnng over the fire, not unlike 
a large frying-pan without sides) until the cakes 
become hard enough to lift without bending, and 
then toast them in front of the fire until they 
become crisp, when the baking is complete. They 
may be baked by simply toasting them in front of 
a clear fire without being put upon a griddle at all. 
A great deal depends upon the baking, which onght 
to be done slowly. Butter, lard, or dripping may 
be put into the doncrh, and will make the cako 
shorter and more palatable. If the cake becomes 
yellow inside, too much soda has been used. Should 
the cake bo kept for a few days before it is required 
it will be all tho better for being re-toasted. An 
excellent cake may be made with oatmeal and 
potatoes in tho following manner, as nearly as I can 
remember :— Place some well-boiled potatoes (those 
left over from dinner, say) on the bake-board, 
sprinkle them with salt and pound them with the 
rolling-pin until no lumps are left. Then mix them 
with oatmeal until a stiff dough is formed. Boll it 
out into a cake a quarter of an inch thick, and cut 
into any shapes required. Bake on a hot plate or 
griddle, turning them over as soon as one side has 
been done, and do not toast tbem. They are best 
when new, and will be found very nice when eaten 
with a little butter before they are cold. If allowed 
to stand for a day or two before being eaten fry 
them in butter or dripping, and eat while hot. No 
doubt " Brewer" knows how to make porridge, and 
I need say nothing with regard to that. Newly- 
ground oatmeal is best for porridge, and old, but 
not too old, for oat cakes.— J. S. W. 

[252-tt.l— Oat Cake.— I am pleased to find our 
English friends inquiring about the virtues of oat- 
meal. Scotch oatmeal, as generally made, is a hard 
unpalatable article, but let your kindly English 
matrons and bonnie braw lass?s proceed as follows, 
aud I think they will not be disappointed. Like 
" Little Tommie," I would say this is my mother's 
way:— Take a lump of good lard, or roast-beef 
dripping, say tho size of a small hen's egg, put it in 
a small bowl, fill up with boiling water— about a 
pint English— and let the fat dissolve. Take another 
bowl six times the size, three parts full of good oat- 
meal, pour in theconteuts of tho small bowl, no salt, 
mix up very stiff, then tumble out upon the bake- 
board, knead it, spreading dry meal over and under 
when flattening out, roll it into a round cake three- 
9 ; ghths of an inch thick (thoy are too fragile whou 
thinner), and of a size to fit the girdlo ; cut into 
three parts (from outside of circlo to centre), rub 



both aides airain thoroughly with dry meal, place 
upon the girdlo (a round iron pinto, about 18ul 
diani., with arched handle) above tho tire, which 
should be hoi | let it remain until stiff enough to 
handlo cautiously, then transfer to a toaster before 
tho fire, and toast till all moisture nvnporates, and 
when the girdle is cleared replace with fresh cakes. 
When toasted it is ready for putting by. but nlwnys 
before using retoast it, without browning, a.-.d it 
will be found crisp and pleasant, and. for breakfast, 
with ham And og^s, delicious. Oatmeal porridge is 
made by simply sprinkling carefully. «hw : !irring, 
into a pot of boiling water, with salt. :is much good 
meal as will make it of the desired eon neteneV, and 
boiling h:ilf nn hour, stirring almost constantly. 
Unaccustomed mouths are disgusted with oatmeal 
porridge because it is frequently made much too 
thick, ami only halt' boiled. K m !• - being lumpy, 
through sprinkling the meal in carelessly. I trust 
our friends iu tho South will give the thing a fair 
trial before pronouncing against oatmeal porridge 
and cake; in regard to which, although I hold them 
iu too high respect to thiuk the Scotch a superior 
race, they may tales a leaf out of our book, and 
thereby acquire brain, bone, and muscle, without 
also acquiring corpulency. At tho same tiuio there 
are muny who have au iuviucible dislike to porridge. 
Leaving some more scientific correspondent to 
analyse the component parts of the grain, and 
describo its influence upon the animal economy, I 
content myself with the results of ordinary observa- 
tion where oatmeal is freelv nsed. Even Dr. John- 
son, I dare > iv. knew the benefit of feeding horses 
upon oats. Certainly where hard work has to bi» 
done, cither by man or beast, either with brain or 
muscle, there is nothing like oats, but not of I oats — 
at least in th- case of man. Tho practice here in 
the West of Scotland is to nse oatmeal in the form 
of cake or porridge, chiefly the latter, once a day. 
If one makes a hearty breakfast with oat cake 
instead of bread or potatoes, one may go without 
one's dinner with less inconvenience, because, while 
solid and satisfying, it is ueverheavy nor indigestible. 
Lastly, I would recommend all little people who 
have not attained maturity, and are doubtful of 
attaining a decent standard of height, to use oat- 
meal, aud the ottener the better. 1 forgot to say 
that porridge is taken with new milk.— Strath- 
bungo. 

[25244.]— Oat Cake.— I can give "A Brewer" 
the methods of cooking oatmeal, which I see in 
practice every day. Por oaten cakes take some meal, 
mix with it a little salt and melted snet, and suffi- 
cient water to work it into a thick dough, roll out 
into a cake as tbin as possible, divide into quarters, 
and spread out on the girdle " (a flat circular piece 
of iron about 13in. 'diameter, suspended over the 
fire), and bake each side in turn. The cakes must 
then be toasted before the fire till they are curled 
and crisp. They mnst be crisp and brittle to be 
palatable— Plouohman. 

[2&a4V] -Violin's Ago.— Hart, on the violin, 
says John Nor bora, London. 1723. Unless you 
understand the matter thoroughly do not touch the 
sonndpost, but take the violin to Wardour-street, 
say to W. E. Hill, and he will put it right.— Julius. 

[25246.]— Dredge.—" Q. W. B.," if he wants a 
dredge for oysters, I would strongly advise him to 
buy a galvanised one instead of trying to make one, 
they require proper adjustment, or they will not tow 
properly. If he wants it for dredging specimens I 
would, in bis place, get "The Seaside Book," by 
W. H. Harvey, where one is fully described, too 
long for me to copy. It is published by John Van 
Voorst. — Fisherman. 

[25248.]— Tinning Braes Tape.— Smooth file to 
a clean surface the part to be tinned, then sprinkle 
on a little powdered resin, or, better still, " spirits 
of salt " applied with a feather : this acts as a flux 
to the solder ; next rub the part with a clean copper 
tool sufficiently hot without burning the face. You 
will then find the solder to flow freely and adhere to 
the tap.— Herculkas. 

[25249.]— PhotograpMo Varnish.— Try white 
hard varnish from the oil and colour stores, and 
thin down with methylated alcohol ; filter through 
paper, and ready. I have used it for five years, and 
the negatives are still good and clean, and will stand 
hot snn. — Amatiuh. 

[25249.]— Photographlo Varnish.— Get lioz. of 
white hard spirit varnish from any oil and colour 
warehouse, and add 2£os. of my thy la ted spirit. I 
have always used this, and never had any fault to 
find except once, when it gave a matt surface, which 
I traced to water iu the spirit.— SoiO. 

[25250.]— Telescope.— The arrows spoken of by 
"G. W. V." on the tubes of his telescope are 
intended to be brought into oue straight line with 
each other, when the tubes are all drawn out, to 
show in what position of tho tubus the telescope per- 
forms best. 1 remember having for a time a 2ft. 
telescope byBerge, successor to Kuiusden, which was 
inurxed in this way. 1 believe they bavo nothing to 
do with the focussing. A ring is sometimes drawn 
round the eye-tube, aud tho eyu-tu'uo only, for this 
purpose; but as different eyes aud different dis- 
tances of objects require diffor^nt focuses it only 
gives a sort of general or avt rage focus. I would 
never mark a telescope in this way. but tho arrows 
for the proper position of tho tubus are good.— 

SUEVETOR NO. 2. 



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20 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE: No. 573. March- 17, 1876, 



[26353.]— Mounting Photon.— 1. The neutra 
tint, a brownish grey, if rather dark all the better. 
2. Toned, most decidedly ; the best way is to hare a 
tinted centre with white ronnd it.— Scio. 

[25254.^— Sulphuric Acid.— If only sulphuric 
acids and sulphates are present the former can he 
readily detected and estimated by trituration with 
standard alkali. If other acids are present concen- 
trate the solution if necessary, and when quite cool 
add twice its volume of strong alcohol. After 
standing some time filter from the precipitated sul- 
phates, dilute the filtrate, boil off the alcohol, and 
precipitate the sulphuric acid with barium chloride 
in the usual way.— Alfred H. Allen, Sheffield. 

[85264.]— Sulphuric Acid— Free sulphuric acid, 
in the presence of sulphates, can be estimated by 
using a standard soda solution. Consult Sutton's 
"Volumetric Analysis."— William W. Statelet. 

[2.5254.]— Sulphuric Acid.— Put some drops of 
the liquor to be tested on a porcelain capsule and 
evaporate at 100° C, then add a drop of strong 
solution of sugar. If free sulphuric acid be present 
there should be given a black or dark stain. 
Sulphates having an acid reaction do not produce 
this action, nor do other acids under these circum- 
stances. This method is extracted from " Poggen- 
dorf."— Tallt-Ho. 

[25255.]— Noise in Supply Pipe.—" Vet " hoars 
two noises, one caused by the water being drawn off 
from his screw valve tap and the other caused by 
the water running through a ball tap into small 
cistern to replace that drawn off ; both noises may 
be done away with. Let him take the measure of 
the diameter of the nozzles of both taps, and get 
abont a foot of indiarubber tube to fit on each ; he 
can tie, with copper wire or twine, these lengths on 
to each nozzle so that the end of tube will dip 
pretty well under surface of water in his supply 
cistern, and into any vessel held under his scraw 
valve cock. If ho would prefer a more permanent 
job, a plumber or tinman would in half an hour put 
on metal ferrules of necessary lengths in lieu of the 
indiarubber tubes. I have often wondered that this 
plan has not been universally adopted to ball-cocks 
in cisterns, as the disagreeable noise of the water 
running into the cistern may be heard in every 
room, through which, or near to which, pipes from 
the cistern may run ; water and metals beiug such 
perfect conductors of sound.— G. Pinninqton. 

[2526a] — Turning Shafting in Lathe. — I 
imagine you use a slide-rest for true turning so 
long a shaft. If so, the best plan is to drill and tap 
a hole in the edge of the top plate and screw in a 
bit of iron, bent so as to hook over the rod just in 
advance of the tool. The stay will thus constantly 
act opposite the latter and prevent the work receding 
from it. A pair of dies in a properly made adjustable 
standard supply a still better form, hut are costly. 
In any case some provision has to be made for 
advancing the stay as the work gets reduced in size. 
A very useful form of back stay is one like a hand- 
rest with forked foot, which hitter can be clamped 
to the slide-rest by a large-headed bolt. I give a 




very rough Bketch of what I mean. All sorts of top 
pieces can be fitted into the socket, and when not 
wanted for slide-rest the whole concern forms a rest 
for a small lathe. Indeed, it is from such that I 
have made these back stays. The base must not be 
too wide so as to get in the way of the tool. There 
are many other forms used, but for one easy to rig 
up and cheap the above answers well. At the same 
tune it may be observed that a good deal depends on 
true centreing such a shaft. If it wobbles no die 
stay of the kind will answer, but a place must be 
turned true near the middle of its length, and a 
fixed back stay used instead ef a traversing one.— 
J. L. 

[25280.]— Force on Pipe.— The perpendicular 
pipe of 1 square foot in area to 30ft. in height will 
contain 30 cubic feet of water. One cubic foot of 
water - l.OOOoz. .•. weight on end of short pipe 
= 30,000oz. = 1,8701b. Taking atmospheric pressure 
into account lit x 15lb. must be added to the 
1,8701b. .-.Weight = 4,0301b.— Beomo-Iodikb Spa. 

[25262.]— Water. — A list of the principal im- 
purities, so-called, of water would contain sodic 
chloride and sulphate, potassic sulphate, ferrouB 
sulphate, magnesic carbonate, calcic carbonate, 
chloride and sulphate, and among the less frequent 
impurities we should find in one form or other iron, 
lead, iodine, bromine, arsenic, copper, antimony, 
Ac., Ac. Now, to give tests for all these substances 
would occupy much space, and be of little general 
use. I will, however, give a few of the principal 
methods of roughly .detecting most general im- 
purities. Should you wish for more definite tests I 
shall be pleased to give them, or our friend Mr. 
Allen would, I am sure, give all information. Now, 



if you will procure the following solutions -.—(a) 
solution of nitrate of silver, (b) solution of iodide 
of potassium, (e) solution of nitrate of baryta, (d) 
solution of yellow prussiate of potash, (0} solution 
of oxalate 01 ammonia ; then, by the addition of (a) 
to a sample of water, precipitate would indicate 
sodic chloride or hydrochloric acid, (b) to another 
sample, precipitate would indicate lead, (c) pre- 
cipitate, potassic sulphate, (d) precipitate, iron, («), 
after the addition of soap, lime. For organic im- 
purities Condy's disinfecting fluid is useful. The 
water should have the solutions added to it in drops, 
and should its colour disappear it gives evidence ef 
organic impurities.— W. J. Lancaster. 

[25287.]— Making Hole in Iron.— Ton should 
have mentioned whether wrought or cast iron. If 
the former, I believe your drill is not hard enough. 
Harden it again, and bring it down to a light straw 
colour ; try again, and I believe you will succeed. .If 
the latter, there is very little chance of success. — 
Berlin. 

[25271.1— CharooaL— Wood charcoal (carboligni) 
is the wood of the oak, beech, or hazel, charred by 
exposure to a red heat without access of air. Wood 
yields from 14 to 23 per oent. of charcoal. For medi- 
cal purposes wood may be limited in a close vessel 
to a red heat, until all volatile matters have escaped. 
The charcoal, when cool, should be kept in stoppered 
bottles. It may be very conveniently made into 
biscuits with some flour. Medicinal properties- 
Antiseptic and absorbent ; given in powder or in cap 
sules in cases of distension by intestinal gas, and m 
foul eructations, also in dyspepsia, attended with 
flatus and acidity. Externally, as a poultice, it ab- 
sorbs the f fetor of foul ulcers. Dose : 20 to 00 grs. 
—J. M. D. 

[25272.] — Curve— The curve assumed by water 
rotating in a cylinder is a parabola. Could not 
some of the speculum-makers of "ours" take a 
hint from this fact, and, say, by rotating a mixture 
of plaster of Paris and water until it sets, obtain 
from it a mould or core wherewith to cast a metal 
speculum from ? The operations of grinding and 
polishing same could be accomplished by modifica- 
tions of this principle.— Q. Pinninqton. 

[25275.]— Yeaat.—" Upsilon " may get brewer's 
yeast into the solid state he requires by putting it 
into coarse canvas bags and subjecting the bags to 
pressure ; but he will not then find it to answer as 
well as German yeast. As far as my experiments 
have gone the foreign yeast seems to be quite a dif- 
ferent thing to the ordinary brewer's yeast. I have 
had no opportunity of trying distiller s yeast. Can 
any correspondent say if as good an article, in a dry 
state, is made in this country as the German 
yeast P I fancy " Upsilon " will have to experiment 
for himself pretty largely before the Yorkshire or 
Devonshire brewers will be called upon to supply 
barm for the " rush " he intends to make into the 
yeast trade. If any one knows the secret he asks 
for, it will be too profitable to themselves to com- 
municate to the first inquirer ; but still, there is no 
harm in asking, can a substitute for German yeast 
be made, and is it made in England ?— G. Pinninq- 
ton. 

[25280.] — Harmonium Stops. — " Angelina," 
about to purchase a harmonium, wishes to know a 
few of the " most useful stops." In the first place, 
don't count the stops at all, but open the instru- 
ment and count the rows of reeds. Then, if the 
quality suits, you can buy as a 1-row, 2-row ; and so 
on according to the number of reeds. Seeing that 
7 stops can easily be put on an instrument with 
one row of reeds it is no use to describe an instru- 
ment by the number of stops. On the harmonium, 
as on the American organ, the rows are almost in- 
variably divided in the centre, and whatever names 
may be placed on the stops one can only judge of 
the value of the instrument by hearing it. A 1-row 
has 8ft. reeds, divided into cor anglais and flute 
when stops are put on ; a 2-row adds the 16ft. 
reeds, divided into bourdon and clarinette ; a2i-row 
has either a half-row of 4ft. reeds, or of 8ft., tuned 
a quarter tone sharper or flatter than the flute, 
giving the voiz celeste. Larger instruments add a 
row of 4ft. reeds throughout, labelled clarion and 
fife, or a second row of 8ft.. but of different quality, 
labelled bassoon and hautbois, the latter more or 
less resembling in tone the instrument after which 
they are named, and so on. The expression shuts 
off the reservoir and the wind goes direct from 
feeder to reeds, the tremolo causes a shivery-shakery 
sound or a rampant chattering row, the sourdine 
reduces the wind passage of the bass. The last 
three are the only stops that can possibly be wanted 
on a one-row instrument by the most inveterate 
lover of stop-knobs, for cor anglais and flute do 
nothing more than shut up the one-row of reeds 
and leave nothing to sound till one of them is 
drawn, and if you want the sourdine or the tremolo 
you must close.thc cor anglais or the flute, unless the 
maker has taken the trouble to connect the valve- 
actions inside. Fortes are invariably shams. On some 
instruments they are of use, but those ins tremens are 
rarely seen. Yon can do the forte with the bellows. 
The grand jeu draws all the rows of reeds at once. 
Sitting in front of an instrument the stops to the 
right govern the treble reeds, those tb the left the 
bass. One thing remember, that " stops " without 
reeds are worth about Is. each, and dear at that 
with their crockery faces. Ton understand, then, 
that pressing down the 4th C from bass end. with 
the flute out, gives C in the staff at concert pitch 



(should do); clarinette gives the octave lower with 
the same key, and fife .gives the octave higher ; but 
as to the effect it depends on the quality of the 
instrument-Hind the player.— Saul Bthea. 

[25 282:1— Sulphate of Magnesia.— It is impos- 
sible to obtain a solution of the strength desired. I 
should suggest water for washing it off the cylinders, 
unless there is some practical objection which I am 
not aware of .—Alfred Hi Allen. 

[25285.]— Cad—The "Slang Dictionary" gives 
the following meaning of the word " Cad : — " Cad, 
or cadger (from which it is shortened), a mean or 
vulgar fellow ; a beggar ; one, who would rather live 
on other people than work for himself ; a man who 
tries to worm something out of another, either 
money or information. Johnson uses the word, and 
gives huckster as the meaning (huckster, one 
who sells goods in small quantities— a pedlar), 
but I never .heard it used in this sense. Apparently 
from eager, the old cant term for a man. The 
excluaives of the English universities apply the 
term cad to all non-members.— Bob Bot. 

[25288.1— Locomotive.— Pambour's rule is the 
simplest for finding the tractive force of locomotives. 
Thus : — The square of the cylinder's diameter x by 
the stroke, then + by the diameter of the wheel 
(the units of measure being inches) will give the 
tractive force for each pound of off Retire pressure 
upon both pistons. Assuming the boiler pressure 
at 1401b., the reversing handle being over in the 
extreme notch, the valve would then cut off steam at 
76 or 70 per oent. of the stroke of piston ; expansion 
would then take place for about 10 per cent, more ; 
the rest of the stroke would be in a free exhaust, so 
the effective or average pressure per square inch is 
brought down to about 120. The question would 

then stand thus v^JL^JL^9 = H,629lb. This 

80 5 

gives the force exerted, minus the slight friction 
of the engine. — H b ecu leas. 

[26289.]— Locomotive.— The tractive force of an 
engine with wheel 8' 84" diameter, cylinders 18" x 
24 , and pressure, say 1301b., will be 7,7901b.— 
Locom., Newcastle. . 

[26288.]— Locomotives,— The tractive force of 
an engine with ~18in. * 24in. cylinders, 8ft. SJin. 
wheels, is 98 501b. The Great Northern Railway 
have some new 4-coupled engines with 17|in. x 2flin. 
cylinders, 6ft. 8in. wheels, the tractive force of 
which is 192 81b.— H. B. 

[26287.]— Telegraph.— Imagine a clock which has 
the twelve letters. i,fi, C. DTE, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, 
arranged round the dial in the place of the ordinary 
figures. It is very clear that if A. telegraphed to 

B. the letter K he would know that the corresponding 
figure on the clock was 10, and that A signified that 
it was 10 o'clock. Now, if minutes are to be ex- 
pressed the above letters are again used : thus, if 
A. telegraphed the letter K a second time he would 
mean 10 minutes past 10. But in order to get any 
number of minutes, such as 12, 14, 27, Ac., we must 
have additional signs, and these are supplied by 
placing B, S, W, X at every minute between the 
other letters. The following are a few examples to 
elucidate the above:— A, B, X signifies lh. 14m.; 

C. B, 3h. lni. ; F; K, S, 6h. 62m. ; H, D, W, 8h. 
23m.— C. V. 8. 

,25288.]— American Chuck— There are different 
kinds of American chucks— viz., the Acme drill 
chuck, the Warrick chuck, Cushman's, the Victor 
drill chuck, the Danbury drill chuck, Horton's lathe 
chuck, Westcott's lathe chuck, American lathe chuck, 
Morse's adjustable chuck, the Beack chuck, and 
others. Which of those docs the querist mean? 
The Beack chuck is unscrewed from the first milled 
rim from the front. Cushman's drill chuck, by taking 
out the screw opposite to the nut in which the key 
fits, then unscrewing the fan in which the jaws 
fit, the jaws can then be taken out easily and 
cleaned. As the jaws are numbered there is no 
difficulty in putting together again. — Jbeemt 
Dm lee. . 

K 5290. J— American Exchange.— Example :— 6 
. 75 cents, at 484 at rate of exchange :— 
4 84) 6076 (£ 10 
4840 

484 ■ 

2 «= 242) 2350 (9s. 
2178 

242 

12 =2018 ) 17200 (8d. 
16133 

1087 = near Jd. 
2016 

Answer, jBIO 9b. 8Jd.— G. Pinninqton. 

[25202.]— Prince Rupert's Drops.— These drops 
of glass are made by allowing the molten metal to 
fall into water ; hence the glass condenses rapidly 
upon outer portion, and thus causes a heavy strain 
upon central portion. These two forces are equal so 
long as the drop remains constant, but the moment 
the continuity is broken the central portion bursts 
out, shattering the whole into fragments. The con- 
tained air assists very much in this disintegrating 
process. Glass generally, if not properly annealed, 
will fly. and sometimes break up, but it will not be 
converted into powder unless made in si 
as Rupert's drops.— W. J. Lancaster. 



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March 17, 18?g. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE : No. 573. 



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[2S292.] — Priace Rupert's Drops. — Yon are 
probably aware that Prince Rupert's drops are made 
by dropping molten glass into cold water. The 
sodden cooling hardens the outer surface while the 
inner portion is yet molten, and as this cools it 
tends to contract and decrease the size of the drop, 
bat the outer shell being bard refuses to contract, 
and thus the whole drop is thrown into a state of 
extreme tension. Oh breaking the shell this tension 
orercomes the resistance of the glass and the whole 
flies to powder.— A. J. S. 

[25292.] — Prinoe . Rupert's Drops. — The 
property of bursting into powder, on receiving the 
least fracture, which these drops hare in common 
with the glass hardened by M. de la Bastie's process, 
is communicated to all articles of glass which 
undergo a sudden cooling from the molten state. 
Vessels of glass insufficiently annealed shatter 
more or lessen the same way. No explanation of 
the phenomenon.,^ y et been given.— H. B. F. 

[25292.]— Prirre* Rupert's Drops.— When glass 
is suddenly cooled, as in the case of Rupert's 
drops, by falling whilst red-hot into water, the 
outside coating becomes suddenly solid, and the 
internal particles are prevented from contracting 
as they cool. A scratch or a blow disturbs this 
unstable arrangement of the particles, which fly 
asunder with an explosion. A somewhat similar 
phenomenon occurs with newly sublimed arsenions 
acid, which is, like glass, amorphous and trans- 
parent. In course of time this becomes opaque, 
owing to the formation of innumerable crystals. 
If the vitreous acid be dissolved in hot dilute 
hydrochloric acid, crystals of the opaque variety are 
occasionally deposited with the emission of a bright 
flash of light. This does not occur when the 
arsenions acid used is the crystalline or opaque 
variety. — Tallt-Ho. 

[26285.]— Coil.—" J. C. K." will find full instruc- 
tions for this in No. 514, Vol. XX., by Mr. Spragne. 
— Texh Lineman. 

[25295.]— CoiL— The secondary wire has five 
connections attached at intervals. These five wires, 
and one end of the secondary, are connected in 
order to six buttons, over which the radial arm 
"slides with gentle friction," its fixed point repre- 
senting one terminal, while the other is connected 
with the remaining end of secondary. — Iosrx- 
I*HAJ»U8. 

[25295.]— Coil —If " J. C. K." has not yet wound 
on secondary wire let him proceed as follows : — 
Wind on two layers of secondary, then connect a 
short piece of same kind of wire and label it No. 1, 
make a hole and pass it through coil end ; then pro- 
ceed with other layers, not forgetting every alter- 
nate layer, his branch wire, and table. The object of 
branch wire is to prevent cutting secondary at each 
junction. The secondary should be ono wire from 
beginning" to end. When sufficient wire is on. the 
connections will be as follows :— Commencement of 
secondary wire to left-hand binding screw on base- 
board. No. 1 branch wire to first stud, left-hand No, 
2 branch to second stud, and so on till completed, 
and finally remaining end of secondary to last stud. 
The switch is merely a piece of metal with small 
wooden handle at one end and n hole in the other 
end for screw to pass through, but not too tight, as 
handle has to revolve on said screw, the right-hand 
binding screw to be connected to the said screw 
which holds switch. It will be seen that whichever 
ttnd is in contact the circuit will be completed. If 
not understood please write again. — O. Powell. 

[25207.] — Woman's Friend. — Washing by 
Steam. — Some years ago I saw one of these 
machines, of which I hand sketch. It was the 
invention of a man in Cornwall, I believe, and I 
think was a patent. A A A is a large tin pot, 
something like an immense fish-kettle ; B B is a tin 
plate, nearly as large as the bottom, with a hole at 

C, rin. diameter, and standingon four or five legs, 

D, about 2Jin. or Sin. high. The plate, B B. is per- 
forated with a number of holes, like a cullender. 



JL 



JL 



3Z 



Above C is a tube, E, leading into a box, F. having 
four or five tin tubes, G, leading from it : these 
tabes are bent downwards at the ends. H H is the 
cover of the pot. To use the machine some water 
u put into it, reaching nearly ud to the plate, B B, 

thes are put 
the ends of 
says tnat when in use 
tae steam will pass along under the plate, B B, np 
vw tnbe E, and out through the small tubes, Q. 
with sufficient force to go through the clothes (of 
erarse, taking the dirt with it), and that the con- 
osnsed water wfll go through the small holes in the 



t» »ut iuwj iv, reacaing nearly up to sue pu 
and then the plate is put in, and the clothe 
ea the top of it .but must not reach to th 
the tabes, O. The inventor says that wh 



plate B. It may and it may not — I am not a practical 
engineer— but I should feel obliged if some English 
mechanic would explain to me by wjmt means yon 
can render the steam so docile that it will pass all 
the way along under the plate B, through C and O, 
and then have sufficient force left to go through the 
clothes, instead of going straight np through the 
small holes in B, and condensing on the lid. which 
appears to me to be the natural thing for it to do.— 
Little Tomcis. 

[26297.]— Woman's Friend.— We hare an Ame- 
rican washer in our house. We find that we can 
wash better in half the time, without rubbing, by 
immersing it about thirty times per minute in 
boiling suds. It must always be lifted clear from 
the water and clothes every immersion. I inclose a 




great muscular exertion previously wanted. We 
know nothing of the steam process.— Gowbje. 

[26297.]— Woman's Friend. — I believe your 
correspondent wonld find in "Cooper's clothes- 
washer'' the article required. All persons whom I 
have known to try it have expressed themselves 
perfectly satisfied with the efficacy with which it 
does its work. The machine, which is made entirely 
of metal, is placed in the copper with the articles to 
be washed, and so long as the water is kept boiling a 
constant stream of steam and water is circulated 
through the clothes, completely nlnaming the 
material without any necessity for rubbing or scrub- 
bing:, thus effecting a great saving both in labour 
and wear and tear of material. The price of this 
machine is from lis. to 16s.— Vindbx. 

[25298.] -Eleotro-Plating.-Steel objects require 
a thin coating of copper first, which must be de- 
posited in an alkaline solution such as the cyanide. 
A house bell, being; made of a brass, does not require 
coppering. The silvering solution must be cyanide 
of s: dver dissolved in cyanide of potassium.— Stoma. 



sectional sketch. It must be made of very strong 
tin, and all edges wired. The smaller funnel shown 
is 1 Jin. deep, the larger one 7in. deep. The smaller 
funnel extends a Jin. below the big funnel.— A 
Washerwoman's Son. 

[25297.]— Woman's Friend.— I had just finished 
the perusal of your last number when it was 
casually taken up and scanned by my better-half , 
when the Jeremiad of " woman's friend" met her 
eye. I most confess I skipped it. I have im- 
perative instructions to give an account of how my 
wife got ont of her difficulties, which it is hoped 
may be useful to lots of Mrs. Mechanics. My 
family consists of eight, including one general 
servant. Our "wash" is correspondingly con- 
siderable, and occurs once a fortnight. Some 
eighteen months ago this event need to be my 
horror : I had to get np an hour or two before my 
usual time, I got my breakfast, with its con- 
comitants, with difficulty ; I had to brush myself, 
and was positively forbid to return before evening 
—past experience taught me not to hurry. But 
how about the washing P A washerwoman came at 
five o'clock ; before then the girl was up and had the 
boiler fire kindled. By six they were up to their 
shoulders among soap-suds, breakfast at seven, tub 
again till eleven, when the woman got her " eleven- 
oors " — consisting of a glass of whiskey and cheese 
and bread— dinner at two, tea at fire, washing over 
at seven sometimes, often er eight. Ton will under- 
stand that two women were at it for more than 
twelve hours, steady, my wife, of course, superin- 
tending and lending a general hand. So much for 
matters previous to us starting a " woman's friend." 
This was nothing more nor less than a "home 
washer " with wringer on top. This article was 
first bronght under my notice by a friend in the 
North, who told me of its great usefulness. Chary 
of believing all I heard I said I wonld take one 
subject to my wife's approval. It came several 
days before the periodical "day," and I had a 
private seance on my own hook in presence of a 
few of my wife's lady friends. There is no use of 
me describing how I did my wash — suffice it to say 
that I attended to the maker's instructions as 
religiously as if I had been making a pndding, and 
notwithstanding the sneers and sceptical remarks 
of my critical audience I was successful in turning 
out the articles clean, even cleaner than by the 
usual method and in only a few minutes. My wife 
was convinced, which was all I cared for, but now 
for the " woman." She came at the usual time and 
was introduced to the machine. " Na ! na ! I'm 
tae wirk wi' nane o' yer noo-fangaled barrel-organs, 
I've tried them afore an' they're nae use, sae glf ye 
mean tae wash wi' that thing ye can get some ither 
body." I was appealed to and decreed that she 
could go. Here was a position for a man ! I had to 
undertake the responsibility of the washing. How- 
ever, nothing daunted, the girl did as she had seen 
me do, mixed her " graith," put in the prescribed 
number of articles, turned the handle according to 
instructions, and found the first instalment perfect. 
I came home to dinner that day, being interested, 
and found the washing over. Since then it has 
been always used, and I may say is the greatest 
boon a family can have. Upon an average five to 
six hours is the time now occupied with a fortnight's 
washing instead of twelve as before. We also use 
it for blankets, which it does equal to the usual 
"tramp." A word about the wringer. It of course 
is wanted to complete the success, as it relieves the 



r — Electro-plating.— To effect the de- 
oompositiou of silver on all metals that are oxidiwble, 
a peculiar kind of menstruum is employed, and the 
one found most effective for the purpose is a sola- 
tion of cyanide of potassium. There are numerous 
methods of preparing the solution, but the cheapest 
and best is to dissolve the silver in the cyanide of 
potassium by the action of a voltaic battery. Copper 
need only be used when a dead deposit is desired. 
The articles when taken from the solution are 
white, the silver being afterwards polished on the 
parte required to be bright. A bright deposit may. 
however, be obtained by adding a little sulphuret of 
carbon to the solution. — Vincent. 

[26299.]— Electro-deposition of Antimony. 
— I believe the important point in depositing 
antimony is to work with a small force, and there- 
fore slowly and with little tendency to set free 
hydrogen as well as metal ; for the latter purpose it 
would seem desirable to use a strong solution. Not 
much is known about the explosive conditions, 
because antimony is not often deposited, but it 
appears to depend upon some state of the metal 
which permits a molecular change to occur upon 
friction or jarring, somewhat similar to what 
happens in the case of Rupert's drops. The querist 
had better try a strong solution of the chloride and 
after that the effect of adding salammoniac, if he is 
not satisfied with the action of the simple chloride. 
— Sigma. 

[25299.]— Electro-deposition of Antimony.— 
"Antimoniuni Crudum " should dissolve 1 part of 
tartar-emetic in t parts of the solution, obtained by 
dissolving antinionious sulphide nearly to satura- 
tion in hydrochloric acid, and subject the solution to 
the action of two or three cells of Smee's battery, 
using a plate of antimony for the positive and copper 
Wire for the negative electrode. A metallic deposit 
of specific gravity 5 8, having the colour and lustre 
Of highly polished steel, with a peculiar mammillated 
suface and amorphous structure, is formed. This 
deposit contains 5 to 6 per cent, of antinionious 
chloride, and if struck sharply, or heated to about 
80°. or even scratched with a metallic point, it 
undergoes a rapid molecular change, the rise of 
temperature sometimes attaining to 482° (250° C), 
accompanied by abundant fumes of nntimouious 
chloride. The heat is so great as to boil water. The 
deposit then retains its cohesion and metallic aspect, 
but becomes grey, and has a granular fracture and 
increased density. — Bromo-Iodine Spa. 

[25300.]— Stereo soopio Transparencies.— Use 
a copying arrangement similar to that mentioned 
and described in the "British Journal of Photo- 
graphy Almanack," placing the negative film side 
outwards. Prepare your plate in the usual manner 
and expose, then develop with ammonio-sulphate of 
iron, 100 grains ; glacial acetic acid, Jos. ; methy- 
lated spirit, Jos. ; water, Bos. Intensify with acid 
silver and pyro, and fix with cyanide or hypo. — 
Scio. 

[25300.]— Stereoscopio Transparencies. — Yon 
will find all the information yon require in the last 
two volumes of the English Mechanic. It will be 
better for you to read through the principal answers, 
<tc., about transparencies than adLere to merely one 
answer.— W. J. Lancaster. 

[26300.]— Stereoscopio Transparencies — How 
to Produce. — I believe the simplest and best way 
is to do it with a binocnlar camera. The lenses 
should be single ones (as being the cheapest and 
best), and must be made to act either with a lock, 
or right and left-handed screw, to come within 2Jin. 
apart, and with 4in. or 4 Jin., according to the 
negatives to be copied. I always place my negatives 
above the camera and tojurds the zenith. This 
plan of copying gets over the difficulty of placing 
the left-band picture to the right, and the reverse ; 
the negatives do not require to be cut. There are 
other advantages in this method of copying. The 
justly celebrated pictures of Breese were camera 
prints, often consisting of three pictures contained 
in one, by one on each of the three glasses. Thus, 
in a moonlight picture, the moon will be on one 
glass, the landscape on the other, and the third will 
» a bird upon the wing, the distance at which each 
will appear depending upon the adjustment of the 
distance apart of the picture of the moon and the 
bird. Do not make the centres of your pictures for 



the stereoscope more than 2jin. apart; better 



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ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE: No. 573. March 17, 1876. 



more than 2Jin. if you aro combining pictures with 
front landscape. I often wouder amateurs do Dot 
work more in this most fascinating- direction. I will 
give formula if you wish.— A. Pumpobey. 

[26301.]— Dry Plates. — If this correspondent 
will take the wbite of one egg, and bent up with a 
wood or stiver fork till all of a thick froth, then let 
it stand to liquefy, and add it to about 6oz. or 8oz. 
of his coffee solution, beat up again, so as to 
thoroughly mix, and filter through a piece of fine 
spouse, and use as a preservative on his plates, and 
dry spontaneously, his plntes will keep six months or 
more before and three months after exposure. Before 
using the preservative wash in two dishes of water, 
drain and rinse with distilled or filtered water, drain 
and use preservative ; first portion to be thrown 
away after flowing over, and use a second portion, 
this to be used as a first portion for next plate.— 
J. W. F. M. 

[86801 J— Dry Plates.— Although this is addressed 
to Mr. Pumpbrey, I can recommend " F. L. R. X." 
to use collodio-albumen plates with a final wash of 
gallic acid. They will Keep indefinitely. I have 
seen negatives developed yean after preparation 
and exposure, without any difference of result from 
those exposed and developed immediately, and for 
quality of the negative they are unsurpassed by any 

Sroeess ever introduced. I will send particulars if 
ssired, as I have tried many others, but have 
always had to foil book on this ; it is thoroughly 
reliable, and a plate once exposed is absolutely 
certain to be impressed with a tiine-mdatibte picture. 
— Scio. 

rSSSOlJ — Dry Plates. — I cannot answer 
"F. L. B. X." as to the best way of making dry 
plates that will keep six months. I am not a dry 
plate man, but have seen enough of it to prefer 
working with all the charms of nature, sunlight 
and fresh air around me, and seeing what I <lo, to 
standing half the night in drugging out reluctant 
images. I should recommend jour correspondent 
to try either the dry process, as first introduced 
by Norris — which may be considered a purely 
mechanical process, and consists in usiug a powdery 
collodion, washing the plate and covering with a 
coatintr of gelatine, which keeps the collodion from 
contracting, so that the developers can, througk the 
moistened gelatine, act upon the iodides nud bromides 
in the film— or the eollodui - alim m e u process. Both 
these require a special collodiou. The best dry 
plate negatives I ever did w r.' some remarkable 
stones on the summit of cilyders, North Wnlas, 
which is a difficult climb without any impedimenta. 
I have no fault to find with the negatives as regards 
the quality of the picture, but the film is so 
powdery that no varnish or albumen will make the 
negatives hard enough to bear the ordinary wear of 
printing on paper.— A. Pumphbey. 

[25802.] — 8eamen's Oilskins. — The material 
should be fine twilled calico, dipped in bullock's 
blood and well dried in a current of air, then two 
or three coats of raw Unseed oil with a little gold sice 
or litharge in it (say loz. to a pint of oil). Each 
coat should be ullowed to dry thoroughly before 
the next is put on (as before in a current of air. care 
being taken to shelter it from both sun and rain). I 
have tried oilskins made in this way both hero and 
iuthe tropics, and they have stood for years.— Old 
Salt. 

[25301,] -Nitrates of Potash and Soda.— See 
Storer's "Dictionary of Solubilities."— Ziqsfi. 

[25304.]— Nitrates of Potash and Boda.— For 
percentages of these salts in solution of different 
strengths see " Storer's Dictionary of Solubilities." 
— H.B. F. 

[28806.]— Animal Bern so . —Carbonate of lime 
is the best and cheapest disinfectant for refuse 
animal matters. The best method of making 
manure of such waste matter is to dry them well 
(preferably on the bed of a reverberatory or muffle 
furnace) ; to 2 cwt. of the dried matter add, say, 
4 gallons of water and 4 gallons sulphuric acid 
180' 'f wad. Thoroughly mix and dry them. The 
manure thus made is capital, especially for green 
crops.— H. B. F. 

[25305.]— Animal Refuse.— Boil down to make 
glne. or sell the same to a glue manufacturer. A 

nt deal is taken per Aberdeen steamer to Aber- 
evory week for making glue, &c— JoeRPH 
William Fennell. 

rs&W.J— Pnmping.— " Querist" will find tie 
desired information in Br union's " Mechanics, " 
p. lfit and 155.— VALsnrriire. 

[2R307.]— Pumping.— In reply to "Querist,'* I 
beg to say it is an unusual thing, in ascertaining 
the size of engine required to pump water from a 
pit (or shaft) a given depth, to give length of stroke 
and number of strokes per minute. The Bize of 
engine required to pump water in two'stands of 
pumps, 12 7 ' dia., 60yds. each, would depend greatly 
on the motion of working, whether direct or with 
gearing— t .g.. to command the above quantity of 
water, I would suggest 15" dia. pumps (for the pur- 
pose of reducing speed and gaining power), with 
engine working, say, 6ft. stroke geared 3 to 1 
size of engine, 30" cylinder. The latter part of 
" Querist's " question is impracticable, as the pres- 
sure on a boiler to do a certain amount of work 
depends altogether on its Bize. Two single-tubed 
boilers, 30ft. long, 6ft. dia., 3ft. 6in. tube, properly 
fined, should work a 80" cylinder engine, doing the 



work above mentioned at 25lb. per sq. In. pressure. 
In calculating for the erection of a pumping engine 
S3 per cent, should be allowed (or is my method), 
above what is known to be the powor required, as 
many stoppages, &c. occur, and mnst be provided 
for. Should " Querist " require anything further, 
and will put it in more direct language, I will do 
my best to answer him.— W. S., Whitehaven. 

[25307.]— Pumping. — The two pumps would re- 
quire an engine of 3213h.-p. (theoretical) to work 
them, and the diameter of cylinder of engine with 
steam pressure of 501b. per inch would be 8'2575iu. 
Method of calculation : — Dia. of pump = 12in., 
then 12* + 7854 = 113-0876 area. Area 113 0976 x 
12 = contents of 1ft., 1357*1712 cub. inches x 150ft. 



203575-08 



1728 



— = 11781 cub. 



= 203575-68 cub. in., and 

feet = contents of 60yds. of pipe 12in. dia. Then 
117 81 x 0251b. = 7383 1251b. weight of water in 
pipe to be lifted 72ft. per minute, and 7363-125 x 72 
= 5301451b. lifted 1ft. per minute, then 530145 + 
33000 = 16085h.-p. required for one pump. Now 
the engine is required (by construction) to make 30 
revolutions or 72 strokes per minute each stroke = 
5Jf t., and the steam pressure is 50lb. nor in., then 
1 sq. in. of piston wonld raise 19,8031b. 1ft. high 
per minute, but 1,060,2901b. has to be raised in the 



two pnmps per minute, so that 



1060200 
1M80J 



63-55 sq. 



in. of piston surface that would be required, and, 
consequently, a piston of 8'2576in. dia. (theoretical). 
— G. PlNNINGTON. 

[25303.]— Acoustical.— H I knew the purpose for 
which the instrument is destined I could give you 
much better information, but on the supposition 
that you have something to do with a barque, 
smack, or yacht, I have devised a simple apparatus 
easily carried about and efficient. The apparatus 
consists essentially of an umbrella, made of strong 
tarpaulin, to open and close in the usual manner, the 
separate portions of which, to be made sufficiently 
strong to keep the tarpaulin at full stretch when 
opened out ; the diameter of this sonorous reflector I 
would have at least 7ft. _ On the central rod should 
be a funnel, about 6in. in diameter, tapering down 
to an aperture on one side of the stick, to which is 
affixed a tube terminating in a similar manner to 
the ear end of an ordinary speaking tube. Yon 
will see in a moment that this apparatus would 
form a reflector of 7ft. diameter, that the sound 
waves impinging npon this wonld be reflected into 
funnel, from thence through tube to your ear. 
You might use it alone without funnel or tube by 
placing your ear in focus of reflector, knt I would 
advise you to use the tube, as then the whole 
of the reflector would be used. The inside of 
tarpaulin should be well painted so as to make a 
more even surface, and the end of stick shonld be 
fixed te a central stand around which it might be 
rotated. This apparatus would also be effective as 
a means of communication by sound t-* shore or 
distant vessel in case of fog, &n. ; a bell runcr in 
focus of umbrella would be heard at a long 
distance in front of mirror. I have frequently 
thought that a reflector in conjunction with a bell 
on shore would save mnny lives ; thus the bell on 
the Scilly Isles would have been audible had there 
been a large reflector at the back of the bell, and 
the whole of the waves concentrated into a parallel 
beam of great intensity. An apparatus might be 
affixed to every bell in the United Kingdom at a 
trifling cost, and could be moved through the 
requisite angle to be heard in every direction on sea. 
— W. J. Lakcabtbb. 

[25309.]— Acoustical.— Tf any one could con- 
struct machine required, ho would most likely take 
out a patent for such a useful article, and not let 
" Dangerous Navigation" into the secret without 
his paying for it. It strikes me that any instru- 
ment that would augment distant sounds wonld 
also proportionally augment nearer sounds, nud 
thus, siiy at sea, nullify itself. An instrument that 
would augment particular sounds, such as that of 
a steam whistle, that of a fog horn, or that of a 
gun fired, would be well worth searching for ; but I 
doubt if ' Dangerous Navigation " will find one at 
present in existence.— Q. Pinninqton. 

[25316.]— Petrifying- Water.— " Chemical " is 
in error if he thinks the articles placed in the so- 
called petrifying springs are turned into stone. 
They become incrustcd with carbonate of lime, 
which resembles very muoh the " fur " of a tea 
kettle. I have seen a birds-neat and eggs which 
have been subjected to the action of the waters to 
which he refers, and on examination I fonnd the 
twigs and straws quite perfect within their stoney 
envelope.— W. S. B. 

[26319.]— Bull's-eye Lantern.— The "striss" 
visible in yonr bull's-eye are in the glass, and hence 
to polish them out you would have to reduce the 
lens to a nonenity. The only way I can recommend 
you to work is to get the best possible oil burner, 
nsing sperm oil and camphor, with a little 
spermaceti, as fuel, in the following proportions :— 
Sperm, one pint ; camphor. 2oz. ; spermaceti, loz. : 
mix in jar placed on hob. Now the arrangement ot 
lenses most suitable for your purpose would be the 
following : — Make a tnbe just large enough to push 
down tho present aperture containing lens; then 
get two plano-convex lenses ne large as you can us< 
in tnbe, each being 9in. focus; mount them in n 
tube to slide in the fixed tube, the leases to have 



their convex surfaces as close as possible without 
tonching each other. This tube containing lensjes 
should be capable of, say, Jin. adjustment, so that 
tho two lenses may be moved to or from the light a - 
required ; about jin. in front of flame will be beat 
position ; nearer to light will give a more divergent 
ho am. while vice versa will give a more parallel beam. 
If you cannot get through your difficulty write 
again, and 1 wilt help you. I may soy I have been 
experimenting with paraffin lamps, but have not yet 
succeeded in obtaining a good and safe read lamp 
as* yet ; but knowing the truth of the phrase, 
"Labor omnia vinoit," I do not yet despair.— VV. 
J. Lancastbb. 

[25381.]-Staining Black.— " A Dublin Cabinet- 
maker" shonld try acetate of iron (vinegar in 
which nails have been steeped) instead of copperas, 
and tell the polisher to put a little thumb-blue in his 
polish.— S. Mayeb. 

[S5336J — Spectroscopic Experiments. — The 
electric lamp is almost a sine qui noix for tho pro- 
duction of good spectra, bat the cost of cells, lamp, 
4c, is beyond tho means of on ordinary student ; 
heuce, after a little thought, I think I have over- 
come a difficulty that has existed in connection with 
the oxy-hydrogen light, and while knowing that tho 
spectra with the lime-light will not have tho purity 
possossed by the spectra from the electric-light, still 
I think the method below will give results sufficiently 
good for general class or lecture-room demonstra- 
tion. The following apparatus will be essential : — 
Lime light apparatus, lantern, plate with adjustable, 
slit, heavy glass or bottle prism, lens mounted on 
stand with various motions, screen, &o. Now, the 
method of using the apparatus is tho following : — 
Incliue the lautern, jet, &<s., to an angle of, say, 70° ; 
then, having previously out out a portion of the 
lime-ball inacoucave form, place lime-ball on holder, 
with concave portion nest to orifice of jet; light 
jet, and adjust uutil a parallel beam emerges from 
condensors ; immediately in front of condensors 
place the plate with slit in a horizontal direction, 
then near to plate have the prism (a bottle prism I 
would recommend) on a support lying horizontally ; 
through this the plane of light passes, and is then 
carried through a lens on to screen. Here, then, 
are the essentials, and I think you will at onoe 
grasp tho whole ; of coarse, the metal to be burned 
must be placed in the concavity in lime-ball A 
cylinder of hard gas-coke, similar to the carbon 
points in the electric lamp, would also be indis- 
pensable. This cylinder must have a concave 
depression for the reception of metals, &c. The 
spectrum produced as above would be vertical, aud 
would be more easily shown than a long horizontal 
one, besides taking ap much less space among 
diagrams, &c. If cost is no consideration, I would 
have the electric light ; but the electric light has its 
faults. I well remember at the Royal School of 
Mines how it would not submit to the will of tho 
learned professor ; immediately upon the words being 
uttered, "thero is tho magnificent spectrum," Ac, 
the light would vanish, and the spectrum became 
invisible. Tho slides you mention may be had from 
many firms, butj as a rule, have to be ordered— that 
is, are not kept in stock. One could uot advertise 
all the slides that might be useful to a lecturer ; the 
sale of such would not defray cost of same, hence I 
imagine the reason for non-advertisement. If you 
are particularly interested in physics I shall be 
pleased to givo you information how to make a lot 
of slides, without the aid of photography, aud equally 
interesting.— W. J. Lancasteb. 

[253*9.]— Heat in Frames.— I think that oOy 
cotton waste, mixed with iron filings, would produce 
too great a heat— in a warm place it will sponta- 
neously " combust." If mixed with the old manure 
of a hot bed, and allowed to ferment, if it did no 
char it all up, it would do very well for potting 
purposes, but would not be of much avail in growing 
a cabbage.— Saul Bymba. 

[25352.]— Lights.— From what I c.-.n see of the 
matter the owuer of adjoining property cannot 
interfere with your lights. If they are au annoyanc 
to him he can put up boarding or otherwise block 
them, nt the extent of his ground. If. as you state, 
tho head of your shop is 12in. within your boundary 
line, you need not fear the result if he appeals to the 
law.— Subveyob No. 2. 

[25366.] — Manure for Potatoes. — Does a 
" Novice'' mean cocoa-nut fibre or" refuse i" Tie 
latter is the best, aad a verv fine thing to pat on 
his two acres of badly kept land. Either is good, 
but the fibre takes too long to decay. It does not 
matter whether the land is clay or sandy, the only 
difference is the manner of applying. YV ith day a 
good dressing should be ploughed in; but on light 
loams use it as a surfocer and plough it in at the 
back end of the season, leaving the ground rough 
for the frost. You might give it a strong dose of 
ammoniaoal liquor while in that state, and leave it 
till the spring. I shonld not use the ammonia for 

EDtatoes until I saw what the ground would produce, 
ut you might give it freely to cabbages and all 
crops of "leaves." Get some superphosphate or 
dissolved bones, if possible, for the potatoes, with 
potash salts ; bat if yon could ascertain by analysis 
that the soil already contains plenty of phosphoric 
acid and mineral salts yon might venture on a little 
ammonia for the "praties." Otherwise it will 
merely produce haulms at the expense of t» hers, or 
to-called tubers, which they are not.— Saul Bymba 

Digitized by VjOOg IC 



March 17, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 573. 



23 



UNANSWERED QUEUES. 



The number* and titUt of gurrtw u\ic\ remain unan- 
swered for fro* wsfcs are inserted in thie Uet. and yf itill 
vn*n*v*r«l are revealed four veek* afterwards. We trust 
ovt nadtrtvnU loot over t\e Iwrt, and send icOet information 
they can for the benefit of tlirir/Wloif-contrflwtor*. 



Since 



> ! 
94074. 
84675. 
34076. 
84078. 
24C83. 
24687. 



84710. 
84715. 
84784. 
84786. 
8473)8. 



84045. 

84911.' 
84053. 
21956. 
24959. 
84860. 
84007. 
84000. 
84071. 
84074. 
84675. 
84070. 
84077. 
84981. 
94088. 
24080. 
94001. 
84006. 
84090. 
85008. 
85000. 
89012. 
25013. 
88015. 
28617. 



oar lost W. OolliM ha* snswered 84443; J. 
. 94443; " Muoions," 84443; J. W. FenaaU, 
J. K. P.," 84028. 

Ferri Oxidnm Magrieticum, p. 438. 
Ferri Carbonate Sacchirato, 439. 
Letteriiu? Granite, 438. 
flmrity Escapement Pendulum, 438. 
Ruling Aooonnt Book, 438. 
Pumping Machinal. 438. 
Lantern Lamps, 438. 
Air-Pomp, 438. 
Interior of Bellows. 488. 
Strength of Boiler, 430. 
Ouf Engines, 438. 
Asphalted Tank, 439. 

Bice Starch, p. 541. 
Domestic Gas Apparatus, 541. 
Book-case, 541. 

Electricity in Cbeese-mnkhur, 541. 
Relief Stamping in Gold and Silver, 541. 
Locomotives, 542. 
Khedive. 542. 

M., 8.. ft L. Coupled Engines, 542. 

O. N. R. Blook System. 512. 

Terrestrial Globe, 512. 

Etching, 612. 

Waterproof Paper, 549. 

Cotton Spinning, 542. 

Bell Ringing, 542. 

Screw Launch, 542. 

Calender, 542. 

Screw-cutting, 542. 

Wire Drawing. 642. 

Leather One Bag, 549. 

Organ Building. 543. 

Jewelled Watches, 543. 

Show Tanks for Aquaria, 543. 

Bagebien's Water-wheel, 543. 

Steel, 543. 

Cutting Limestone Corals, 543. 
Marine Boiler., 543. 
Fireclay, 543. 



QUERIES. 



125401.]— Lathe Bed Query.— Will some of your 
correspondents give me a little information as to the 
proper dimensions (including thickness of the sides) of an 
iron lathe bed for a Sin. centre lathe, for turning wood or 
iron, so as to combine the maximum of strength with the 
minimum of material ? A cross section of the bed drawn 
to scale would be very acceptable, as, living in a country 
village where few understand lathes, I intend to make the 
pattern myself. I wish to hare it planed with V pieces, 
so that I oan attach a self-acting shoe-rest, if I want to. 
The width of the cast-iron head, which carries the man- 
drel, is Gin.— Edward Hooker. 

[25408. ] -Making Wit ah Owe- 1 hove noticed 
that there has been a great deal of information given in 
" ours " about watches, repairing them. Ac ; but I have 
seen nothing about making the case since I have been a 
subscriber. JTow I have a great fancy to make one. 
1 have tried several times, but failed. I believe that they 
are moulded, as it were, into form by pressure with a 
burnisher, or other suitable tool, as the thin metal 
revelvee in the lathe. This I have tried to do, but for 
some reason have not accomplished. If some subscriber 
who ia experienced in making ewes of watches, would 
kindly give the modus operandi so as to enable an amateur 
to make one, he would confer a great favour. I am need 
to soldiering, if that is used in the process ; also have a 
tolerably good lathe at my disposal.— Rdwabb Hoora. 

[36408.]— Lathe Bands.— I have read the admirable 
a rt isl e s on "Overhead*" that have been appearing in 
"oan" lately, and I intend to put one up at an early 
day. I wish to know if leather belting cannot be sub- 
stituted for the gut ; ar would the leather stretch too 
orach ? Out is very expensive here, and leather belting 
very cheap. If it stretches toe much, ia them a cheap 
substitute, or some way of rendering leather unstretoh- 
abler Of course the puiisvs would have to be altered to 
•alt.— Edwabd Hooks. 

[854040-Sraall Organ. -Witt your gifted corre- 
spondent, " Omnium," kindly slate the approximate 
cost of email organ described by him at 24068, p. 488, and 
he will greatly oblige — Jouos. 

[26405.] — Sleotro-magnetio Engine. — Would 
' Burma, or M. Volk, kindly answer me the following P 
I am about making a small eiactoo-mscnetio engine (the 
poles of which are about 4ut. long) to work a small model 
air-r-rop. I should like to know what pi emotions must 
be taken to insure a strong action, and what kind of 
elfctro-maanetio engine gives the strongest force; and 
alse the thickne ss of poles and wise ; and numbers of 
terns to give same? Also whether I should round the 
extremities of the poles, as I saw a few weeks ago in this 
▼aloahle journal an account of rounding the poms of 
euctro- magnets, stating the magnetic force was thus 
brought concentrated to a point ?— A Wsixtl 8db- 
acauin. 

[25406.1— Organ Pedals.— What is the proper depth 
of touch for the pedals ? What height should be allowed 
between the keys and pedals to give plenty of knee room, 
neosnring from the tread of the pedals to the ivory of the 
keys ? Is there any reoogni^d Male for the distance from 
Pedal to pedal? Some builders allow 24.in., and ot h ers 
r}*-. measuring from oentre to oentro. Has either of 
tbsasany advantages over the ether ?— K. W. 0. 



[25437.]— Piano.— I am abont oommonoiug to make a 
small piano about 4 octaves, and want to play it with a 
barrel similar to an organ ? Will some correspondent 
kindly inform me how tho barrel is made ? What kind 
of wood is the best ; or are they made solid or glued 
together in segments? What sum in diameter would 
answer best? How are the pins put in for different 
tunes? Wonld " The Harmonious Blacksmith " give me 
the scales of wires for sneh an instrument ? The longest 
distance from bridge te bridge will be 84in.— Haobt 
Foods. 

[85408.]— Embossing on Glass.— Would " Sigma, 
" The Harmonious Blacksmith," or other of your scientific 
correspondents be good enough to explain the process of 
" * r name 

fluoric 



embossing on glau ? I want to make a design or name 
on gloss. To do this I hove been trying to use fli 
acid, knowing it to bo a solvent of most silicates, bnt pro- 



duce not the least effect upon it. I understand the pro- 
cess to be this : The design desired is made out through 
the wax, and the add poured over the glass thus exposed. 
When the acid has eaten snfliciontly deep into the glass 
it is washed off with water, and afterwards the wax again 
re-dissolved by heat. The acid leaves behind deep furrows 
where it touched the glass ; the surface is then frosted, or 
mode rough by friction with sand or fine powder, until 
the design appears dear and distinct on on opaqi 
ground. This was the process as I understood it. Won 
somebody kindly point out its defects?— T. W. Davies. 

[25409.]— Piute.— I have one of Rudall and Rosa's 
eight-keyed flutes, one of tho best of the sort, but it is 
nearly half a tone below concert pitch. Will any of your 
readers kindly inform me if I oan raise the pitch without 
spoiling the flute? Also if the Boehm and similar 
systems are so much superior to the above as the price 
seems to indicate (four times as much), for tho ordinary 
amateur ? — A. Abbott. 

[25410.1— Water Pressure Sngines or Tur- 
bines.— Would ony of your correspondents furnish me 
with information os to the best engine or turbine that 
could be successfully employed for organ-blowing ? Size 
of the instrument : Swell organ bos 12 stops, and contains 
750 pipes ; choir organ, 6 stops, with 350 pipes ; pedal 
organ, 3 stops. The bellows measures 9ft. by 7ft., and 
has three feeders worked by a crank motion ? The water 
supply pipe is Sin. diameter, with a head or fall of 180ft. 
to 200ft , supplied from the waterworks company's mains. 
An early reply, with full portioolare, name of manu- 
facturer, and price of same, will greatly oblige— OMJJturr. 

[86411.1— Lathe Band —Some years book, I think, a 
method of tightening the lathe band by means of a third 
pulley or wheel was published ia the " Mechanics' Maga- 
zine/' Now, in fitting up a lathe with overhead motion 
and speed-wheels of about 36-31 26-31in. diameter, fast and 
loose pulleys of 4iln. diameter, to divide with a strap 




about tin. wide, will any correspondent inform me 
whether by fitting up o light wheel to rise and fall I eon 
make the same strap do, or suggest any superior plan to 
answer the purpose ? A, frame to support overhead ; B, 
speed- wheel* ; C, faet and loose pulleys ; D, rising and 
falling wheel to tighten strop,— 0.. Fulham. 

[86418.]- Ventilation without Draught.— I have 
a shed, 60ft. by 30ft., single-ridged roof, underdrawn 
abont 5ft. from eaves. In this shed I purpose to hove 
200 to 300 Jets of gas constantly burning throughout the 
day. I should be glad if any of the readers of " ours " 
could ofler me a solution of the difficulty of ventilating 
this room without draughts, and of carrying off the 
impure gases and heat arising from so many lights, so as 
to make the place healthy and comfortable as a work- 
room ?— VsmrioAToa. 

[25413.]— Bevel Joint.— Will any of your corre- 
spondents inform me how to make a bevel joint that will 
stand ? The way that it ia made now is by means of on 
iron ring lapped with span yam, and the joint stuffed 
with red lead and a hoop round it, bnt it soon begins to 
leak ; pressure 801b., sise of pipe 5in. Is it possible to 
moke a bad one do better ? It so, how ?— Knout not ax. 

[86114.]— Soft Impression Metal.— Oan any cor- 
respondent kindly assist me out of the slough of despond 
with the following ? I hove a lot of gun-metal percussion 
presses, with names stamped thereon ; they are used for 
embossing paper. Now tne difficulty or secret is to take 
a perfect splosh or counterpart of the die, the die at top 
being sunk with letters: therefore the counterpart at 
bottom (soft metal) would be raised letters. I have tried 
the following, but foiled to get up all the letters at once ; 
the ports that did come up were sharp and good— vis. : 
4os. Bismuth, t\o*. lead, l|OS. tin. Mow if this recipe is 
correct, 24s. per pound for bismuth is no joke. I hod o 
couple of old presses, with o thin layer of the metal now 



asked for ; it ap -eared to me to hove been rolled to about 
Jin., and fastened by some means to a brass plate T ", in. thick. 
I wrapped a thin piece of copper round it, and blew gently 
with the blowpipe till melted, then suddenly forced down 
the die i when released, the whole woe beautifully perfect. 
Wherein do I fail ?— J. B. Purvis. 

[85415.]— Iron Manufacture in India.— 1. Can ony 
of your numerous correspondents inform me if there are 
any Mast furnaces in our East Indian possessions? If 
so, where located, and whether worked by hot or cold 
blast ? 2. Which work is the best authority on the mine- 
ralogy of India ? 3. Is cool found in any abundance ? 
4. What class of iron is produced, and estimated quantity 
per annum ? — Slot Alhs, 

[25416.]— Thread on Bolt.— I want a bolt with a 
thread, on which a nut is to work. Could I get one made 
so that with one turn of the nut it wonld work on the 
bolt tin. ? The thickness of the bolt to be I in. — Inquiaxtn. 

[25417.]— Preserving Milk.— I am desirous of pre- 
serving a portion of my cow's milk for use during the 
time she is dry for oalvin;. Oan any reader inform me 
how I am to do it ? — Wblby. 

[25418.]— Heart Disease.— I have been told that it 
is dangerous for a person suffering from heart disease to 
use the galvanic machine. I often use mine, which ia the 
ordinary ooil with 8 pint bichromate oellit, for the amuse- 
ment of my friends, and now feel afraid to do so. Will 
any of "oars" tell me if there is any danger; and. if so, 
how may I know when a person is so authoring ?— An Oxn 
Scaocainsa. 

[26410.1— German Yeast.— In the Mbchaxtc for 
August 23. 1878, I find Mr. George A: Davidson offering 
to explain the process of making German yeast. If Mr. 
Davidson is still o reader will he kindly reply ; or will 
some other party explain the process, or refer me to one 
who does ? — Jno. SHAcruiros. 

[35480.] -Smee's Battery.— I have 3 cells of the 
above battery that I cannot at all understand. Some- 
times it will work a medical ooil. and another time won't 
move it, and yet everything is to oil appearance just the 
same, with pb.tos well silvered, and ail connections clean 
and right. I am in one of my troubles now, and cannot 
tell if It is my bittery or ooil at fault. The lot tor I have 
been making some alterations in, which include changing 
the two B terminals, and adding a loop from contact 
breaker to a pair of terminals to gain primary current. 
I have made the connections all fast with common solder 
and spirits of salts ; and the battery won't work at moro 
than naif power. 1 hove put os much as lOor. of acid to 
2} pints water. It mokes little difference ; it suddenly 
stop* at times and refuses to budge an inch. Is it battery 
or coil at fault ?— A New Sumcbibkb. 

[25421.1— Tonnage of Yachts.— Win ony contribu- 
tor be kind enough to give me the present rule for com- 
puting the tonnage of steam yachts and sailing yachts, 
4o. ?— Ottawa. 

r25122.]-Boat Paddles.— Would any reader kindly 
inform me the shape and sise of poddies for a boot 13ft. 
by 4ft. ? Also if a crank across tbe boat with wooden 
handle would be easy to work, how to fasten the bearings 
for crank, number of flaps on one paddle, and how deep 
these must take the water ?— A. B. 

[85423.]— Battery.— Will some one tell me how to 
moke a small galvanic battery of platinum and lino P— 
Haiit Lbs. 

[25484.]— Pressure of Air.— If a vessel contains a 
quantity of air whioh weighs 8 gr. and exerts a pressure 
of luiib. per square ineh, and if three more grains of air 
are introdneed into tbe vessel, what pressure will the air 
now exert ? Tsmperaturo the same in both oases,— A 

MlBOO. 

[85485.]— Pressure of Fluid upon a Surface.— 
A closed oyUndrioal vessel, the radius of whose base is 
Sin., is filled with water, with its axis horisontal. Find 
the pressure of water against one end. A cubic Inch of 
water weighs 253-8 gr.— A Oowstaht SoBScniBcn. 

[85488.]— Beeds in Pianoforte.— To '• Hozxn." — 
You say in your reply 84043, " Pianoforte with pedals 
which acted on reeds contained.'' Several of nry friends 
who take the Enausn Mschabio and are interested in 
the subject think that the reeds and bellows ore inclosed 
ia the seat. If so, how is it managed, and how is it 
blown ? I have heard the harmonium (flute and cor 
anglais) and the pianoforte together, and it sounded 
beautiful. I hove also hoard of o pianoforte with reeds for 
treble blown by tbe foot, for solos, oomet passages, Ac, 
either separate or combined with tho pianoforte.— 

Di-Vl-DKD. 

[86437.]— Labels to Preserve.— How oan I preserve 
the labels of my battles from the effects of the acids ? The 
ink turns red and fades from the add trickling over it 
when being poured out.— HanaT Lax. 

[25488. ]-Hther in Spirit*.— I would feel muoh 
obliged to any of your ohetuioal correspondents who would 
describe a method of detecting very small quantities of 
ether when mixed in spirits. It sometimes happens that 
in distilling spirits in a Coffey's apparatus that ether 
passes over with the spirit which runs from the still at 
irom SSop. to 68op. It is to find the ether in such spirits 
that I require the tost for disoovery or a method of proce- 
dure for elimination. If the ether oan be eliminated I 
would prefer to collect it from the sample tested, that I 
may know the quantity. — W. H. 

[25429.]— Projection.— Would any one kindly tell me 
how to construct the projection for drawing a mop of the 
world on the plane of the horizon of any place— Paris for 
example ?— A. H. 

[25430.] -Single Lens Eyepiece.— To F. Dsn- 
hktt.— Some time ago yon mentioned using a single lens 
eyepiece on your 2\ object-glass, giving a power of 134. 
Will you kindly tell mo the focal length of lens ; also 
whether piano or double convex ? Would a Huyghenion 
eyepiece, giving the same power, be better ? — San. 

[25431.1— Bichromate Battery. —Will some one 
kindly tell me how to moke o cheap biohromate battery, 
one oell ? In all I hove seen there ore three binding 
screws ot the top of the glass bottle, tbe carbon plate being 
between tho two since, and eioh terminating in its own 
screw. What ore the connections ? Are the two sines to 
be joined together by o wire to form one electrode, the 
carbon being the other ? An answer will oblige — C. 
Taboe. 



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[25432.]- Harmonium Heeds- Will " Saul 
Rymea," or any other friend, inform me how I oan 
remedy a defect in the reeds P When I blow with any 
force two or three of the brut reeds produce a doll sound, 
aa if they were too weak for the force acting upon them.— 
Job* Finwicx. 

[25433.]— Ebonised Show-Oaae.— Will any one be 
kind enough to let me know how I may fix the end glass 
in a show-case that I hare P Also the bert cement to nee 
for repairing the edge* ? — A. B. 0. 

[26434.]— Blasting Powder.— Will any of your eon- 
tnbutors giro me tome information respecting the relatire 
values of common blasting gunpowder, Abel's gun-cotton, 
and dynamite, baring regard to power, economy, and 
safety when used in an open quarry for limestone ? — 
LiMSSTOn. 

[25435.]— Enamelling Iron.— Can any of your read- 
ers inform me how to arrange a small apparatus for ena- 
melling small strips of iron, either wrought or cast f 
Also a few hints as to the modus operandi and the mate- 
rials used ? I am not particular as to oolour nor anything 
else, except that I want a smooth vitrefled surface without 
cracks, or any sharp lamps, or sharp spots.— Fbosa. 

[25436.]— Veneering.— I hare some wooden tubes 
fin. to Teneer, but And the veneer break. Does it want 
steaming f If so, how oan I rig up a small steaming 
apparatus P The tubes are 4ft. 1 ong. I also want to 
know how to straighten lanoewood ramrods.— Pooa Max. 

[25437.1— Inoruatation and Corrosion In Steam 
Boilers.— Would some of your correspondents kindly 
giro me a little information on the subject of incrustation 
and oorreeion in boilers P The ease is as follows :— The 
engine is a 4-h. portable, has been recently retubed, and 
is in good condition. The common surface well-water in 
this district is exoessirely hard, and rapidly deposits a 
great quantity of fur. To avoid this eril I hare hitherto 
used pore rain-water exelusirely. The engine is only occa- 
sionally used, and has stood about six months with the 
water in. As it is rery uncertain when the engine will be 
wanted, the steam ha ring to be got up sometimes at an 
hour's notice, I do not like to run the boiler empty, owing 
to the trouble inrolred in refilling. Water from the 
blow-off oock on the feed-water pipe at bottom of fire-box 
comes out perfectly dear. Steam pressure 151b. to 201b. 
Now cornea my difficulty. I hare lately read that too 
pure water is dangerous, as rapidly corroding the boiler. 
I should not like to hare an explosion either from exces- 
sive furring or from corrosion. What am I to do P— 
Trutru. 

[25438.]— Chemical Nomenclature. —When So, 

Ho, {{jjfg} and 0, H, are heated together a solid is 

formed baring a green metallic lustre, rery brittle, and 
when the finger is wet with spittle and rubbed on it a 
blood-red oolour is produced. If Mr. Allen, or some other 
chemical reader, would giro the chemical name of it he 
would greatly oblige— B. Holgatz. 

[25439.]— Australia.— Can any reader kindly gire me 
any information as to what opening there is for engine fit- 
ters and turners, rate of remuneration, ftc. P Also 
whether the climate is such as to cure consumption when 
in its first stage, and which part offers the most favour- 
able conditions for sue* purpose P— A. 0. Q. 

[25440.]— Purifying Creosote.— How oan the ooal- 
tar product, technically known as creosote or henry oil, 
be freed from solid impurities and rendered stainless with- 
out deterioration P— Cbbosotb. 

[25441.]— Antidote.— Could any of your chemical cor- 
respondents gire a list of the antidotes required in oases 
of poisoning by any of the mercury compounds r Pornj»ps 
Mr. AlfredH. Allen will oblige-Z. M. 0. A. 

[25*42.] -Mineral Waters.— Will " M. D., " or 
some other of our medic -U friends, oblige by (firing the 
effects produoed by the action of the following mineral 
waters on the human system ?— Saline, ohalybeate, sul- 
phurous, lilicious, calcareous, and carbonated. — Z . M. C. A. 

[25443.1— Amateurs' Workshops.— There has been 
such an alternation of wet and frost this past season that 
it has been rery trying to the well-being of these shops. I 
always find after a frost, on the change occurring, all my 
bright tools, and also the black, corered with moisture, 
ana I hare had to spend many hours wiping and oiling. 
How oan I prerent this P There is no fireplace, but I 
thought of another winter trying a paraffin store : but I 
cannot afford constantly burning it. Should it then bs 
lighted during the frost or on the change P— Pbtbb. 

[25*44.] -Hardening Steel.— Will W. Oldfield 
kindly state if his hardening process, as in letter 2*997, is 
likewise as good for cutting hard oast-iron as it is for 
steel, and bow to go about it P — that is, if to warm the 
mercury or if to dip the tool into that liquid in ordinary 
temperature, or how. — K. B. 

[254*6.]-Weight of Balance Weights.— Can 
any of the readers of your raluable paper gire me a simple 
rule for finding the weight of balance weights in locomo- 
tive wheels ? Also the weight of balance weight for work- 
ing gear ? — Loco*. 

[25*46.]— Stability of Locomotives. — Can any 
readers or your raluable paper gire me any information 
on the stability of inside and outside cylinder locomo- 
tirej P— Stastutt, Newcastle. 

[25*47.]-Pedespede.-Will Mr. F. W. Shearing, or 
anr other kind oorreipondent inform me how to make a 
pedespodo P I hare seen illustrations of them, but cannot 
mafce out how they are fastened to the foot. A working 
drawing will oblige— Bxcaubkb, 

[254*8.]— Old Monument.— On the road from Staf- 
ford to Newport, Shropshire, stands a curious old erection 
locally known as Sutton Monument, being between the 
rillage of that name and the Tillage of Forton. It is rery 
near the boundary line of the county of Shropshire. Can 
any antiquarian reader kindly inform me of the origin, 
use, or intention of this edifice, which resembles nothing 
so much as an extinguisher, knob on the top and all com- 
plete ?— H. O. O. 

L25449.]-Mar ble.-Will some one kindly tell me how 
I can tell Devonshire spar from Italian onyx P And is 
alabaster reined ? If so, how am I to tell it from Italian 
onyx ? And is alabaster found anywhere besides Derby- 
shire P Any information respecting the shore will be 
thankfully rewired by— Dbcobatob. 



[25*50.]— Cleaning Sewing-machine.— Will any 
of your readers inform me how to clean a sewing-machine 
clogged with boiled linseed oil to such an extent that it 
must be taken to pieces P — F. R. 

[25451.4— Small Organ.— Win "Uranium" kindly 
gire me his opinion upon the following schema for a small 
organ P I want 2 rows of keys and pedals for the sake of 
practice, and as I am limited to room (7ft. Sin. wide, 3ft. 
deep) I hare arranged it thus:— Great organ, UebUoh 
gedaet, open diapason to Tan. ; flats and psBaalo. Swell 
organ, rioldegamba. Ten. 0; and stopped bass to 00, and 
board on on pedals • one soundboard, divided for swell, 
6ft. long, 2ft flin. wide ; octare coupler on great, coupler 
swell to great, and great to pedals. I should like to 
know the rule by which the ribs of feeder and bellows are 
out, so ss to get them to fold down properly P— BaULL 
OsaAjr. 

[25459.]-Annealing Green Hint Olaes.-Will 
me of your readers inform me how to anneal greeo flint 

glass f I hare tried sereral methods, but hare faOed.- 

Polibb. 

[25453.1— Bacterial Infusions.— Will some reader 
say which is the best and simplest way to prepare 
infusions of rarious substances for microscopical exami- 
nation P — Is&nns. 

[25*5*.]— Pharoah's Serpents.— When precipi- 
tating sufpho-cyanide of sMNUJ DT BMsUU of nitrate of 
mercury and sulpho-oyanide of potassium. I only get a 
slight blackish precipitate. Oaa any one tell me what to 
do P— Sue ax. 

[25455.] - Brass Valve Balls for Engine 
Pumps.— I suppose these are turned up as near as 
possible between centres. But I want some friend to tell 
me how to finish then; what kind of chuck and tool are 
used ; and how are they used P The diameter of the balls 
I want is lfVin.— A Ourni, 0. 

[25*56.1— Lathe Bearings-— Will some of your 
readers show how, geometrically, to describe the anti- 
friction curre for lathe bearings P Also what description 
of bearings Whitworth uses in his lathes for light work P 
— Sboobds' Prror. 

[25457.]— Old Clock.— I hare an old dock, crown 
escapem en t, name Henry Martin, London. Oan any one 
tell me when Henry Martin flourished? The clock is 
spring, table, quarter repeating.— Saooans' Prror. 

[25*58.]— Dispersive Power sad Density of 
Class.— Could Mr. Lancaster, or any other reader, tell 
me if there is any connection between the dispersire 
power and the density of glass P— 0. H. Boons. 

[25*58.] -Milling Tools.-Will any kind reader 
inform me how these are made P— PaACncAX Tuaaaa. 

[25460.1—31 Orionis.— Turning my telescope the 
other night upon the red star, 31 Ononis, I was surprised 
to find distinctly risible a minute oomes about 13 mag., 
pos. angle about 85°, distance about 12", all by estima- 
tion. I shall be glad to know if the oomes has preriously 
been recognised, as the star is not marked double in 
Proctor's larger atlas, nor is it referred to in Webb's 
" Celestial Objects," or in any list to which I hare access. 
Perhaps " P.R.A.8.," or Mr. Knott, would kindly inform 
me, and also correct the abore estimates.— J. QaiBiif. 

[25*81.] — Crystals. —Could any of your readers 
inform me of anr cheaply and easily made substance 
which will crystallise and sparkle in gaslight, and also 
be imperrious to a damp atmosphere, suitable in forming 
a temporary grotto in connection with a basaar p Alum 
crystals hare been tried, but win not stand the damp 
atmosphere.— A HxrwoKTH. 

[25462.1— Swiss Transferring Pictures.— It is 
easy enough to transfer these to glass : bat is there any 
way of rendering them transparent, so that we might use 
them in the lantern P We hare the transparent enamel 
or ritreotype pictures, and they are plsasag enough as 
far as they go, Dut as there are but a few sheets of them 
published, they are soon exhausted, and we tire of seeing 
the same slides orer and orer again. But in regard to 
those Swiss transferring pictures there appears to be an 
endless variety of them ; and if we had only some pene- 
tratire varnish, or other such medium to render them 
transparent, we should hare increased delight with our 
lanterns.— B. B. Febbbsst. 

[25463.1— BAudrailing.— Would some correspondent 
be kind enough to tell me how to find the direction of the 
ordinates in striking out the face moulds for the wreath 
of a handrail? Any information oa the subject would 
greatly oblige— Oss rs a Foe. 

[25464.]— Noise of Passing Trains.— I should be 
glad if any of your readers could satisfact ori ly account 
for, and explain, the rariations in the noise produoed by 
two railway trains passing each other In opposite 
directions. If the two trains are each going at a speed of 
not less than 6 miles an hoar, the aooustie effect on a 
p a ss en ge r in one of them is that of a continued rattle, 
with from 2 to 4 (aooording to the lengths of the trains 
and their respective speeds) periods of a much greater 
noise. A similar effect may be noticed by a person in a 
station or near a bridge when a train is passing. I hare 
notioed this effect on lines where the carnages used are of 
uniform dimensions, showing that inequalities in the 
heights of the carriages are not compet e nt to account tor 
these periods. — N. 

[25*65.] -Organ Xey-maHng.-l. What is the 
exact length of one octare of keys P In aa article on this 
•abject on page 363, Vol. XVI., " J. D." aires 2ft. 61 in. 
for the keyboard of 56 notes. Allowing 6fUn. for each 
octare, and jyin. for, say, * glue joints, would gire this 
length ; but I find from actual measurement of the keys 
of a piano that 6Min. would be nearer the sise of the 
octare. Is either of these measurements right? 2. How 
is the position for the sharps arrired at P By dividing 
the octare into 8 equal parts for the naturals, and 12 
equal parts for the sharps, tan latter are thrown out of 
position. I hare, therefore, dirided the octare into two 
parts by tbe line separating the notes B and F, and 
dirided the left-hand portion into fire, and the right-hand 
portion into seven equal parts, which appears to gire the 
correct positions. Is this right P 3. In what form is the 
ivory for the keys bought ? Oan it be purchased ready 
cut into the right shape P *. Would fish glue be suit- 
able for fixing the i Tories; and is it as strong as the 
ordinary glue t 5. Iu making keys with a setoff how is 
the sawing done?— B. W. C. 



[^i^fceotrioal.-Wben a current of electricity 
P*rT, i»7? *n insulated copper wire is any portion of ft 
fort on i» J,,^,^ r 1/ it U so lost, what is the percent- 
age p'* ** Per mile under the best known conditions of 
insulation P— Nosolos. 

[25467/1—Matrioulation Questiona.-WOl some 
kind reader solve tbe following problems ?— 1. Find the 
tension on a rope which draws a carriage of 8 tons weight 
np a smooth incline of 1 in 5, and causes an increase of 
Telocity of 3ft. per second. If on the same incline the 
rope breaks when tbe carriage has 'a Telocity of 48 3ft. per 
second how far will the carnage continue to more up the 
incline P 2. A beam of light Issues from a given bright 
point 3ft. abore the surface of still water, and, falling 
obliquely on the surface, is dirided into two parts, one of 
which is reflected and the other refracted. Find the posi- 
tion of the point of incidence and its distance from the 
bright point so that the reflected and refracted beams may 
be at right angles to each other. — D. W. 

[25*68.1— Spoilt Solution. — Thanks to " Teste, 
phanus " for his reply 25047, and I am sorry there appears 
to be no method o f sep arating the ferrocyanide from the 
cyanide of silrer. Wm he kindly say whether the formula 
0«N|FeAg4 is correct P I don't think such a combination 
exists in the solution. I am of opinion that the ferrocya- 
nide has been pot into the solution unintentionally as 
imperfectly burned cyanide of potassium, and has not the 
property of dissolving silrer cyanide. Yet " Ioste- 

C" ins gives the formula xCNAg + 3yC«N»FeE4. there- 
I suppose I am mistaken. Should I loss much silrer 
is the wash-waters if I precipitated the ON Ag by H*80 f P 
Further assistance will be gratefully received by — 

ELBCTBOPLATBB. 

[2S469.]-Eleotrioal Clock. -8ince seeing the clock 
with three wheels and two pinions I thought about 
making one like it, only to be driven by electricity, and 
notice "KleotraV letter, 10550, describing an electrical 
clock. I hare no doubt any one acquainted with electri- 



city might make one from the instructions given, but, at 
the same time, I doubt not that details of all the parts and 
how to make them would interest a number of your read- 



If it were for a seconds' pendulum it would be 
better; and I hope "Electra" or some other correspon- 
dent will favour ns.— Clock. 

[25470. ]-The Sea Level. -Is there any proof of the 
statement that the sea is 51*ft. higher at Kurraohee than 
at Cape Oomoria ?— 8. Matbb. 

[25471.1— Duplex Telegraphy.— Wm any one 
explain the details of tbe Duplex system of telegraphy, 
and gire an illustration of mode of joining np P— vnroaz. 

[25*72.]— Scotch Tartans— Dunoan Plaid.— Is 
there not a fixed number of threads of each colour in the 

warp " and " weft P" Also,' are the colours restricted 
as in heraldry P Would some one kindly tell me the 
Dunoan and Forty -serenth (47th Regiment) plaids by 
saying number of threads of each colour P— Mr/asao. 

[25t73.1— Leg Affection.— A little girl, now * rears 
of age, has lost the use of one of her legs under the follow- 
ing oircamstanoes :— When about 18 months old she got 
out of bed and sat on a stone step for a considerable time, 
causing her to lose the use, first, from the calf down- 
wards, gradually working np the leg, till now it has 
reached the thigh, the leg becoming smaller in oiroum- 
ferenoe, but about ljin. longer. She has been in hospital 
and under sereral doctors, has had 7 months of tepid sea. 
baths, and a long season of daily applications of rum and 
" turps " well rubbed in. At the hospital they tried a gal- 
vanic machine, but without effect ; and her case was pro- 
noun oed hopeless by the medical men who attended her. I, 
however, think otherwise, for now and then we find she 
has a slight feeling when the leg is slapped hard, but this 
is not rery frequent. The father la a ooastguardmaa, and 
cannot afford further ad rice. Will some kind friend 
suggest anything likely to be of serrice P I should feel 
grateful, and the parents ever so. — E. K. D. 

[25*74.]-Octave Coupler.-WiU "W. N. L." say 
how the stop is fastened to the action rail of his octare 
coupler (p. 275, letter 10024) to throw it in and out of 
gear t— A. 8. 

[25*75.]— Halae's Apparatus.— Will some one tel 
me how to make the connections in this apparatus f 
There are three binding screws in front of the box con- 
taining the battery, and two on top of coil, and three in 
front just before the dial.— Obobob Hicksob. 

[25476.]— The Sun all Oaa— In a leoture delivered 
by Professor Balfour-Stewart at Manchester, in 1872, he 
is reported as having said .— " Very likely the sun is one 
mass of gas, and the surface that we see, instead of being 
solid or liquid substance, is one of cloud." What is the 

gobability of the " one mass of gas " hypothesis P— Saol 
TMSA. 

[25477.1— More Terms.— In Guthrie's "Magnetism 
and Electricity," p. 113, it is stated that " The work 
whioh the: kilogram is caps bio of doing, by dint of its 
momentum On reaching the earth, is equal to the work 
done in lifting it." Please define the terms "work" 
and " momentum ?" — Sacl Rtmba. 

[25*78. mewing Machines. -Will any brother 
reader in the sewing-machine trade inform me if at 
present, there is at work a sewing-machine with two or 
more needles (single thread) P Are they with revolving 
or vibratory loopers P A slight description will oblige— 
Sewino-kacbibb Tsaras. 

[25479.]— Musioal Box -Mr. Ridley (letter 10557 > 
has kindly given some much-longed-for information about 
musioal boxes. May I encroach on his kindness and ask 
him a few queries ? I wish to know, firstly, the easiest 
way of getting the old cement out of barrel ; secondly, 
bow to get the broken pins out ; and, thirdly, the best 
way of setting tunes. I am used to setting airs upon 
organ barrels, but hare not yet tried musioal boxes. I 
fancy they must be done on a different principle.— B. 
Smith. 

[25480.]— Astronomical.— Win " F. B. A. 8." or 
one of our astronomical friends explain why tho earcs or 
cycle of the moon is variously given as 18 years 11 days 
and as 18 years 6 days P And will some one inform me to 
what stars this axes of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, 
and Saturn— and of D ran us and Neptune if known— point 

Sthat of tbe earth does (approximately) to Ursai 
inorisP And when will Saturn be next on the equator — 
about two years hence T And what will then be his right 
ascensio n -a b out 2* hours P Please obnge— IosrarHAsroe. 



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March 17, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 573. 



25 



_[2M81.T— Softening Bass Notes of Harmo- 
nium.— To "Saul Rtmha."— Will you kindly inform 
me how I cam soften the bag* notes of my harmonium — 
one row of reeds ? I often find thnt when playing softly 
the treble note is not sounding at all, and I, therefore, 
want to make them in proportion to each other. — H. 
Veexea. 

[35482.]— Heal Ice Rinks.— I hare read letter 10511 
on the above subject with much interest, and I think that 
it wonld be very interesting to open some discussion on 
the matter. Firstly, who can say positively which wonld 
be the obeaper, ethor or ammonia ? The latter could bo 
used in the snino manner as " Genuine Skates " suggests 
for the former, and I fancy would be less expensive. 
Then, another point is this, a large amount of the 
moisture in the atmosphere would be deposited as dew. 
Would this freeze or cause a damp surface ? — Sidxey. 

[25483.]— Underground Wire.— Is it safe to lay 
inaiarubbcr-oovered wire underground without any pro- 
tection for telegraphic work ? Would the wire, which has 
a black coating of compound, like tarred hemp, also 
answer the same purpose P — C. V. 8. 



CHESS. 



All communications intended for this department to be 
addressed to J. W. Abbott, 81, Loiighborough-road. 
Brixton, 8. W. 



PROBLEM OCCIII.-Bt H. Meter. 

















" 




















■ 














k 




H 





White to play and mate in four moves. 



Harry Lee. — The answer to tho move of 1 Kt to Q B 3 
(ch.) in Problem CCCII. is obviously 1 B takes Kt. In 
Problem OCOI. the Kt cannot check at K B 2 on 
account of the B B at R 5th. 

Athos (Yarmouth).— Thanks; the notice was certainly 

nitwit for yon. 
J. G. Fixch.— Problems CCXCVII. and COXCVTII. aro 

both correct. If in the former Black play 1 K to Kt 5 

tbr an.'wor i» 2 y to Q ( ch., Ac. The p'n.lileins ibaj] 

have our attention. 

Corbect Solutioxs or Problem CCCI.— From Pendirl 
Hall, Athos, H. H. 8., Eotben. 1 

Solution of Problem CCCI. 
White. Blade. 

1. B to 6. 1. Kto(J4. 

2. Kt to K B 4 ch. 2. K takes B. 

3. Q mates. 



i great chess match between Messrs. Blackburne and 
Stoinits WW brought to „ el., <■ tin- W.-t-.nd Ch. 
Club on Thursday, March 2, in favour of Mr. .Steinitz, 
who won every game. The games at the outset of this 
match are admitted to have been original and intricate, 
and tested the high proficiency of both players. 
Towards the end of the match, however, it became 
devoid of interest, for it was quite evident that Mr. 
blackburne was not in form, for he did not play with 
his usual force and precision. Mr. Steinitz has un- 
doubtedly achieved a brilliant victory, and his many 
admim-s have every reason to be proud of their 
champion. It is not an easy task to win seven games 
right off from so fine a player as Mr. Blackburne. 
' Eiausx Chess Problems." Edited bv Jambs Pierce, 
M.A., and W. Timbrbli. Pierce (authors of 300 Chess 
Problems, Ac.) Longmans, Green, A Co., London. — 
If any evidence were wanting of the increased and still in- 
creasing interest in tho " Royal game " it might well be 
found in the appearance of the present handsome volume 
The book is subdivided into three parts, and contains 
nearly fjOO masterpieces of English chess strategy. Part I. 
comprises the best productions of livinor composers. 
Part II. of those lately deceased. Part III. is devoted 
to original problems by the chief English composers. 
The Editors in their " Introduction'* thus refer to these 
novelties : — " It is to this chapter we fancy all chess- 
lovers will turn with the greatest pleasure and interest. " 
In the presence of such an array of talent it wonld seem 
almost invidious to single out of this admirable collec- 
tion any particular set or sets as worthy of especial 
commendation. We may, however, in a futnro notice 
draw attention to those problems which have struck us 
a» being singularly beautiful and original. The work 
"•"IB assuredly be very popular, for a more important 
one to the composer was nev«- issued from the chess 
P*es. It is very carefully edited, and we congratulate 
MM editors on having brought to a successful conclusion 
a task which required much courage to undertake, and 
niore ability to perform. It is. in fact, a book which no 
chess-player can open without delight. The volume is 
appropriately dedicated to Mr. Hcaley. 



SPHINX. 

•„• AU Communications /or ths "Sphint " should bi 
addretred to T. Mitch B80N , B.A., Ths Stationsrs' School, 

Bolt-court, FUel-ttrcet, B.C. 

Questions. 

505. — Find the value of ar in 10* = *•">.— Iobtephaxus. 

506. — Solve s* + * = |f. — Iobtephaxus. 

507. — A conical tub, 24 inches diameter at top, 18 inches 
at bottom, and 12 inches deep, is filled with water. To 
what angle must it be tilted up to spill half the contents '( 
— Plum bob. 

Solutions. 
502. — Let m = 1st sum for 3 years ffl sV per cent. 

y = 2nd sum for 5 years @ 3 per cent, 
and 3010 — ■ — y = 3rd sum for 2 years ® 2\ per cent. 

Then, * + g = amount of 1st sum, 

25 

y + ~j! = amount of 2nd sum, 

And 3010 - * - y + 3010 ~ v = amount 3rd sum. 
Hence per question, 

'♦8-»<*+S) 

(3010 - x - y) + 3010 -'-V = 



1 



(•♦» 



Simplifying (I.) ; ***** = *°' + 6 ", 
20 25 

•••«>• 

Simplifying (II.), 

3010 - « - y + 3010 - * - y = 

20 25 * 

Multiplying by 100, 

301000 - 100r - lOOy + 15050 - 5* - 5y = 600* + 72,, 
Or, 60s* + 72r + 100x + 5x + lOOy + 5y 

= 301000 + 15050 ; 

.•. 777^ + IMy = 316050. 
Divide by 21 i 87* + 5y = 15050. 
Substituting value of y in (a) ; 

.'.37r + 5» x (fj£.*) =15050, 

23 

Or, 851' + 221* = 346150; 
.-. 1075r = 346150; 
346150 _ m 
1075 

.'. r = 1st sum = £322. 
And(a),y = jg« 

= 2M x as = 72128 

115 115 
.".«/ = 2nd sum = £fi27j. 
Lastly, 3010 - * - y = 3rd sum ; 
•■• 3rd sum = 3010 - 322 - 6271 = £1,0001. 
1st sum = £322 0j."» 
2nd sum = £627 4s. \ Answer, 
3rd sum = £2,060 16s J 
— Bin-As das. 

* Erased figures. 
Answers. 

499, Iostepbanus; 24321 (query), 499, Aneer ; 499, 

Gerrans ; 498, Tipers ; 491, 492, 496, 497. Crooked River ; 

493, H. C. Pegg ; 502. Cycloid; 502. Bin-Andak ; 500. 

501, W. H. ; 502, D. Howell (no time for replies by post). 
Samuel Hill (Morpeth). — Tour proposed problems have 

appeared in previous issues of this paper. 
Attention is called to puzzlo 498. 



U = 



= 627* 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

All communications should bt addressed to ths Editor 
of ths English Mechanic, 31, Tasistocfc-itrsct, Covtmi 
Garden, W.C. 

HINTS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 
1. Write on one side of the paper only, and pat draw- 
ings for illustration on separate pieces of paper. 2. Put 
titles to queries, and when answering queries put the 
numbers as well as the titles of the queries to which the 
replies refer. 3. No charge is made for inserting letters, 
queries, or replies. 4. Commercial letters, or queries, or 
replies are not inserted. 5. No question asking for educa- 
tional or scientific information is answered through the 
post. 6. Letters sent to correspondents, under cover to 
the Editor, are not forwarded : and the names of corre- 
spondents are not given to inquirers. 

The following are the initials, Ac., of letters to hand np 
to Tuesday evening, March 14, and unacknowledged 
elsewhere: — 

J. E. "Morehbad.— Mr. Wentworth Erie.— J. T. Gent 
and Co.— Wright and Sanders.— Jno. Scott.— Jabez 
Francis. — L. Chad wick. — H. Poaklington. — John 
Jeffreys.— Wells and Co.— W. P. Thompson.— R. and H. 
Forde. — Thomas Stringer, Jun. — F. Dennett. — E. 
Pickles.— Rhodium Sidium.— Jno.— F. G. H.— Bode.— 

A. B. C— W. D. — Dens. — Southampton. — A. T. E — 
Rob Roy.— Poor Man.— E. W. C— F. R. A. 8.— Old 
Man.— G. H. With.— Sniffing Clack.— E. W. Grin.— E. 

B. Fcnneeey. — G.— Geo. Whewell.— A Poor Navvy.— 
J. A.— J. Herbert.— C. Hamilton. — A Cabinet Maker.— 

G. Lange.— Hotspur.— Engine Fitter.— Charles E. Kev. 
—A. Laurence.— Inome.— Edward Barber.— T. B. J.— 

J. T.— Scotia.— Landsend.—E. W. H.— Barlwvden 

J. D.— R. W.— G. Dickens — F. C. Putley.— T. F. R.— 
O. F.— W.— A Boiler Maker.— Fidei Defensor.— W 

H. B.— John.— F. Cowley.— H. F. R.— Speculator — 
W. H. — Noswad.— T. F.— Metallurgist.— Clarionette.— 
0. Frances.— Clear the Way.— C. G.— T. Mao.— E. Ring. 
— Ariel. — J . A. Maclean.— R. Lamont and Sons.— 
Edward A. HilL— Thomas Jones. — L. Chad wick.— Rov. 
Edmund Carr.— W. E. Lea.— John William Milner.— 
W. Digby Cooke.— T. E. Jobling.— Bayliss, Thomas, 



and Co.— Singer and Co.— G. M. Weeks.— C. Thornton. 
—J. Kissaok. — Bourdon. — J. P. — Clock.— Boots. — Sirah 
Nosneb. — Gowrie. — James Thompson. — Percy Neville. 
— T. B.— C. J. Savage.— J.— Kathode.— Aqua Pars,— 
Naturalist.— Thea.— Ashton.— An Old Photograph — 
Guido.— Loigh.-^J. H. Chambers.— Birebrod.— Amateur 
Musician.— U.—H. P. — Omega. — Cordelia Broden.— 
Engine Erector.— Camalod. — Scriber. —Young Engi- 
neer.— J. Pocook.— E. F. A.— Diok.— J. W. Fennell — 
Relieved.— Clerk. — Public Analyst. Monmouth — W 
Scholfeild.— O. — J . H. 8.— A Young Winder.— M. W. G. 
— W. J. O— Dnlciana.— A Juvenile.— J. W. TelL— E. 

H. Stanley. — Eoleoticns. — Uranium. — J K P r! 

Tervet.— G. K. Winter. — J. H. Rogers.— j. H.'— W. J. 
Lancaster.— X. Edin.— Engineer, Edinburgh.— J D — 
In a Fix.— G. K.-A. Piimphrey.— Theresa B.— William 
Heed. — Arcanum. — Zero. — New. — Onvrier Chas 

%?" *- Tm alidermy - — SurT «7° r - — O- Pinnington.— 
Chemical Thermometer.— Cycloid.— J. CobbetV— A. E. 
Bannister.— Wal ham-green.— J. J. 8. — Samo.— Fred" 
Richardson. — Jamos Tullock. — Alpha. — Amateur — 
Equity.— Hufham.— Raolin.— Mr. Shrubsole. — Refuse 
—A Learner.— Little Tommie.—Gnnhilda.— Hammer- 
smith.— FeUow Sufferer. — H. Alfred Cunnington.— 
W. Wibberley.-F. F. O.-K. O.-D. H. S.-IoU -G 
Calver. — H. B. F. — Henry Watson. — C. V. 8. — 

Harmonium.— Manns.— Kino.— Dilemma. — Artizan. 

J. B. E.— Young Student.— Harry Lee.— A Hatter.-^-J. 
H. Schuoht.— Jenny. — William Freeman. — Thomas 
Hirt. — M. D. 

A Nox-Uxioxist. (Names and addresses would have to 
be given before we could insert your letter. After all 
leaving out the hard words you use, we see nothing so 
very unreasonable in tho demands of the union referred 
to.)— F. W. Frtbb. (There are a certain number of 
such pensions granted on the recommendation of the 
Prime Minister. We have not a list of the present 
recipients, and conld not spare space for it if we had ) 
Apprentice Millwright. (Coletw/s, Longmans and 
Co.)— Stocxixo. (The machine was illustrated, and 
for some time advertised in this journal. The vendors 
have long since ceased to advertise it— so we presume it 
did not answer, and is not now in the market.)— Ia. 
qui rbr. (Yes.)— Flt-whbel. (Yes. they are common 
enough. Bailey, of Salford, or any similar maker, 
would supply one.)— J. Graham. (We explained the 
apparent anomaly in the occurrence, some weeks since in 
this column.) — J. A. Walter. (There are evening 
(•!..-„-• held at King's College that might suit you.)— 
Walsall Amateur. (We can make nothing out of your 
query. You say yon use a "string" as a motive 
power. Is it string t" If so, how can it be a motive 
power? It may con vev power.)— J. Shaeletox. (If 
you want chromate of lime yon must advertise for 
it.)— Observer. (We will not insert replies that are 
advertisements, or replies stating that certain articles 

are advertised or will be advertised in onr columns I 

Delta. (Seo answer to " Observer.")— M. B. C. 8. 
(You will no doubt see that we are extra^ing from and 
commenting on the report of the Commissioners freely ) 
— Chromater. (The time the pupil will take to learn 
the harp will depend on his ability.)— Poor Tom. 
(Similar questions to yours on oheap telescopes hare 
boen answered again and again.) — E. F. A. (We do 
not insert queries asking correspondents to advertise 
their addresses.) — A Sufebreb. (Consult a medical 
man.) 

A North Couxtbt Mechanic— Wo cannot insert suoh 
long and inconsequential queries as yours. One of thnm 
is : Why were the animals we use for food created if 
not for that purpose ; and supposing every one turned 
vegetarian would not human beings be in danger from 
an increase of carnivorous animals?" If we ate oar- 
nivorous animals there might be some relevancy in the 
questiou. But we do not. And it so happens that the 
herbivorous animals that are consumed as food are 
actually produced for that purpose. There is a great 
demand, and the demand is supplied ; let the demand 
diminish, and the supply will diminish. We don't see 
that, because an animal exists, it should thorefore be 
eaten by man. In fact, but a very small proportion of 
the genera and species that do exist are eaten. We 
may ask what is the use of aU the others, and what 
was their use for tens of thousands of years before man 
inhabited the earth ? And if the population of the 
world goes on increasing in numbers for the next fifty 
thousand years at the same ratio as during ths last 
thousand years, where would the animals oonie from to 
be eaten ? In onr opinion, many of the evils " to whioh 
flesh is heir" had their origin in the habit of eating 
flesh. 

M. A., T. C. D.— We have been obliged to suppress seve- 
ral letters on spelling br sound. Yon say " the weight- 
iest objection of all against any sweeping change iu our 
orthography is that it would obliterate all trace of tho 
derivation of words." We consider that the argument 
is completely answered by Dr. Latham's rule quoted by 
another correspondent this week. Latham says, " The 
primary aim of orthography is to express the sound of 
words, and not their history." We think that the con- 
venience of ten million persons should be consulted 
before the opinion of ten persons, however educated. 

W. Lissington. James B. 8.— See indices to back vols. 

G. Davidge, L. M., J. Smart, P. Manchester.— Your 
queries are advertisements. 

Rob Roy, Bromo-Iodine Spa, and others have replied to 
queries already similarly answered. 



WALL PAPEH8. 

Among tho many Improvements In House Decoration duo to 
the protrrvM of Art- knowledge during the past ton yeur* mu»t bo 
included thoxe effected In the manufacture and deelgn of Wnll 
Paper.. The " cauliflower and cubhaire-mte style " la no longer 
deemed the highest achievement of the paper-* Ulner, and the 
gorgeously coloured buildings in Impossible perapectlre which 
formerly lined our hall* and atAlrcaaee are slowly but rarely 
giving place to carefully atudiod and elegant doaign.. whioh at 
once plcaw the eye and educate the taste. The BUILDINO 
MiWS ha* hud no amall ahnre in effecting thla reformation. In 
tho number publlahod March 10 will be found a reproduction of 
a very beautiful wall-paper, in which the daisy haa been choaen 
as tho pattern In the old Chaucerian aenaa. und which la being 
•■xpreaaly preiwrrd for the Philadelphia Exhibition. The number 
also contain* lUuatratlons of Churches at Edlr.bo rough and New. 
market. Interior of Library and Book-oaae. Xow Science Schools 
at South Kenaington. and SU Mary's Cbutih. Beaumaris | together 
with Articles on the dtratford-on- Avon Theatre Competition, tho 
ftoaiie Medallion Competition, the Treatment of SolcuUfio 
Engineering Artistically, tho Transfer of Oas works to Local 
Authorities. Ao„ Ac. Price 4d. : post free A)d. 'Annual Subscrip- 
tion, One Pound, post free).— Office, 31, TavUtock-.treet, Ccveat- 
gnrdon. London, W.C. 



Digitized by boo 



26 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP BGt!^ ^g\ }fo. 573. Mabch 17, 1876. 



TUB INVKNTOB. 



883. 



APPLICATIONS FOR LKTTEB3 PATENT. 
MARCH S. Uffo. 

». J. P. W. Ntebnhr Middlesex, for Improvements In the 

uufneture of «u for Ugottng purpo*o»- 

©H. A. Bob.wn, Newcastle upon-Tynu, for know or Improved 
apparatus for »upr*>rHug soaffnldlug. 

683. T. L. B. F.dgcorae, Liverpool. Tor Improvements In the 
Cleansing and drying of glass bottles. 

684. T. It. D. Edgcome, Liverpool, for ImproremenU In the 
cloeiielng end drying of goto* bottle*. 

OH. V. H. Davis, L mdou, aud B. Tydcinin. Bow, for Improve- 
ment* In roller skate*. 

088. 3. B. A U port, Btrmlnglrun, for » nrw or Improved 
machinery for the manufacture of gun Mil and other non- 

m ^ L "'w. Stotiehewer, Tipton, for ImprovemenU In utilising old 
or worn rait way rails and other Uke bar-i, and In macaiuery (or 

BBO. P W^Bruwn, D. Brown, and W. W. Vnuehsu, Southwlok, for 
Impi ovcmauU In the manufacture of univelj.a or opeu-jolniod 
steel and iron tubes. 

en. Vf. B. Davie* and J. E. Chamber*. Birmingham, for Im- 
provement* In roil-T skates. 

A03. J. Longley and S. Cocker, Sh conoid, for iraproveminU In 
the construction of chairs and rail* for tramway* and other 

6 ' o^^Q^Kuud, tf aids tone, for linprtvempnU in tnois or 
faaUnor* for .eourtag paper* and other .ortlclivs. 
001. J. J. Hick*, Hntton Qaidsu, for-ii.ip.uveni-nU In therms- 

6B5 C. W. Hoe, London, for improvements in means for the 
prevention of slipping on roadways, fi.-tway*, steps, landing*, 
ind other similar UioroughUtei and pi*—*. 

8U0. J. Aston, Hythe. for Improvement- In brooch- loadinjc Ore- 

""Sr." J. C. W. Jeffreys, M*ddl*eeX, for an Improved fastening 
for Jewellery and articlee of drees. 

08b. T. Berry, Rochdale, for ImprovemenU in tho construction 
of warping machine*. 

gas. u. Walker, Westminster, and T. rfalte*. City, for Im- 
provements In th-i construction of roller or wheel skutea. 

700. H. Weiker, Birmingham, for Improvements In breech 
loading urti-arms. 

7D1. Vf. Wulforode, Middlesex, for ImprovemenU is Umpe for 
burning oils lor Illuminating purposes. 

701. 1». C. BoeUell, London, for a new or improved apparatus 
for exhibiting to MtKiklwokers, merohanU, and others, certain 
date, on which certain truasactlous are to bo eOeoted. 

70:!. L. Dec. Middlesex, for Improvement'' connected withohnsr 
and futee oases, purses, pocket-books, and other similar article*. 

704. 8. Tosrosend, Surrey, for fmprovemouU In the furniture 
of umbrellas, pamsoU, aud sun-shades. 

703. E. Domorcq, France, for an ir- provtd Iron bedstead. 

70ii. E. Domercq,, Franoc, for an Improved p.ill or basket. 

7U7. A. Crespln. France, for ImprovemenU la ve tllators or 

b, ?Q8-* r N. C. Cookson, Newcastle- upen-Tyno, for improremeuta 
In the manufacture of white lead. 

709. N. C. Oookson, N.-wouscle-upon-Tyne, for improvers en te 
In the manufacture of wnlte lead. 

710. F. Hvloi* t and W . Hopklnaon. Peakham, for Improvements 
in roller skates. 

711. E. A. Thornton, York, for Improvement* In apparatus for 
balanolng and supporting window sashes and shutters. 

711. W P Ingham and A. C. Hill, Rod Mr, for ImprovemenU 
in machinery lor making retorU and other umllar artlole* from 

Cl ?fr J. W. Priestley, Halifax, for improvement* In apparatus 
employed for heating purposes. 

714. J. H. Look, Kensington, for improvements In artificial 
skating floors or rtuks. 

715. O. Ollardi. Italy, for a now or Improved combustible com- 
position applicable to various u \el al purposes. 

710. K. W. Hughes, Kentish Town, for Improvement* in roller 
skste*. 

717. J. Chad wick, Lancaster, for Improvement* in dyeing and 

printing textile fabrics. A communication. 

71*. it. Ooodalr and J. Whiteside, Preston, for ImprovemenU 
In looms for weaving. 

718. C. H. Wooding, Brighton, and W. Esaroer. Preston, for im- 
proved construction of roller skutoa. 

790. T. Itlckett, Blrmi ogham , for improvement in sLeeve links, 
solitaires, and other Uke fastenings for articles of drcsa and 

ie rn* l *G. A. Walker. Nottingham, ror a new of Improved 
machine or apparatus for cutting thorn and otissr similar hedges 
and fences. 

723 J. .Martin, Middlesex, for an Improvement In umbrella* 
and parasols. 

723. J. K. Johnson, Lincoln'* Inn-Held*,, for Improvements In 
printing and ornamenting metal. A cominuniottlou. 

7l». B. Robinson, Jun., Haddington, for ImprovemenU In 
soon ring knob handle* to the spindles of door lor** and latches. 

TJS. W. B. Lake, Southampton-building*, for ImprovemenU in 
machinery for manufacturing screw nuts. A communication. 

718. W. R. Lake. Southampton- buildings, for ImprovemenU In 
separators for treating mettaUo ores, and for similar purpose*. A 
communication. 

717. W. B, Lake, SonUukmpton-bsdldJnga, lor an Improved (lev* 
fjsV.nor. A oommunloaUon, 

73. W. Thomson, Olosgow, tor ImprovemenU Is aeUlilng 
apparatus. 

730- R. Parker. Stranraer, for ImprovemenU In dlstrUmtlng 
manure*, and in the machinery or apparatus employed therefor. 

730. A. Tylorand J.J. T} lor. Nuw>-*u-atroet, for ImprovemenU 
In arrangements and apparatus for use In submarine operation*. 

TJ1. R. Theiler and M Theller, Islington, for Improvement* In 
eleotrto telegraphs, part of these Improvements being applicable, 
in all apparatus where electro- magnets are employed. 

732. R. Stewart, L<.-odenh*H-*treet, for the " lagging " or oover- 
lag of steam boilers, steam chests, steam pities hot-blast pipe. 
Ice houses. refrlgcrau>r*. fireproof ruomi, safes, water and gas 
pipes, Ac., for the purpose of praventtac; the transmission of 
either beat or oold. or arresting the spread, of Ore. 

7S3. E. S. Eyland, Bristol, for ImpiovemenU In roller skates. 

734. C. OUxton. sen., and C. Claxton. Jon, Ll..0jla. for Im- 
provements In stjppers for bottles for aerated and eOhrvesoaat 
llqiido. 

7.13. R. E. Toilers, Lambeth, for an Improved rink skaU. 

7.w. . T Baldwin, Biaakburo, for Improvements In machinery 
for crushing ahd pulverising stone and other similar substances. 

737. J. Qwynne, Mldilssex, for ImprovemenU In the manufac- 
ture of centtifuiral pumps. 

TJS. B. Abraham. Poplar, for ImprovemenU In railway signal*. 

739. J. L. Tsjrlbr and R. Ramsden, Bolton, [or certain Improve- 
menU In selftactint moles (or spinning and doubling. 

740. C. H- Clark. Surrey, ror ienprovemenu in means for pre- 
venting injury to the wrist or fore arm in. falling. 

741. B. P. Alexander", So'utlUmpton-uulldlugs, for Improve- 
ments in safety ooupllng*. for waggons and other railway rolling 
stook. A oornmtaaleatlon. 

741 J. L. Thackeray and B. (Mover, Nottingham, for lmpreve. 
menu in machinery for doubling slik. nuttan. and other fibres. 

743. F. 8. Barff, Kllburn, for Improvem-nU in preservation 
animal and veUUble matters, and in the rowans and apparatus 
employed therein. 

744- a. Betaold, Belfast, for ImprovemenU In the preparation 
of colour* for printing, dyeing, or ■ talcing, being a mean* of 
securing or Increasing fastness In colours. A communication. 

748. O. O. Topham. Middlesex, for apparatus or means of 
preventing Injury to persons learning to ska to on loo or rinks. 

7«. J. D. B. Huddart, Anorley. for ImprovemenU In obtaining 
motive power from the varying pressure and temperature of the 
atmosphere. 

747. J. Walker, Birmingham, for ImprovemenU In door locks 
and latches. 

748. C. Allen. Oxford, for ImprovemenU In bottle stoppers for 
of rated liquids. 

740. B. Wood. Bolton, for certain ImprovemenU In steam 
engines, part of which U applicable to 'steam pipes and steam 

730. C. Wheeler, Mi ddl ese x , for a new stand nr receptacle for 
fly papers or other substance or material used for a similar pm 
pose. 

7S1. W. J. Warner. South Shields, for ImprovemenU In appn 
ratua f\.r Indicating and preventing the escape of gas from main 
pipe* and connection*, porta of which are also applicable to waUr 
pipes. 



7S1 A. M. Clark. Chancery-lane, for Improved machinery for 
casting thu lea l on Kurd ship. A communication. 

7S3. W. II. E.d-s, We.ton, i.id <J. Byl.s. Bristol, for Improve- 
menU hi sppar.it u • for raising rail ,vay train* and other vehloles. 
and for retarding u.ul stopping tiiwir motion. 

734. F. Jenkins allddhuvx, lo- ImprovemenU In boxes, port- 
manteaoi, cabinets, and other Uke reoeptaele*. 

"S>. O. BalPm, Leeds, for ImprovomouU In machinery or appa- 
ratus for crushing breaking, and pulverising hard and brittle 
substances. A communication. 

748. R. A. Malcolm, OlMgow, for Improved machinery or 
mechanism lor th* man uTaature of Iron aud steel tubes, and other 
like structures. 

737. J. Laycock and F. Layeook. Tork, for ImprovemenU In 
the mean* or apparatus employed for fulling or mllilrg woollen 
or other woven or felted fabrics. 

738. B. O. Brewer. Chancery-lane, for ImprovemenU In 
machines for catting fubrles and materials. A communication. 

7i9. J. Glllett, Wilt', for improvoinuiitj In sts-am pump*. 
7iVJ W. B. Like. Southsmplor -building*, for an Improved 
machine for cutting diamonds and othor precious stones. A 
communication. 

781. W. B. Lake, Southampton-buildings, for an Improved 
method of lighting house*, ships, and other atrostoie* by 
kerosene or other oil lamps. A communication. 

782. H. J. DUtm, Middlesex, fcr an Improved apparatus to pro- 
due* sound aa a substitute for a casUnet. 

7tl3. J. A. B. von Castllbcrg, London, for ImprovemenU In the 
production of Imitation marbles and woods. A communication. 

704. W. McCormlck, Boston, for lmprovamenU In table* for 
•eseels. A commnaiuaUon. 

783. H. M. Cjnockenbush, New Tork, for ImprovemenU In slugs 
or projectiles for air guns or ptetol*. 

788. Q. S. Knott, Dulwlah, for ImprovemenU. In apparatus for 
olcaring and carting mud from roads. 

787. T. Crook™. Sheffield, for ImprovemenU in sporting and 
other pocket knives. 

788. W. R. Klntpple, London, for ImprovemenU In dredgers. 
740. A. C. O. Thompson, Middlesex, for ImprovemenU In 

machinery or apparatus fur cltr.mtng, softening, and separating 
the fibre of llax, heme, rbee or ohlna grans, and other nbrou* sub- 
stances, also applicable to roUlng ten leave*. 

770. A. Herzen, Italy, for an Improved process for the traat- 
ment of skin* and hides prerion* to tho tanning process. 

771. B. Baxendsie and J. Heal J. Lancaster, for Improvement* 
In draw bin for rollwsy rolling et<x:k or othor vehicle*. 

772. E. de Poos, London, for ImprovemenU In governors or 
regulators ror steam engines. A communication. 

773. W. Love and 0. Love, Durham, for ImprovemenU In 
machinery for the manufacture of bruk*. 

774. B. Rhodes. T. B. Rb sLcs. ami J. R. Stoney, Armley, for 
ImprovemenU In " pickers " for loom*. 

775. E. O. Brewer, Chancery -lane, for ImprovemenU fn appa- 
ratus or machinery for depositing a-<d picking up mall bags and 
other articles wlthoutatopplug the train. A communication. 

770. H. B. Newton, Cluuioory-taue, lor ImprovemenU in con- 
verting vegetable and animal nlros and fibrous suoatauoe* of 
various kinds Into mate rial* re-iemb jog wood and other hard or 
tough substances for use aa a substitute fdr an v such subi tonces . 
A csimmuuloation. 

777. W. it. LaKe. Southampton buildings, for ImprovemenU in 
machines for lining and drying pasteboard for sizing, colouring, 
aud varnishing sheets of muslin and other materials, and in 
adhesive compounds for Use same and other like purposes. A 
communication. 

778. E. Bees and F. R. Gledhill, Manchester, for certain Im- 
provemenU In steam boilers and in furnaces for sUam-boUers and 
other purpose*. 

77a. F. O. Fieury, Bristol, for improvements in ships' logs. 

780. C. Pluper. baxony, for an unproved expansion gear ror 
■ team engines. A communication. 

781. E. King, Newmarket, for improvement* in tho treatment 
oi seed corn and othor seeds, and in dressings or composition* to 
be employed therein. . " • 

7, a. O. C. Meyneil, Westminster, lor a cart and carriage- trao 
lion trolly. 

. W. M. Cranston, Middlesex, ror ImprovemenU in mowing 
and reaping machines. Par l coinmurucatsDn. 

T. Lawes, London, and D. McLennan, Middlesex, lor Im- 
provemenU In extUigulsuiog lire 

783. W. J. Walker, Hotberham, for Improvements In roller 
skate*. 

W. A. Popo. Middlesex, ror ImprovemenU In apparatus lor 
signalling upon railways. 

787. O. F. C. de OuggonbhQllor, Rome, lor ImprovemenU In 
brake* or apparatus Toe retarding and stopping railway train* or 
vehicle*. • 

788. O. F. C. de OnggeabhtUler, Rome, lor ImprovemenU In 
apparatus ror stopping vehicle* and i li so unn eutlng or detaching 
the horse* therefrom. 

78!>. F. N. Mocaay, Liverpool, Tor ImprovemenU in the produc- 
tion and maliuenai.co or lee skating and ourling riuiis, and in 
apparatus therefor. 

7!k). H. 8. Evre, Middlesex, ror ImprovemenU in screw- 
propeller*. . . . 

791. K, Brema, London, and T. Neville. Mohttafcx, for Improve- 
menU la stoppers for bottles. 

7K2. E. T. Huirhua, Chancery-lane, for ImprovemenU in needle 
machine*. A' communication. • 

783. J. C Jone*. Middlesex, for Improvements In apparatus 
lor boring, drilling, aud breaking down ooal, storm, or other 
minerals, partly applicable to other purposo*. 

TBI. H. N. Penrice, Hurts, ror ImprovemenU In rook-boring, 
tunnelling, and shaft sinking, add in machinery to be used ror 
the*« purposes. 

7iii. C. Wood. Mlddlesbro'-on-Tees, ror ImprovemenU In tho 
manufacture of brlcka and other artioasa from tarnaoe slag. 

71*3. B.C. Biessor, Chanaary-lane, ror a new or Improved pnmp. 
A communlc itlou. 

7U7. C. M. Plolstlckor, Middlesex, lor an Improved prooess Xor 
refining erode osukerit. 

tub. C. Pleper. Saxony, iorjmrirovetaanU In thrashing manning* 
with oonlcnl drums. A com municatien. 

T.O. J. Howard, Surrey, tor ImprovemenU in automatic, appa- 
ratus for reguiating the flow or fluids under p r ies are, and pre- 
vention or waste of water, 

800. J. M. Lamb, Middlesex, for ImprovemenU In self -securing 
■kates 

801. O. Redwood, Cheater, ror ImprovemenU In the oonetruo- 
tion of " mlddliags purifleis" or separators. 

802. W. J. sUlner, Kensington, fur producing a continuous 
current of electricity by mean* of the rotation of one or more 
magnet*. In combination with or without an apparatus for regu- 
lating the tension of the current. 

80J. H. Low. i*udou, fur a new or Improved roller skate. A 
communication. 

Sot. H. O. Hsutertaann, Brussels, for ImprovemenU to reduce 
tho condensation or steam in slide or valve chest* and cylinders 
ol steam en-lncaof every description. A oommontsiitkm. 

803. J. Wilson. York, lor IuipcovemenU In stusm-tsillera. 
808. 8. FjriUi, Leicester, for improvemenU In knitting machi- 
nery. 

807. P. J. Merer and W. .Wemlgb, Berlin, for an Improved 



£ <O f W«S. Jfolcsworth, British India, for an Improved appsra- 
* y -""is,"" i; r |fs- 'f"n orclrctrlolty ror disinfecting and onratlr* 

.' J. Tucker London, for ImprovemenU in machines for 

Pi- , worea hair cloth, felt, paper, or leather. 

■*_ C ., , !'1"K- iM 'I.. 

V- , y. J, webb and R. T. Webb, Antrim, for Improvements In 
"i"h . J,,r *JU"g »n a to we la, and In the manufacture and flnlsfilng 
of ,; " «a ne, *i I In thi machinery employed unrein. 

S'-' 1 8. Bi U ittl and Q de i hoch, Paris, for an lmproyed uni- 
versal niendzngmaotuni . 

8i-' W, Wsems, Boi fn w. for ImprovemenU In apparatus ror 
warming ,.n.l ronUlatlns bulla Ing*. 

at'. K. Lowndes and B Wilkinson, Manohester. lor Improve- 
meuL. in oraptliuab.e u> be l Ling bands, and ropes tor driving and 
other purpose*. 

834. O.Newton, Bow. lor an Improved lubricant. 

bSrV C. T. Guthrie, Middlesex, ror an unproved apparatus Or 
machine lor cleaning knives. 

.til. T. Altken, Lonca^Uir. ror ImprovemenU In driving belts. 

nr. H. A. Starke. Prussia, for mil aotlng expansion gear for 
stationary or stvara engines. 

hi*. J. Bowler. Surrey, ror InjprovemenU in machinery or 
appamtus ror cutting. Hpflttiug, und dividing wood.tuid in making 
up the same Into bundles. 

tOO. J. W. llennuou, London, for ImprovemenU In tnoarrange- 
ment and construction of earthenware pipes carrying off rain 
wst^r, aop'l'M'ile also to other purposes. 

8Mb. T. Whltwell, for improvement* In kOna or ohambera for 
burnlur and drying bricks and lor other purpose*. 

Sil. C. A. MoEvoy. Mlddle-s.ix, for ImprovemenU In gas-light- 
ing apparatus. 

832. V. Jenkln, Edinburgh, for Improvements In apparatus for 
rogulatlng the fluw ol fluid*. 

8.U. W. K C. Stanhope, Charing Cross, for ImprovemenU In 
roller skates. 

831. W. C. Ford. New Tork, fox improvemenU In means for 
fectiing fuel Into furnace a. 
6X. E. O. Brewer, Chanoery-lane, ror ImprovemenU tn safe 

time locks. A communication. 
SIS. P. JablochkofT, Paris, for an Improved electro- magnet. 
837. W. Kendull, Salford, for Improvement* In or appllcablo to 
s re wing machines. 

e-« L. H. Trander, Marsollles. for IrapvroomenU In the method 
of and In apparatus for tanning hides or skins. 

mj. J. O. H. Hoch, Brixton, for on improved system or pubUe 
and other clocks. 

r40. W. Werthington, Wlpan, for improved apparatus for work - 
Ing fog sUrnals. 

841. B. A. Makln. C. W. L. Makln. and B. Maroroft, Liverpool, 
for Improvements in sample envelopes nnd bogs. 

842. P. Jensen. Chancury-lono, for improvemenU In liquid and 
uld meters. A communication. 

843. P. Jensen, Ch»ncery-lane. for ImprovomenU In telegraphy 
id in apparatus thereior. A oommunloaUon. 

(sH. L. Smot.iurst. S. Shaw, n-,d T. Shaw. Halifax, for Improve- 
lint* in or applicable to m iciitnory or apparatus uood in the 

,-ut^.lDg of mo. en or felted l.ib.ic*. • 



wire cable towing steamer for towing vessels and barges on rivers 
and canal*. ■ 

808. J. Robinson, Bradford, for ImprovemenU In the means or 
apparatus employed for signalling on railways, such Invention 
being particularly snplloable for oommu nln e tln g between pasi 
gera, guards, ana clrivsr i also for a danger signal required 
railway*. 

80S. O. T. Brandell and J. W. Btundcll. Middlesex, for Improve- 
menU In the arrangement and construction of lavatories. 

810. J. Walworth, Bradford, ror ImprovemenU in th* con- 
struction o! machine* known a* middling* separators or part- 
ners. ' - 

811. J. H. Johnson, Lincoln's Inn-fields, tor ImprovemenU In 
apparatus for the manufacture or artificial loel and ror other 
similar pnrpoeua A communication. 

811. H. I. Wolduok, Manchester, for ImprovemenU In burning 
lime, and In kilns or ovens employed therein. 

813. T. N. Nlshlgawa, Middlesex, for ImprovemenU In the 
manufacture ot lee, and In machinery for the Sam*, and for other 
cooling or other rvf rigeratlnr purpose*. 

Bit. It. Humbling and O. Bowles. Brighton, for ImprovemenU 
In roller skjtes. 

blK. H. Low, London, for a new or Improved artlflelal to* rink 

or surface for skating upon. A communication. 

818. T. H. Hickman, Mt-ilTord. for an Improved mixture to be 
used In " fettdng *' puddling furuiico* and In improving the 
quality of wrought and cast-Iron. 

.7. C H. Green. Sew York, for ImprovemenU In machines for 
1 f.r moulding other material*. Aoommuni- 



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street, Liverpool (« rtamp4). "The piUolls Into which the 
unwan- Ir.v ntor will run a risk of stumbling are pointed out . . . 
A trustworthy guide to patentee*."- A'asMsk 1/Vcsaste.— {ADTT.1 



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March 24, 1876. 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 574. 



27 



AND 



WORLD OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



FRIDAY, 21 ARCH 24, 187«. 



ARTICLES. 



SOLIDIFYING OF FUSED BALLS IN 
A LIQUID MEDIUM. 

npHE following experiments, recently 
made by a German observer, M. Sacher, 
may perhaps be regarded as throwing some 
light on the mode of origin of our earth 
(the subject which suggested them). 

By mixture of water and alcohol prepare 
a series of spirit solution of the following 
densities : 9, 82, 88, 87, 865, 86, 
0"85, 83. Into a glass cylinder, or a high, 
broad beaker glass, pour first some dis- 
tilled water, then spirit solutions of 0"9, 
- 89, 0'88. By careful pouring, the cylinder 
being held inclined, you may obtain the 
liquids stratified over oneanother, without 
mixing. Heat the remaining less dense 
spirit solutions simultaneously, in beakers 
over five spirit lamps, up to near the boiling, 
point (to about 75°), and then pour them 
carefully, in the order of their density, on 
the cold spirit solution. Over a sixth spirit 
lamp heat 100 to 150 grammes of sperma- 
ceti in a beaker to 90-110°, dip a pipette 
into the fused mass, allowing 3 to 4 cm. to 
enter. Then cover the opening with your 
thumb, and put the pipette so far down iu 
the hot alcohol that equilibrium occurs. By 
slowly drawing out the pipette, with thumb 
removed, you can, after a little practice, 
cause the fused mass of spermaceti to form 
one or several balls floating in the liquid. 
The density of the fused spermaceti quickly 
diminishes with increasing temperature. 
The ball, therefore, does not, in each ex- 
periment, remain floating in the same spirit 
layer. By quick introduction you obtain it 
in the density, 85; then, in cooling, it 
sinks slowly to the density 87. 

These fused and slowly-sinking balls now 
afford an opportunity of observing the soli- 
difyingof a body simply left to its cohe- 
sion. The following phenomena may be 
noticed : — 

1. The balls which, through currents in 
the alcohol, come very near each other, 
unite. The most frequent unions occur in 
the moment of solidifying. 

2. When a ball comes into a spirit layer, 
the temperature of which is under 44*5° 
(the melting point of spermaceti), solidify- 
ing occurs at the surface. If this solidify- 
ing begins first at one side or above, the 
ball begins to rotate. 

3. Frequently one observes the sudden 
ejection of a small mass from a ball. 

4. The rind consists at first of a smooth, 
thin skin. With increasing thickness, how- 
ever, this becomes uneven. 

5. The unevenness still increases even 
after the rind has formed a complete spheri- 
cal shell round the inner fused mass. 

6. In the majority of balls, when the 
cooling does not proceed too slowly, there 
occurs a very remarkable phenomenon. As 
soon as the rind has acquired such firmness 
that a wrinkling of it is no longer possible, 
it sinks in at the thinnest part, and an 
opening is formed, through which alcohol 
penetrates into the interior. 

7. The balls now sink pretty quickly into 
the denser and cold spirit solutions, and one 
may soon take them out and examine them 
with a microscope. After some time, how- 
ever, there is a further interesting change 
in them. 

VOL. XXIII.-No. 574. 



8. The surface of the ball, after a few 
days, is found to have become crystalline. 
While the elevated parts, after extraction, 
are mostly smooth and transparent, they 
become later un transparent, white, and 
rough. If you examine this surface with 
a microscope of 60 magnifying power, 
you find in it a striking similarity to a bare 
mountain landscape. 

9. By rotation of the fused balls one may 
flatten them, and allow them to solidify 
during rotation. 



ON ELECTRICAL VORTICES. 

Tj^ROM observations made on the escape 
-*- of steam from kettles and railway 
engines, and of smoke from tobacco pipes 
and cannon, I was led to believe that many 
of the evolutions performed by the dis- 
charged vapours arose from their being in a 
different electric condition to that of the 
surrounding media, that they were in a 
spheroidal state, that the rings and various 
forms of radiation they assumed were due 
to this condition, and that the particles of 
vapour and smoke were involved in electric 
vortices. 




Js i G . g 




r / a . s 




Mr. Robert Hunt's experiments on the 
influence of magnetism on molecular ar- 
rangement* favour this view ; and, as they 
are important and may not be readily 
accessible to some of our readers, the fol- 
lowing extractmay perhaps be admissible : — 

" 12. A plate of copper with an edging 
of wax was placed on the electro-magnet, 
over it a very weak solution of nitrate of 
silver was quickly poured : the plate imme- 
diately blackened from the decomposition 
of the silver 6alt by the copper. In about a 
minute the finely- divided silver arranged 
itself into curves aB represented in Fig. 1, 
which were after a few minutes again 
destroyed. By using a sheet of chemically 

fure copper obtained by electrotype deposit 
found a permanent impression of these 
curves could be obtained, owing to the oxi- 
dation of the copper along the spaces, 
which the finely-divided silver, when distri- 
buted in curved lines, did not occupy. 

" 13. A plate of hard copper, such as is 
used by engravers, was placed in precisely 
the same circumstances and covered with a 
tolerably strong solution of nitrate of 
silver. It was left in contact with the elec- 
tro-magnet for a night. On washing off 



• Phaotophical Uayuine, third series, Vol. XXVIII., 
pagel. 



the deposit of silver which covered it. it was 
found that the acid of the silver salt had 
bitten deeply into the plate over an oval 
space around the poles, leaving a email 
space between them quite bright. The 
copper over this etched space was covered 
with an immense number of minute holes, 
and, beyond this, the oxidation of the sur- 
face had proceeded in curved lines, as repre- 
sented in Fig. 2. We thus have permanent 
evidence of the influence of magnetic force 
in determining chemical action. 

" 14. Into one of the glass troughs before 
named — a plate of glass with an edge of 
clay — placed on the electro- magnet, a weak 
solution of sulphate of silver was poured, 
and into this an equally weak solution of 
sulphate of iron. In about five minutes 
precipitation of silver commenced. This 
precipitate arranged itself over the glass in 
curves from and around the poles in the 
same manner as it distributed itself over 
the copper plate. In a short time, precipi- 
tation increasing, two curious curved spaces 
were formed by the fine deposit, proceeding 
from one pole towards the other in opposite 
directions, increasing in width as they pro- 
ceeded, until they were abruptly checked at 
a little distance from the poles towards 
which they were directed, these spaces being 
very distinct from the first formed curved 
lines. Fig. 3 represents this." 

Thus far as regards the effects of electro- 
magnetism on chemical action in progress. 
But there seemed something wanting be- 
tween it and the effects of the poles of an 
electro-magnet on loose particles of matter 
not immediately involved in chemical action. 
Whilst I was studying a means for supply- 
ing this want M. Gaston Planters very 
Bimple and ingenious experiments- were 
made known, which meet what is required. 
It is unnecessary to repeat them here, as 
they have been already noticed in these 
columns.* 

These experiments indicate most dis - 
tinctly the existence of electric vortices. In 
M. Plante's experiment the fluid passing 
from the electrode involves the metallic 
particles and renders the vortex visible. 
The explanation I gave twenty- seven years 
ago of the behaviour of the electric fluid 
when passing along a wiref shows that it 
arises from the latitudinal and longitudinal 
action of the fluid upon itself, owing to 
which it moves corkscrew fashion, the prin- 
ciple involved being that of two forces pro- 
pelling a body on the diagonal of the direc- 
tion of those forces. The paper referred to 
was an explanation of the cause of the mag- 
netic needle assuming its peculiar position 
in Ampere's experiments when a current is 
passed along a wire. This paper would not 
admit of being abstracted, and would seem 
too long to insert here. But M. Plante's 
experiments confirm what was there said, 
and show the current passing off into loose 
and liquid materials, continuing, as far as 
these can hold together, the vortex esta- 
blished on the wire. 

This is very noticeable when he illus- 
trates the formation of waterspouts, pro- 
ducing in a mixture of salt and water simi- 
lar gyrations to those witnessed in that 
meteoric phenomenon, and showing the ten- 
dency of the liquid to rise in the vortex. 
The direction of gyration in these experi- 
ments is also found to agree with that of 
waterspouts in nature, the reversal of the 
experimental electric current changing the 
direction of gyration, as waterspouts revolve 
in opposite directions in the two hemi- 
spheres, which M. Plante considers may be 
attributed to the flow of the electric fluid 
under the magnetic influence of the globe.t 

Another form of vortex appears in M. 



• Exoubx Mechanic, January 28th, 1S76, p. *tt7. 

t Mining Journal, May 5th, 1840. 

$ " Pent btn attribno k l'ecoalement du flax <?leatriqae 
sons l'influence mafrniHlqne da globe." — " Comptee 
RendaB," torn. 82, p. 222. 



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28 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE : No. 574. Mabch 24, 1876. 



Plant's experiments. The immersion of 
the positive wire into a liquid conductor, 
such as salt water, determines the aggrega- 
tion of the aqueous molecules about the 
electrode in the form, of a luminous spheroid 
in consequence of a doable simultaneous 
effect of flowing and suction — d'ecoulement 
et d' aspiration — " or of transport in the two 
directions that seems peculiar to the electric 
fluid."* 

The whole universe develops vortices or 
centres of force en rapport with electricity. 
Amongst animals it appears in the gan- 
glions and other nerve-centres ; in the vege- 
table world in the deposition of cells, in the 
roots, the joints, the corollas, and the fructi- 
fication ; and in the inorganic world in every 
centre of chemical change ; in the planets, 
in the solar system, in the Milky Way, and 
those still more distant centres, the casual 
messengers from which occasionally visit 
our system. John J- Lake. 



REPORT OF THE VIVISECTION 
COMMISSION. 

TJ ETURNING once more to the report of 
the Commissioners we commence with 
the evidence of the Rev. Dr. S. Haughton, 
a distinguished professor, who has placed 
his views before the public in a communica- 
tion to Mr. Colam, the Secretary of the 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals. Dr. Haughton has for many 
years taken an active interest in the subject 
of vivisection, has defended the practice 
where he thought it proper, but has not 
hesitated to denounce many of the practices 
in connection with it — indeed, if his out- 
spoken denunciations had been listened to, 
tne subject would not have gained the un- 
enviable notoriety which now distinguishes 
it. In a memorial signed by Dr. Haughton. 
and many of the most distinguished medical 
authorities in Dublin, it is stated that 
" Every real or supposed discovery of one 
physiologist immediately causes the repe- 
tition of his experiments by scores of 
Btudents. The most numerous and im- 
portant of these researches being connected 
with the nervous system, the use of com- 
plete anaesthetics is practically prohibited." 
The memorial went on to denounce certain 
specific instances of experiments on living 
animals, and urged the Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to Animals to take up 
the question with the view of obtaining an 
Act tor the repression or regulation of the 
practice, and the fact that so many members 
of the medical profession thought such a 
memorial necessary or advisable speaks 
volumes against the assertion that no ex- 
periments whatever are performed except 
those tending to benefit humanity. To 
appreciate the full for<je of the evidence 
tendered by Dr. Haughton it must be read 
in its entirety, but the following precis will 
give a fair idea of its main points. If he 
could trust the conscientiousness and the 
common sense, and the savoir /aire of the 
physiologists exgaged in original research, 
Dr. Haughton would leave it in their hands ; 
but he cannot do so, because he believes 
that a large proportion of the experiments 
now performed upon animals ia this king- 
dom are " unnecessary and clumsy repeti- 
tions;'' because in many experiments the 
mode is " unneoessarily cruel;" because 
many experiments are undertaken "with- 
out due deliberation and previous fore- 
thought," and because the importance of 
the results is frequently exaggerated. Dr. 
Haughton illustrated his objections by re- 
ferring to the notorious Norwich " experi- 
ment," and the experiments made by a late 
distinguished physiologist to determine the 
action of mercury on the liver in dogs, the 
results of which would be accepted by 
medical men if called upon to treat sick 



• Oomi.t :C mini, loin. e>l, p. 610; turn. SJ, p. 31*. 



dogs, but which do not apply to sick men 
at all. By experiments performed by him- 
self during the trial of Palmer it was dis- 
covered that strychnia exercised an effect 
upon frogs and men which could be con- 
trolled or restrained by nicotine; but no 
such result could be obtained upon dogs. 
And yet dogs are favourite subjects of 
the experimentalist. Dr. Haughton would 
tolerate, under certain stringent conditions, 
and subject to the criticism of public 
opinion, the practice of vivisection for the 
purposes of original scientific research ; 
but ne objects entirely to the use of living 
animals for the purpose of instruction, 
whether the experiments are performed 
under anaesthesia or not. Dr. Haughton 
has evidently very strong feelings on the 
subject as regards the teaching of students, 
and when pressed by Professor Huxley to 
say whether experiments under chloroform 
might not be permitted he declared em- 
phatically that, from his knowledge of 
medioal schools and medical students, he 
was of opinion that an Act permitting vivi- 
section m schools, provided anaesthetics 
were used, would be laxly carried out. Dr. 
Haughton has little fear of strangling 
original research, for he declared, in answer 
to a question, " If you were to strangle 
nine-tenths, you will do no harm, if you 
leave the one- tenth that nature meant to 
go on." 

Mr. Alfred H. Garrod, the Prosector to 
the Zoological Society, always performs 
vivisection under anaesthesia, and when 
experiments are made for scientific research 
by competent persons he thinks there 
should be a limitation. He is, however, 
decidedly opposed to experiments upon 
living animals for the purposes of demon- 
stration ; and though Professor Huxley tried 
to shake the witness, he held to his opinion 
that demonstrations of well-known pheno- 
mena were unnecessary, and when they 
involved cruelty to animals objectionable. 
Mr. Hutton extracted from Mr. Garrod, 
who is an accomplished man in his own 
branch of science, that he had completed 
his education without any experiments on 
living animals at all. He also stated, and 
the expression of opinion is worth noting 
in opposition to that of others, that he 
thought it not at all difficult to recognise in 
a horse or an ox the least pain. Some of 
the Commissioners put it to Dr. Haughton 
and Mr. Garrod that Zoological Gardens 
were pathological experiments on the large 
scale, with the result of showing that 
domestic animals reach an average age, but 
that wild animals (regarding the natural 
age of which nothing can of course be 
known) probably live shorter lives. They, 
however, are free from accidents, if they 
suffer from want of exercise. 

Dr. Pavy and Dr. Pye- Smith gave evi- 
dence resembling that of many other physio- 
logists. They are in favour of vivisection, 
of course under anaesthesia where possible, 
and think that no restrictions are required, 
as it rarely or never is performed in private ; 
but both are strongly impressed with the 
advantage of seeing as well as reading to 
the student. Their opinion on the point is 
summed up as follows : — That physiologists 
who have been educated without the assis- 
tance of demonstrations are in the position 
of physicians without practical experience. 
When we have said that Dr. Pavy and Dr. 
Pye-Smith hold that experiments have been 
productive of benefit to humanity we have 
noticed the main points, and need only note 
further that in their opinion certain experi- 
ments, such as that on recurrent sensibility, 
would not be " tolerated " by the students 
at Guy's; but in what way the students 
would exhibit their intolerance was not 
explained. 

Dr. Burdon Sanderson and Dr. M. Foster 
were examined together. The opinions of 
the former are well known, and as two of 



the editors of the notorious " Handbook," the 
mere mention of their names might possi- 
bly be taken as sufficient indication of the 
character of their evidence. Dr. Sanderson, 
however, said more in one answer than some 
witnesses say in a hundred, for he acknow- 
ledged that he should be " very cautious in 
finding fault with anybody for repeating 
an experiment, because all facts in science 
require repeating in order to make them 
certain ; and, of course, it is extremely diffi- 
cult to judge how often an observation 
must be repeated." This, of course, has 
reference to the painful experiments deemed 
necessary for tne advtnce of science, and 
shows Dr. Sanderson as one of those who 
consider any experiment justifiable if in the 
opinion of competent judges it is likely to 
lead to a useful result. The examination 
of these physiologists as to the cruelty in 
certain experiments detailed in the " Hand- 
book" shows conclusively that many of them 
are painful, and that where they could and 
should be performed under anaesthesia, it is 
not always distinctly enjoined. For in- 
stance, in one expennient where a frog is 
directed to be " slightly curarised," it was 
elicited that sensation might be completely 
destroyed without vitiating the results. 
Practically, however, the " Handbook" is in- 
defensible, and it cannot be too widely known 
that the experiments are not intended to be 
repeated, but are only for the edification of 
the student of physiology. The main point 
in the evidence of these distinguished 
savants seems to lie in the fact that they 
consider physiological experiments of im- 
mense value to the human race — a point 
concerning which, we expect, they will find 
a great diversity of opinion, not only 
amongst those as competent as themselves, 
but amongst the public, who in this matter 
will be heard. If the latter read the evi- 
dence of the physiologists they will not fail 
to see that it is the desire of a certain num- 
ber of them to encourage and foster " ex- 
periments " which, on the Continent if not 
in this country, are a disgrace to humanity. 
It is satisfactory, however, to find that Dr. 
Sanderson regards Mr. Lankester's expres- 
sion as to the " geometrical progression" of 
increase of experiments as a mistake. 

Dr. John Anthony, who was formerly a 
pnpil of Sir Charles Bell, thinks that obser- 
vations of the vital processes in living 
animals should be permitted under a license 
to such persons only as have shown great 
aptitude for the study of physiology, but 
that nothing in the nature or a public de- 
monstration of such experiments should be 
allowed. He declared that all that is done 
that is valuable to science is done in the 
quiet of a man's laboratory, and, although 
in common with many others, he thinks that 
observing a phenomenon fixes it on the mind 
better than merely reading about it, yet, 
he asks, is it necessary to go through the 
experiment of cutting open the chest of a 
frog, being at the same time particular not 
to kill it, and then to turn ita lungs out, in 
order to see the circulation of the blood ? 
" Fond as I am of physiology I would not 
do that for the world." And yet, Dr. 
Anthony says, aa many others say, that 
sensation — i.e., the ability to feel pain — de- 
creases the lower we descend in the scale of 
animal life. This fact, if it be a fact, seems 
to be overlooked by many. When anyone has 
written denouncing vivisection some scien- 
tific man or other, moreor less identified with 
the physiologists, has retorted by speaking 
of the cruelty of putting worms on hooka 
and catching fish with the latter; but when 
it suits the purposes of the schools a worm 
has no feeling at all, and a fish merely feels 
that his liberty is restrained. So, too, vre 
are taunted by one that shrimps and lob- 
sters are cruelly treated when boiled, while 
another tells us that they cannot have 
much sensibility. 

Dr. Anthony gave some very important 



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29 



testimony under another head. It has been 
asserted that few, if any, experiments, are per- 
formed by private persons, and that none are 
performed out of mere curiosity. Bat Dr. 
Anthony, like several other witnesses, while 
declining to give names, declares that experi- 
ments arc performed which have their origin 
in merely idle cariosity. Professor Huxley 
obtained from this witness an acknowledge- 
ment that "spaying " was quite as painful 
as one of the experiments to which he had 
alluded; but what the Professor's object 
was passes our comprehension; for, of 
coarse, " spaying " and all similar operations 
on the lower animals will come within the 
provisions of any Act which may be passed 
to regulate vivisection. 

The evidence of Dr. Rutherford is much 
like that of Dr. Sanderson, and is what 
might have been expected from a physiolo- 
gist of his calibre. While, however, he 
regards experiments as necessary for the 
advance or science, he does not consider 
them necessary, save in exceptional cases, 
for the education of medical students. Dr. 
Rutherford gave an instance of an experi- 
ment, or rather of a series of experiments, 
which had a " great object." It seems that 
there has always been a dispute whether 
rhubarb increases the secretion of the bile. 
It has been suspected, but not proved. But 
now, after a few cruel experiment* on dogs, 
it is hnovm that rhubarb is a powerful 
stimulant of the liver : it does increase the 
secretion of bile. Similar doubts existed as 
to colchicnm. and a similar result followed 
the experiment : it is now known that col- 
chicnm stimulates the liver. And these are 
"great objects," forsooth! Assuming, for 
the sake of argument, that the action of 
rhabarb and colonic um will be the same in 
the human economy as Dr. Rutherford 
believes he knows it to be in the dog — that 
apart from any influence which the agony 
of the dogs may have had on the secretion 
of bile, or in promoting abnormal action — 
there is sufficient similarity to enable the 
physician to feel confident as to the action 
of rhubarb and colchicnm, what has he 
gained, or rather what the better for the 
information will his patient be P Rhubarb 
and colchicnm will be administered just as 
they have been for years for sluggish liver 
and gout, and the patients will suffer just 
aa much agony and die just as fast as 
before. And yet these experiments are 
typical of a host that have been performed 
because medical men choose to differ in 
opinion — being unable to spell out the same 
lesson from their "empirical" alphabet. 
Dr. Turner, the Professor of Anatomy at 
Edinburgh University, gave similar evi- 
dence, and explained what experimental 
researches had done for physiology and 
medicine, and reduced his argument to an 
absurdity by declaring that Galvani'a ex- 

C'ment on the frogs led to all that we 
w about current electricity, magnetism, 
telegraphy — in fact, all the applications of 
electricity. Dr. Turner seemed to think 
that Parliament would experience consider- 
able difficulty in defining a living animal, 
instancing a frog with its head cut off and 
yet with hfe in its muscles and nerves. But 
if a man commences an experiment on a 
living frog by cutting off its head, surely 
that is an experiment on a living animal. 

Dr. Crichton Browne and Dr. Ferrier 
gave evidence which in a manner runs to- 
gether, and had special reference to a state- 
tneat made by Mr. Jesse as to the aotions 
and cries of an animal under ohloroform. It 
vaa distinctly asserted that an animal can 
be made to shriek, to gnaw its legs, and to 
po through other motions whilst in an in- 
"Twible state — Professor Huxley, bringing 
forward the mesmeric state as a parallel 
ca*e— and that in those instances where the 
animal is described as being partly conscious 
in Dr. Perrier's experiments, it was per- 
fectly insensible to pain. 



Dr. Hoggan gave evidence and pointed 
out objections to the experiments of Dr. 
Rutherford — that the animals put under 
curari were suffering pain, and that the ad- 
ministration put everything into an ab- 
normal state — for instance, increased the 
secretions, and so rendered the experiments 
as to the secretion of the bile inconclusive. 
Dr. Hoggan also thinks that students prac- 
tise vivisections, and are not always careful 
to use anaesthetics. His statements, how- 
ever, have been laid before the public, and 
we pass on to those of 

Dr. Emmanuel Klein, who is assistant 
Professor at the Brown Institute, and Lec- 
turer on Histology at St. Bartholomew's 
Medical School. The following questions 
with their answers are extracted from his 
evidence: — 

M 3538. What is your own practice with 
regard to the use of anaesthetics in experi- 
ments that are otherwise painful P — Except 
for teaching purposes, for demonstration, I 
never use anaesthetics, where it is not neces- 
sary for convenience. If I demonstrate I 
use anaesthetics." .... 

" 3539. When you say that you only use 
them for convenience sake, do you mean 
that you have no regard at all to the suffer- 
ings of the animals? — No regard at all." 

These are the answers, of a man who. we 
are glad to remember, is not an English- 
man. They stand in all their brutal bar- 
barity, hut it is only fair to him to say 
that' his evidence, as corrected by himself, 
is much modified, and, so to speak, 
toned down. The alterations appear to 
have been so extensive that the Commis- 
sioners felt unable to accept Mr. Klein's 
"proof" as his evidence, and have ac- 
cordingly printed it as an appendix. In his 
amended evidence Dr. Klein says that the 
suffering is very little in his experiments, 
which are chiefly pathological, and it may 
be that there is something to be aaid on his 
behalf that he might not have understood 
the f uU meaning of the questions. At any 
rate, as his evidence stands, it is sufficient 
to condemn vivisection. Mr. E. A. Schaf er, 
the assistant professor of physiology in 
University College, states that in the case 
of frogs no anaesthetic is used, and that the 
spinal marrow is cut across chiefly in those 
experiments in which it facilitates the 
object of the experiment — not from a 
motive of humanity. Dr. MacKendrick 
gave evidence similar to that of other 
physiologists, and furnished the Commis- 
sioners with a copy of his paper, " What 
has Vivisection done for .Humanity?" in 
which, amongst other things, it is stated 
that " Hunter's operation for aneurism was 
first demonstrated and tried on living 
animals." Our readers will recollect that 
it is proved that the- demonstration was 
subsequent to the actual success of the 
operation on the human subject. If Dr. 
MacKendrick's other instances are no better 
than this, vivisection has done very little 
for humanity. Dr. Lister agrees with the 
majority of the physiologists, his evidence 
being chiefly remarkable for the state- 
ments as to the insensibility to pain of the 
lower animals. Mr. MacDonnell would 
look with favour upon legislation, regarding 
it as a protection to the physiologist, and 
considered that medical students could not 
be properly educated without witnessing 
" experiments." Mr. T. Hayden considered 
experiments necessary for the advance of 
science, but not for the education of stu- 
dents. Dr. Cleland thinks he would be 
able to teach better if he had the opportu- 
nity of performing more experiments than 
he does. Dr. Sibson says it is not a matter 
of opinion, but that experiments are " abso- 
lutely necessary for the progress of medi- 
cine." Dr. Purser finds himself imped d in 
his physiological lectures by the resolution 
of Trinity College, Dublin, prohibiting vivi- 
sections. Mr. James B. Mills, veterinary 



surgeon, who has published statements 
with reference to vivisections he has seen 
performed by students, repeated them in 
evidence. Dr. W. B. A. Scott gave evi- 
dence which is now familiar concerning the 
horrors of vivisection, and stated that stu- 
dents did perform experiments. Dr. W. 
Legg gave the usual physiologist's evidence, 
and apparently does not consider that the 
animals on which he experiments suffered 
at all. Dr. A. Gamgee believes experiments 
to be necessary ; but thinks licenses to per- 
form them would be an advantage. He was 
able to give some valuable evidence tending 
to show that curari or wurari is not a true 
anaesthetic^ — evidence of such a nature that 
the mere opinions of other physiologists 
sink into insignificance. Dr. G. J. Allenan, 
as one who believes in the importance of 
experiments, would suggest the appointment 
of a Board of Control. Sir William GuU 
is in favour of experiments, and gave some 
valuable and interesting evidence. Dr. W. 
B. Carpenter thinks with the physiologists, 
but is quite sure that experiments are some- 
times made without any definite objects, 
and has seen a "perfect callousness" to 
animal suffering. Dr. Lauder Brunton, 
one of the editors of the " Handbook," 
considers experiments justifiable ; has per- 
formed experiments on 90 oats, but no bene- 
ficial discovery has resulted, as they are not 
finished. Several other witnesses were 
examined, including Mr. Jesse and Mr. 
Holt. M.P., but the evidence of Mr. G. H. 
Lewes is suggestive. He believes that vivi- 
section is a " painful necessity," but that 
experiments are often needlessly rep aa ted, 
and many of the original ones are useless 
from the incompetence of the observer. Mr. 
Lewes thinks that ' vivisection is like criti- 
cism, the latter inflicting a great deal of 
"real tortiuse" without anesthetics; it is 
often performed by incompetent persons. 
Mr. Lewes, who has performed a great 
number of experiments, differs from the 
physiologists in believing that " sensibility 
is present in all reflex action," but not 
suffering. Mi*. George Jesse underwent a 
long examination, but as his evidence is 
based on the reports issued by the Society 
he represents there is no necessity to give 
an abstract of it here. 

Such is in brief a mere outline of the 
evidence tendered to the Commissioners. 
That such an inquiry was necessary is 
abundantly proved, and the fact that the 
Commissioners propose legislation on the 
subject may be taken as proof that some 
legislation is required. When, however, the 
evidence comes to be read by the public and 
by members of Parliament we shall be very 
much surprised if the legislation deemed 
advisable is not very stringent indeed — so 
stringent, in fact, as to amount to a virtual 
prohibition of experiments upon living 
animals for any purpose whatever. 



REVIEWS. 

Storms, their Nature, Classification, and Laws. 
By William Blasitjs. Philadelphia: Porter 
and Coates. 

THAT the branch of human knowledge which 
embraces the study of storms, clouds, and 
other meteors, their production and indica- 
tions, is in a very imperfect state is admitted 
on all hands, and it is this imperfection which 
gives occasion to the conception and publica- 
tion of theories that profess to account for 
the phenomena manifested by clouds and 
exhibited in storms. In the work before us 
the author takes a different stand-point from 
his predecessors ; his first position is that any 
disturbance of the equilibrium of the atmo- 
sphere constitutes a storm. He says: " I under- 
stand by a utortu in general the moreiumts of 
the air caused by its tendency to re-establish an 
equilibrium which has in some manner been 
disturbed, and we may call all such movements 



storms, whether they are gentle breez 



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ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE: No. 574. March 24, 1876. 



furious hurricanes, whether they are accom- 
panied by more or leaa condensation of 
moisture or clouds, or even by none at all." 
The italics are the author's. In accordance 
with this definition of a storm the great divi- 
sions of storms are specified — viz., local or 
vertical storms ; progressive or lateral storms, 
and looo-progressive or diagonal storms. The 
progressive storms are subdivided into equa- 
torial or north-east, and polar or south-east and 
south-west storms. To each kind of storm the 
author assigns a characteristic cloud, and here 
we remark a difference, of some importance, 
from the views of meteorologists generally. 
Thus the cloud characteristic of the local storm 
is the cumulus which he describes as a rounded 
mountain-like cloud resulting from " a vertical 
current moving upwards in a column-like mass 
rolling up in billows," the tops of which con- 
dense " in tho small rounded detached clouds 
• • • which present the appearance commonly 
known as ' a mackerel sky.' " If still further 
condensation takes place these little cloud- 
spots grow larger, unite and form gradually 
into 6ne round mountain-like cloud called 
cumulus * • • characteristic of a vertically 
rising current. In Plate III. the author gives 
illustrations of these clouds which certainly 
bring to our mind two very different kinds of 
clouds — the cirro-cumuli and the cumulostratus 
of Howard, the latter without its surmount- 
ing cirro-stratus so characteristic of showers 
and showery weather. To north-east storms 
the author assigns the stratus (Plates IV. and 
VI.) known in the ordinary nomenclature as a 
fog or cloud resting on the earth's surface ; 
but his illustration embodies three of Howard's 
clouds — vis., cirro-stratus in long parallel 
bands, cirro-stratus in storm-detached masses 
nearly parallel — the true mackerel sky — and 
cirrus of the form of mares' tails, and also of 
the form of long parallel thread-like hands, 
passing into cirro-stratus. The cloud most 
nearly agreeing with the received nomencla- 
ture is the author's cumulo-stratus, which he 
considers to be characteristic of the south-east 
and south-west storms, and his engraving in- 
dicates the presence of Howard's nimbus, but 
without the crown of cirrus, which, according 
to the author of the climate of London, is 
characteristic of showery weather. To the 
loco-progressive storm, a cloud, which Blasius 
designates '* Conus," is assigned. He does not 
give an illustration, but says, " the tornado- 
cloud I have called conus for the sake of uni- 
formity of nomenclature ; it has hitherto been 
without a distinctive name, and its form, that 
of an inverted cone, justifies the title I have 
given it." 

From these remarks the reader will see that 
the author has not followed the beaten track 
of meteorologists, but struck out a new path 
for himself. So far as regards his nomencla- 
ture of clouds, we doubt whether it be a pru- 
dent course to adopt the recognised names of 
an established nomenclature and apply them 
to other classes of the same established 
nomenclature: it appears to us that such a 
proceeding is likely to produce confusion. The 
author's classification of storms we have 
already given — and here again he is at vari- 
ance with most, if not all, who have preceded 
him as storm writers. The existence of 
cyclones he denies in toto, and is at great pains 
to show that violent storms occur only in the 
localities of the plane of meeting of the two 
opposing currents, the equatorial and polar — 
the warm current ascending the plane which is 
inclined to the earth's surface, rolling over the 
polar current which condenses the moisture it 
contains, and giving rise to the storms in the 
plane where the currents meet. 

A considerable portion of the work is hypo- 
thetical. We have now before us the author's 
map of "probable storm tracks" in the 
Northern Atlantic. Surely it seems late in 
the d.iy to talk about probable storm tracks in 
a region so well frequented as the great 
o :eanic highway between Europe and America. 
Over the entire surface of the North Atlantic 
th<* ordinary parabolic track recurring about 
30 N. lat. is given by Blasius, and this track is 
held by him to consist of two separate tracks— 
t'.-.at nearest the equator appertaining to the 
storm originating from the conflict of the 
S.K. and N.E. Trades— the Doldrums charac- 
terising the perpetual stors>, the result of this 



conflict, while the higher branch of the para, 
bo la is the track of storms generated by the 
conflict of the equatorial and polar currents. 
If we mistake not, the storm paths laid down 
by Bedfield onwards to Jancke vary iu direc- 
tion from S.E. to N.W., south of 30° N. lat., 
and from S.W. to N.E. in the higher latitudes, 
sweeping the s**a-board of America, while in 
the open ocean the curvature is very much 
less, and in some localities, as shown by 
Jancke, the storms move in straight lines 
from S. to N. We have put this matter before 
our readers as if we ourselves were not quite 
certain of the characters of storm paths in the 
Northern Atlantic, our author in his preface 
speaking of " the positiveness of statement 
which is born of conviction." Nevertheless 
we desire to intimate that more confidence 
ought to be placed in the researches of such 
men as Redfield, Beid, Piddington, and others, 
who have constructed and published synoptic 
charts of each storm which they have invest! 
gated, than in a map of probable storm tracks 
laid down from hypothetical considerations. 

It would appear from the introductory 
chapter that the author has built his theories 
upon the investigation of a tornado which 

Caed over West Cambridge, not far from 
ton, on August 22, 1851. The directions 
in which destroyed objects lay after the 
tornado had prostrated them, did not, in the 
opinion of our author, agree with either the 
rotatory or inblowing theories. A map of the 
course of the tornado is given as a frontis- 
piece, on which five areas of destruction are 
shown, each of a triangular form, the wind 
blowing over these areas in straight lines, all 
of which converged to a point in each area 
situated on the line of greatest intensity, 
which the author designates as the vortex. 
The description of this and of other tornados 
are amongst the most interesting portions of 
the work. 

In the chapter on south-east storms the 
author speaks of the inutility of the baro- 
meter. Our space prevents further notice, 
and we must refer our readers to the work 
itself for an explanation. 



A NEW CLOTHES-HORSE. 

A USEFUL form or clothes-horse, recently 
patented by Mr. G. A. Brooks, of Norwich, 
Connecticut, will be found serviceable in many 
homes in this »untry. In the illustration. 




Fig. 1 shows the horse standing as an inverted V, 
but by an ingeniously contrived hinge it is 
easily converted into the ordinary form. The 
construction of the hinge will be understood 
from Figs. 2 and 3. One portion of it has 
apertures through which the attaching screws 
pass ; the other has a slot to accommodate a 
button which, when inserted and turned, as in 
Fig. 3, fastens that side of the hinge. There 
is also a stop, A, which prevents the hinge 
from opening too far, and also has an aperture 
through which a cord is passed to afford addi- 
tional accommodation for the clothes. The 
location of the hinges is apparent from Fig. 
1. Two at the upper extremities of the verti- 
cal pieces of the frames connect the latter 



together, so that they may be adjusted as 
shown. When it is desired to set the frames 
up, clothes-horse fashion, one of the upper 
hinges is disconnected, and the vertical bars 
being brought together, their lower parts are 
fastened by the hinges shown near the bottom. 



THE WATCH, AND HOW TO REPAIR IT. 

By Seconds' Practical Watokjlakbk. 
(Continued from p. 576, Vol. XXII.) 

THE previous articles contributed to the 
English Mechanic bearing the above 
title for the most part treated the subject as 
a whole — that is to say, dealt very little with 
the repairing branch. It is intended in the 
following papers to place before the horo- 
logical students matters connected with the 
defects of watches, and the manner of cor- 
recting such. It may not be out of place 
to draw the reader's attention to the subject of 
applying for a situation as a " watch jobber." 
Invariably the applicant has the following 
question put to him, " Will your work go f 
With much confidence follows a reply, which 
signifies that, if allowed to do all the repairs 
he considei-s necessary, they will be satis- 
factory. During a few years I have noted 
down hundreds of defects in watches which 
have been the cause of complaint by their 
owners, and it is not very astonishing that the 
less experienced in the art should occasionally 
fall into blame for having a few " stoppers," 
when the fully experienced have to make cor- 
rections. Therefore, I havo thought, that by 
introducing such notes to the general 
"jobber," his "labour of love" may be more 
effectual. When a watch has been com. 
plained of as going badly it is a general 
practice with workmen to place it to the ear 
for the purpose of listening whether any noise 
or catching can be heard — as the ear often 
assists in detecting a defect which the eye 
cannot. There are imperfections in watches, 
which, whether singly or collectively, cause a 
noise as if one piece was rubbing against 
another, the most general of which is sup- 
posed to be the verge pallet "catching" on 
the balance-wheel teeth, and known as " catch 
of the upper pallet." This defect arises from 
the following causes : — The pallet being too 
broad ; the verge upper hole too large ; the 
upper pivot bent, or the verge may be bent at 
the collet. 

Some workmen endeavour to rectify this 
defect by pushing the cock on one side, so that 
the pallet may be more out of the wheel ; such 
a method is slovenly, although in a few in- 
stances it may be effective, but then one defect 
may be removed and others introduced. For 
instance, when the banking-pins are in the 
potence and plate, there is a probability that 
the verge-body may be slightly rubbing the 
end of the upper pin, especially if the " body " 
be slightly bent through having been riveted 
with a hammer too heavy. Again, if the 
pivots fit the holes well, by tho pressing back 
of the cock the pivots will be bound through 
the oblique position of the hole 3. 

Before proceeding to make alteration it will 
be necessary to see whether the upper pallet 
is broader than the lower one ; if so, it should 
be reduced as previously described — see 
English Mkchanic, Nos. 533, 538, and 544. 
If, on the contrary, it should be narrower than 
the lower one, the escapement must be 
examined. Firstly, then'obabrve the drop of 
the balance wheel-teeth on the pallets. Should 
there be a trifle more from the upper pallet to 
the lower one, that point may be passed ; but 
if there be more drop from tho lower pallet 
to the upper one the "hanging" of the 
balance-wheel must be seen to by observing 
whether the teeth are deeper on one pallet. If 
so it should be corrected by putting another 
dovetail, the hole of which must be higher or 
lower than the old one, as the case may 
require; or if that hole be a good size the 
defect may be removed by putting another 
hole to the follower, so that the wheel teeth 
are equal distance from the verge body at the 
upper and lower pallets. Then in all proba- 
bility the lower pallet will require reducing in 
breadth. It must not be forgotten that large 
verge holes, or a bent pivot mu3t be corrected 



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before resorting to the preceding instructions. 
Before passing the escapement as corrected, be 
sure that the verge body is quite free of the 
end of the banking-pins; for in many old 
watches there may be just freedom when the 
upper pallet " dips " into the wheel ; but when 
reversed in position with the follower upward 
the weight of the balance may cause the lower 
pallet to "dip" more into the wheel, and 
hence a slight catch on the lower pallet at the 
same time may slightly rub against the end 
of the banking-pin. This last defect fre- 
quently perplexes " young hands," for the act 
of moving the watch frees the parts, which 
often leads to the conclusion that the cause of 
stoppage was a slight catch on one of the 
pallets. Verge pallets must be parallel with 
the body — that is, the same breadth at the 
collet as lower down, for if left otherwise there 
may be a slight catch when reversed in posi- 
tions. In all cases the firmness of the banking, 
pins Bhould be insured, for a loose banking- 
pin — often causes a watch to stop or go very 
irregularly. There is another cause of irre- 
gularity in the performance of a watch, which 
is so nearly allied to the preceding remarks 
that it must be referred to — namely, the upper 
pallet being foul of the potence, which will be 
better understood by referring to No. 538 of 
the English Mechanic, Pigs. 48 and 49— 
" The Watch, and How to Repair it." 

Again, the upper pallet edge may be slightly 
foul of the semicircular portion of the upper 
plate, which must always be attended to when 
the slide is off, as its freedom cannot be seen 
when it is on. 

Hour-hand Loose. — Sometimes this trifling 
defect annoys workmen, causing them to think 
that the motion work has the wrong number 
of teeth, because the hand does not travel 
with the minute one. One cause is that the 
pipe or socket of the hour-wheel has been left 
too much tapered, which prevents the hand 
fitting properly ; then, should the minute-hand 
fit very close to the " ball " of the hour-hand, 
and at the same time work unevenly, or out of 
truth, the minute-hand at some parts of its 
motion becomes foul, and for a few minutes 
presses on the uneven part of the Bocket and 
detains the hand ; and although it just holds 
on, the wheel travels while the hand is de- 
tained; but as soon as the minute-hand has 
advanced sufficiently to free itself the hour- 
hand then proceeds, but is much behind the 
time it should indicate. 

Oil to Lever Notch. — The roller-pin should 
not be oiled. In many instances it is found that 
by so doing watches go badly, especially 
when the roller and lever are close to 
each other — which cannot be avoided in 
very Z&t watches, the result of oiling the fork 
being that the oil gets on the face of the 
roller, and very soon prevents the free action of 
the balance staff, which has induced some 
workmen to think that some defect existed 
with the pivot or the potence hole. 

Skeleton xnd Half-plate Watches stop Slightly. 
— Such watohes with " spring cap" have the 
lever poise end very long, and the cap so 
arranged that it is very near to the pillars of 
the frame, the result being that the corner of 
the lever becomes foul of the inside of the 
cap, the watch going badly or stops, and the 
instant that the cap is opened the watch starts 
off. To detect and alter this, put a small 
quantity of dirty oil from the oilstone on the 
lever end, close the cap, and observe where it 
marks the inside of the cap, then cut away 
with scraper. 

Lever Watch "fall off" in Crossing, — One of 
the many cauBcs of Bach is the cock jewel- 
hole being loose, and at every vibration of the 
balance the hole moves sideways, or partly 
round, which allows the roller edge to rub 
the guard-pin, or the face of it to rub upon 
the lever, or may be that the balance becomes 
foul of the plate. Remedy : If the setting be 
too thin so that the diamond cover does not 
bind it, remove jewels and screws, place the 
cock upon a flat stake with its under side up- 
ward; then with a round-ended punch — a 
trifle larger than the hole in which the pivot 
of the jewel fits— strike towards the diamond 
cover in order that the cover shall bind it 
when screwed down. 



IMPROVED FRET-SAW. 

THE handy little saw depicted in the annexed 
figure has been recently patented in the 
United States through the Scientific American 
Agency by Mr. J. H. Plummer. It will be 
seen that the saw frame, which is of rather 
longer dimensions than usual, is pivoted to the 
horizontal extension of the table, A, and as 
the upper arm at C works in a slot in the 
curved arm, B, and the lower is similarly sup- 
ported in the arm, D, beneath the machine, 
the saw is kept perfectly true to its work, and 
runs steady and firm. A connecting screw rod 
at the rear of the frame draws the fronts of the 
arm 8 apart, and tightens the saw. The arm, 
B, is curved up into a plate for supporting 
tools, Sec. A band spring may be interposed 
between the bar of the saw-frame and the 
arm, B, to assist the upward motion of the 
frame and prevent the contact thereof with 
the upper part of the recess. Beneath the 
table is a short arm, D, which is extended 




downward and is forked to hold the shaft, E, 
of the gear which receives motion from the 
wheel and treadle shown. A small fly-wheel 
on shaft, E, assists the rotation of the same, 
and the crank-disk and rod on the front end 
form the connection with the saw frame, and 
impart reciprocating motion to the same. The 
arrangement of the legs with the table is 
obvious from the illustration. 



UNHEALTHY TRADES.-IX. 

Br Dr. B. W. Richabdson, F.R.S. 

Agencies Producing Physical Injury during 
Industrial Labour— Classification of Inju- 
ries—Details of Injuries inflicted on the 
Lungs. 

Lecture IV. 
On the Industrial Diseases of Workers in 
Earthenware. 

Ftbe last two lectures I have de«cribed or f ally as 
time would permit the action of certain agencies 
which, amongst the industrial classes, are effective 
in inducing the injuries included under the first and 
second divisions of our table of injuries. We have 
thus become familiar with the influences of a hurtful 
kind which occur from exposure to dusts. We haTe 
also become familiar with the injuries which accrue 
from exposure to preparations of lead. 

It seems to me that at this stage of our learning I 
may with some practical effect rest, and devote one 
special illustrative lecture to the study of one par- 
ticular class of industrials, who suffer from the 
influence of two of these sets of causes of disease, 
namely, from dust and lend. The class I refer to is 
composed of those who are engaged in the earthen- 
ware, commonly called potters. 

Amongst the usefnl and industrious none of the 
workers on the earth are more ancient than these 
moulders and burners of clay. They wore amongst 
the first of human artists, and they brought artistic 
design into union with usefulness, earliest, perhaps, 
of all mankind. In England the skill and taste of 
the potter have been for many centuries exercised ; 
but at no time in our history, as a nation, has it 



been so splendidly exercised as at the present hour. 
Our artisans in clay imitate now so perfectly the 
exquisite work of the oldeu time, that the old may 
pass for the new, and the new for the old, in the 

2es of even the gifted connoisseur. In addition to 
is, these workmen daily add some new triumph to 
the beautiful and useful art which they pursue. 
They carry artistic excellence into the most common 
specimens ef earthenware work, so that in the 
cottage, not less than in the mansion, the mind, 
through its inlet of sight, is gratified and chastened 
by their all but imperceptible touches of silent grace 
and beauty. 

As we look at the work we are gladdened with 
the sight. The oil and water-colour pictures of our 
great painters are not more wonderful than the pic- 
tures on day which these artists in earth present to 
us. There is something in their best productions 
which, though apart from nature in her skilful 
designs, and awakening a different but not less 
pleasing sensation, suggests that they who produce 
such results must needs be amongst the brightest, 
healthiest, and happiest of producers. It may be. 
hope, it may be tenderness, it may be admiration 
that suggests the idea ; I know not which, but most 
men share it. ... ., 

When we turn from this ideal picture to the 
stern realities, we are distressed to difcover how 
differently the facts stand, and how far away from 
what we had hoped and might have expected. We 
discover the workers in earthenware to be amongst the 
three sections of our community who represent the 
lowest vitality. We find that the males of fifteen 
years and upwards die at the rate of 38 per cent, 
above the males of all ages ; and we discover that 
the commencement of this increased mortality is at 
the period when the men are approaching their 
prime of life, namely, at 35 years, and that it 
extends onwards to the end of life. 

I have a short table in which the mortality 
of nil males, in stages of ten years' duration, extend- 
ing from 15 to 75 years, is shown, reduced to 100 as 
a standard at each stage. The comparative aces of 
the makers of earthenware at the same periods are 
shown by this standard ; and, for further comparison , 
two occupations of lower mortality, grocers and 
wool workers, are introduced. One occupation of the 
fame mortality, the publican's, and one of lower 
mortality, the cabman's, are also shown. 

From this table we learn that the earthenware 
worker at 15 years of age and on to 25 years ranks 
favourably. At 15 years his mortality is 7 per cent, 
below the average. At 35, however, i.e., vVien the 
influence of his 'occupation is beginning to tell on 
his life, his mortality rises to 54 per cent, above the 
average; at 45 it rises to 82 above, at 55 to 81 
above, at 65 to 92 above, and at 75 to 41 above the 

average. ...... « 

It is our business to inquire into the reasons of 
this high mortality, for which purpose we must 
investigate the numerical details of the workers ; 
their social details ; their physical condition ; their 
diseases, general and special ; the causes of their 
diseases, also general and special. 

Numerical Details. 

The number of persons employed in the earthen- 
ware manufacture at last census was 45,122. Thirty- 
nine other occupations exceeded this in respect to 
the number of persons occupied in them. Ninety- 
two other occupations, more or lesB definite, pre- 
sented numbers in each less than the earthenware 
community. Amongst the 45,122 earthenware manu- 
facturers, 29.169 were males and 15,953 were 
females. Of the 29,169 males, 8,421 were under 20 
years of age, and 20,748 were over 20 years of age. 
Of the 15,953 females, 7,360 were under 20 years of 
age : 8,593 were over 20. 

At the census of 1861 , 26,138 males were employed 
in the earthenware trade, as compared with the 
29,169 omployed in 1871 ; an increase of 3,031. In 
1861, 11,934 females were employed in the earthen- 
ware manufacture, as compared with the 15,953 of 
1871 ; there was. consequently, an increase in the 
ten years of 4,019 females. 

The grand districts for this manufacture are in 
Staffordshire, and are called the world over, " the 
Potteries of Englaud." These districts are included 
in the registration returns, under two heads— the 
district of Wolstanton and of Stoke-upon-Trent. 
Their population, according to the Registrar- 
Oeneral s general report of the census of 1871, of 
male and female earthenware workers, runs as 
follows : — 



Locality. Males. 

Wolstanton 4,480 

Stoke-upon-Trent 7,405 

11,885 



Females. 
1,841 
4,857 

0,698 



18,583 

Under the head Wolstanton is included the sub- 
distriota of Tunstall and Burslem ; knd under the 
head Stoke-upon-Trent is included the sub-distriots 
of Stoke, Hauley, Fenton, and Longton. Connected 
with Hanley is the famous hamlet founded by 
Wedgwood, and called Etruria. 



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32 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE: No. 574. March 24, 1876. 



The principal facta bearing upon the industrial 
pathology of earthenware manufacturers are best 
obtained in the Potteries proper. What is learned 
here embraces what would be learned in the smaller 
localities, and with less liability to error. I shall 
consequently follow, with most profit, the plan of 
■considering the subject from the Staffordshire 
potteries, as the base of observation. 

The population we have to deal with is, according 
to the census of 1671, 18,583, of whom 11,885 are 
males, and 6,698 are females. 

Special Details. 

The conditions under which this population carries 
on its employment deserve a preliminary notice. 

The town of Stoke-upon-Trent is, nominally, the 
centre town of the district ; bnt the best point, I 
think, from which to gain a general view of the 
locality is Basford Bank, which is situated out in an 
easterly direction at a little distance from Newcastle- 
under-Lyme. A short way down this descent or 
hill, we take in, in a birdseye view, nearly the whole 
of the district in which the manufacture is carried 
on in this part of England. One might almost 
imagine that a century or two ago Basford Bank 
would have yielded a beautiful outstretch of rural 
scenery, but the local historians tell as that before 
the potteries were established, the district wore a 
bleak and barren aspect ; that the villages were 
detached, straggling, and thinly populated ; and that 
the trade was insignificant. The exertions of the 
agriculturists were paralysed, bnt Nature amply 
compensated for the want of a genial surface by the 
rich and inexhaustible mineral treasures which were 
buried naderneath. In the early part of this century 
the Staffordshire potteries were everywhere famous, 
and in 1817 the population of the district amounted 
to 60,000.' 

Standing so as to face the east from Basford Bank 
we see, on the right hand, that Is, towards the south, 
the municipal borongh of Stoke-upon-Trent, and 
further away, south by east, above it northwards is 
Shelton, and spreading out over a large area is the 
largest of this group of towns, the borough of 
Hanley. In front is modern Etruria, lying like a 
straight street ; to the north-east is Bnrslem, and 
further to the north Tunstall. Newcaetle-under- 
Lyme, although it contains some persons engaged in 
pottery work, is not a pottery town. 

Burslem is the place in which pottery work is 
believed to have been first established, and it is 
therefore designated by Pitt " the mother of the 
Staffordshire potteries." The town was originally 
called the " butter pottery," because a manufactory 
was established there for making butter pots. These 
pots, which were of cylindrical form, were made 
under the provisions of an Act of Parliament of 1670. 
They were of certain size, and weighed 61b., and 
were made to contain not less than 141b. of butter. 
This act was obtained in conseqnence of a fraud 
practised upon the publio by the inhabitants of the 
moorlands, who made butter pots thick at the 
bottom so as to increase the weight. 

The earliest description of the work of the potteries 
was written by Dr. Plott in 1686. The history is 
most interesting, especially from the circumstance 
that it contains an account of the primitive glazing 
process followed by the Burslem potters. For this 
process Plott says " they used a lead ore which they 
call 'smithum, which is the smallest ore of all, 
heaten into dust, finely sifted, and strewed upon the 
vessels, which gives them the gloss but not the 
colour. He adds that when the workmen " have 
a mind to show the utmost of their skill in giving 
their wares a fairer gloss than ordinary, they lead 
them with lead calcined into powder, which they also 
sift fine, and strew upon them as before, whieh not 
only gives them a higher gloss but goes much 
further too in their work." For obtaining a motley 
colour they mix the lead with manganese, which the 
workmen call magnns. 

From the- e beginnings the potteries have advanced 
up to the present day ; their celebrity increased by 
the genius and industry of their leading manufac- 
turers ; by Ralph Daniel, and especially by Josiah 
Wodgwood. 

Social Details. 
At the present time the social position of the 
workers in the potteries is much more favourable 
than id that of many other manufacturing commu- 
nities whore a better state of health and longer life 
prevails. 

The wages which the men and women receive are 
good, and even children are fairly paid. In short, 
poverty is a word that need never be used amongst 
them. " The best of it is, sir, we can all work, so 
that we all earn," was the observation of one of the 
workmen to me in speaking of himself, his wife, 
and his family. Hence those mental worries and 
struggles for existence, common to many men in a 
higher social sphere, are little felt by those who are 
content to remain at the labour to which they are 
trained. 

The labour to which the earthenware workers are 
subjected is not physically severe on healthy, f un- 
developed persons, neither is it labour demanding 
mental -train. Some of the more refined parts of it, 
the moulding for example, and tho finishing of the 



finer artistic work, of vases, pedestals, and orna- 
ments, for instance, give rise to labour which is both 
light and harmonious. The hours of labour are 
regular, extending over nine hours and a half, and 
the workers are not harassed by that most wearying 
and wearing of all exercise, night work. Those who 
really feel the labour are the young, and at one time 
they were severely overtaxed. In 1861 1 was com- 
pelled to record that children so young as six and 
seven years of age, were to be fouud earning their 
bread. In some of the factories I learned that the 
boys worked even longer than the men, for tbey had 
to light the stove fires first in the morning, and they 
remained, after their seniors had left, to clean up 
the shops and clear the stoves. The work to which 
they were subjected was also heavy. Some of them 
acted as " jigger-turnerB," at which work tbey were 
engaged turning a horizontal wheel, which set in 
motion the wheel on which the potter forms his 
ware. Others carried the ware, with the mould on 
which it was made, from the maker to the drying- 
room or stove, doing this many hundred times a 
day, and experiencing a change of temperature each 
time as much as 80* Fahr. I took the temperature 
in one case, and found it at the jigger to be 50', in 
the drying-room 130' Fahr. Others dusted and 
cleaned the earthenware, or received the ware from 
the dipper ; again, others were engaged in what is 
called wedging the clay, lifting aaj a mass of clay 
above the head aud throwing it down several times 
on a slab or a w eiu e i mass of clay, in order to drive 
out the air which is piuuuut in the clay, and which, 
left there, would prevent the perfect working of the 
material afterwards. 

Of t h e se o p et ati or w , the meeld -carrying, jigger- 
turning, and wedging s ee m ed to be the worst, and I 
wondered how, for hours at'a time, such feeble limbs 
could carry on such heavy kbewr. 

Of late years the pug-mill has been introduced for 
working the c'ay before it comes to the wedger, by 
which means considerable labour is saved. The force 
of the jigger-turner is now abx> considerably repre- 
sented by the force derived from machinery. Lastly, 
by the introduction of the Factory Acts, the labour 
of the young is limited in respect to time. 

Children, young persons, and women, are now 
proven ted being employed after or 7 in the evening. 
The hours are twelve ; from 6 to 6 or 7 to 7, with 
half an hour allowed for breakfast, and aa hottr for 
dinner. Children between 8 and 13 attead school 
half-time, so that their work is either from 6 to 12, 
or 7 to 1, or from 1 to 6, or 2 to 7. 

The potters have the advantage of living pretty 
near to their work, and by comparison with 
those industrials who live in cities and towns, and 
by comparison also with agricnltaral labourers who 
live in villages, they are certainly comfortably 
housed. There is Bathing very artistic in the con- 
struction of their homes, nor are their reside nc es 
picturesquely diversified by gardens and varieties of 
flowers, for the soil is not favourable to cultivation 
of plants ; but the houses are comfortable, are 
not overcrowded, and are often kept remarkably 
clean. 

The drinking water with whieh the potteries are 
supplied is chiefly derived from a water company, 
and taking it altogether, the supply of water is fair 
throughout the district. From the history of the 
various epidemics that have occurred, of cholera and 
diarrhoea especially, I should infer that before 1849 
water was very liable to contamination with sewage. 
In the epidemic of cholera in 1849 there were 103 
deaths in the district of Stoke from this disease, and 
63 from diarrhoea. In the district of Wol-tanton 
there were 79 deaths from cholera, and 65 from 
diarrhoea. We may look, however, upon the faults 
of the water as accidents of ignorance not peculiar to 
the pottery district, and distinct from the causes of 
special industrial disease prevalent there. At that 
time the water company was not in existence. 

The drainage of the various pottery towns remains 
still very imperfect, a fact more to be regretted 
because the towns are favourably placed for the 
carrying out of an effective system of drainasre with 
a good natural flow, except in the case of Stoke. 
The soil under foot is muddy and dark, aud small 
pools or puddles are of constant occurrence. All 
this tends to cause excess of humidity in the atmo- 
sphere. The odour of cesspool and sewer emana- 
tions is not marked, and indeed is much less dis- 
tinctive than the sewer emanations in many parts 
of this expensively drained metropolis — London. 

The potters are essentially a country people, and 
their ranks are supplied, almost exclusively, from 
those who are born either in the district or in the 
surrounding counties. Thoir surnames, their build, 
their features, their complexion, their fondness for 
remaining at home, and their steadiness at work, all 
proclaim their Saxon blood. Few immigrate into 
their ranks from a distance; Celtio and Jewish 
admixture is not frequent. Dr. Arlidge, a physician 
who has resided in the Potteries for many years, and 
whose knowledge of tho district may be considered 
the most perfect of any observer, made a memo- 
randum on this point of birth. Of 266 potters, male 
and female, he found that twenty-nine were born in 
the country at a distance from the potteries ; nine in 
the neighbouring borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme, 



and six in surrounding rural hamlets. These, making 
a total of forty-four, constituted one-sixth of the 
whole number. The remaining 222 were born in the 
pottery towns. Both parents iu thirty-nine instances, 
and one parent in fifty-four amongst these, came 
from the country. Almost all tho immigrants into 
the potteries were from towns aud villages in North 
Staffordshire, or from the adjoining counties of Salop 
and Cheshire. 



ON THE THEORY OP ILLUMINATING 
FLAMES* 

THE views of different observers are widely 
opposed. Stein believes that the disillumina- 
ting effect of tho admixture of indifferent gases is 
the result of dilution only, which permits the 
oxygen of the surrounding air entering the flame, 
and transforming all the carbon into carbonic oxide. 
R. Bloohmann is of opinion that the cause of the 
disiUnminating effect of neutral gaaea is that a 
relatively smaller quantity of oxygen comes into 
contact with the combustible constituents of the 
flame ; and that in the flame of Bunson's lamp the 
entrance of oxygon into the inner zone of combus- 
tion causes decomposition of the gas, giving rise to 
hydrogen and carbonic oxide— therefore, gases that 
under ordinary circumstances burn without inanima- 
tion. 

Frankmnd'a hypothesis is, that the illuminating 
power of the gas flame specially depends upon its 
degree of condensation. In opposition to these, F. 
Wibel shows that a flame rendered non-illuminating 
by air or an indifferent gas becomes again brightly 
luminous when the " burner" is heated to redness. 
In this case the dilution of the gases of the flame 
and the amount of the absorbed air are increased : 
nevertheless, the flame becomes luminous. Wibel 
draws conclusions from this, in direct opposition to 
the views of those above cited, and goes, I think, to 
the opposite extreme. His thesis urges that it is 
not the dilution, but the cooling, of the interior of 
the flame by the entering gases that robs it of light 
This certainly cannot apply to the flame of the 
B onsen lamp, for if he is correct, the Bunsen flame 
should be cooler than the luminous one, whilst dairy 
experience proves that the blue burning flame 
possesses a much higher temperature. 

The oxygen of the admixed air cannot be held to 
be tho cause in this instance ; for heating the burner 
could not alter the relation of the gases, yet the 
flame thereby becomes luminous. Perhaps it may 
be suggested that the effect of heating the burner is 
to restore the temperature that had been lowered by 
the incoming oxygen, but this is contradicted by the 
fact that the flame mixed with air is much hotter 
than the luminous one. The possibility of a lower 
temperature is therefore not admissible. 

It remains therefore to recognise as a fact that the 
dilution of combustible gases is one important 
factor, and can alone— without reference to tha 
temperature — disilluminatc the flame. It must be 
further admitted that a mixture of illuminating gas 
and an indifferent gas requires a higher temperature 
to become illuminating, than the undiluted gas alone 
does. Wind's experiment does not therefore prove 
that the cooling of the flame is exclusively the causa 
of the disillumiaation, for by the admixture of 
indifferentgasea its composition is very materially 
altered. The truth, therefore, may well lie between 
the opposing theories of the different observers, and 
the disillumination of a flame containing carburets 
by the introduction of air or an indifferent gas, 
depends not only upon the cooling effect, but also 
upon the dilution of the gases of the flame, which 
dilution may have formed a gaseous mixture needing 
a higher temperature to burn luminously than the 
illuminating (un?) diluted flame itaolf previously 
required. 

The support that Wibel's theory derived from the 
behaviour of a flame from coal gas aud oxygen is 
explained by my view in the most convincing manner. 
As Wibel found, suoh a flame is extremely difficult 
to disilluminate, because its temperature in the 
presence of pure oxygen is an extremely high one. 
The cooling effect produced by the cold oxygen 
entering, as well as the absolutely higher tempera- 
ture required to enable the gaseous mixture to bum 
luminously, is nearly if not entirely compensated for 
by the intense heat produced by the concentrated, 
energetic combustion in tho presence of pare 
oxygen ; therefore the disillumination is rendered so 
much the more difficult. That it ultimately can be 
produced by a very strong stream of oxygen, and 
by means of a net of wire gauze, may readily be 
understood. 

The introduction of pure oxygen in a suitable 
manner into a flame renders it very illuminating by 
producing an excessively high temperature, whilst 
the prejudicial dilution that would be caused if air 
had been used, does not occur. Too much oxygen 
or too little can produce the same conditions that 
dilution by an indifferent gas would do ; in the one 
case the oxygen penetrating the small flame and 



• Synopsis of a paper by K. IIeumann in tho Journal 
/fir GasMeacMtmfl, prepared by H. Pembkrtom for too 
Franklin butUutt't Journal. 



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ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SClENCgj^fto. 574. Maech 24, 1876. 



A good bromo-iodised negative collodion. 

Silver Bath.— Nitrate of silver^ loz. ; distilled 
water, 14oz. ; nitrate of bariam, 40 grains ; dilate 
nitric acid sufficient to render very slightly acid. 
When all have dissolved , filter ; and, before using 
the first time, leave a collodion-coated plate in it for 
half aa hour. 

Irpn Developer. — Sulphate of iron, Joz. ; water, 
8oz. ; filter when dissolved, and add glacial acetic 
acid, ioz. ; spirit of wine, fox. 

Redeveloper.— No. 1. Pyrogallic acid, 5 grains ; 
citric acid, 12 grains ; distilled water, loz. No. 2. 
Nitrate of silver, 10 grains : distilled water, loz. 

Clearing Solution.— Cyanide of potassium, 80 to 
120 grains ; distilled water, lOoz. To be labelled 

" Poison." 

The plate, having had its edges roughened by 
drawing across the edges of another plate, is ren- 
dered chemically clean by scouring with a mixture 
of Tripoli powder one part, methylated spirit and 
liquor ammonia? , of each two parts ; then washed 
nnder a tap till all trace of the mixture is removed, 
drained, dried, and well polished with a silk hand- 
kerchief ; next held horizontally, and the collodion 
poured slowly npon one corner, the plate slightly 
inclined so that the liquid spreads over its upper 
surface, and then tilted up so that the surplus collo- 
dion drains off again into the bottle. When the 
collodion has just ceased to drop, the plate is placed 
upon a dipper, and gently lowered without a pause 
into the nitrate of silver bath, moved up and down 
for a few seconds, then left at rest in the bath for 
about five minutes, when it may be carefully re- 
moved and stood on blotting-paper for half a minute 
to drain. (From the time the plate is coated with 
collodion till it is cleared all operations except 
exposure must be carried on in a dark room. A 
bull's-eye lantern, with a piece of yellow glass sub- 
stituted for the bull's-eye, should be used to light 
the operator.) 

The plate is next placed film downwards in the 
frame, and the dark slide-door fastened ; then the 
dark slide is carried into the room where the micro- 
scope has been arranged, slid into the camera, and 
the shutter drawn up. The length of exposure 
varies, and can only be ascertained by experiment ; 
as a guide it may be roughly stated at from four to 
six minutes for an inch objective with a circle on 
the focussing glass about three inches in diameter. 
With lower powers under the same conditions the 
time, of course, decreases. The time of exposure 
having elapsed, the dark slide is carried back into 
the dark room, the plate removed, held horizontally 
by a plate-holder, and enough of the iron developer 
to flood it poured quickly on. The liquid, by a slight 
movement of the plate, being kept in constant motion 
backwards and forwards, the image will appear, 
and when its detail looks perfect, hold the plate 
under a tap and allow a steady stream of water 
falling npon it to wash off all trace of the developer. 
Now hold the negative up to the light, and examine 
its back with a pocket lens. If sharp in every point, 
and no stains visible, the next step will be to 
intensify it. 

Equal parts of the Redevelopers, No. 2 and No. 1, 
are ponred into separate glasses ; the plate flooded 
by the latter, which is then poured off into the 
glass containing the former, and the mixed solu- 
tions ponred back on the plate. After a few 
seconds the liquid is ponred off again into the glass, 
and the negative examined. If the flame on the 
lantern can scarcely be seen through the blackest 
parts, the process must bo stopped by washing 
thoroughly nnder the tap ; but if this is not the 
case, the mixed redeveloper must be again poured 
on ; and this must be repeated till the negative 
is sufficiently black, care being taken, however, 
not to repeat this too often, or * fogging " will be 
the result. 

It now only remains to remove the undecomposed 
I) ro mo- iodide of silver from the film. This is done 
by pouring Ihe cyanide solution, whioh can be used 
again and again, on the plate. When cleared, it is 
again put under the tap, thoroughly washed, set 
aside to drain, and when perfectly dry, gently and 
evenly warmed, a varnishing solution poured upon 
it just as described for the collodion ; then when the 
varnish ceases to drop, it is held before a fire till 
a bright and hard surface has formed. The negative 
is now finished and ready to print from. 

T. H. Powell. 



following simple but effective plan, which I venture 
to submit, with the hope that it may be of some use 
to the readers of the Journal. Take a watch with a 
white face, take ont the front glass, and remove the 
hourand minute hands. Paste over the face of the 
watch a piece of dead-black paper with a round 
window cut in it, so aa to leave nothing exposed but 
the small circle in which the seconds' hand rotates. 
Place the watch on the front of the mirror of the 
microscope, and condense the light of a strong flame 
on the small white cirole that has been left exposed. 
Reflect this light through the beetle's eye, 
previously placed on the stage, just in the same 
manner as if the ordinary mirror were being 
employed. Bring the eye into focus, and then 
gradually draw back the objective by means of the 
fine adjustment until the images of the watch hand 
appear. At first these will probably be dim, but by 
varying the inclination of the watch and careful 
adjustment of the light, the observer will at length 
obtain a bright and distinct image through each 
lens of Jhe eye. The nearer the watch can be 
brought to the stage without cutting off light from 
the condenser, the larger will be the image. Any 
power may be used from one-eighth to one-third of 
an inch, but I prefer a i*ath, with a No. 2 eyepiece. 
Under this power the images are sufficiently en- 
larged, and a good number of them are included in 
the field. The eye may be mounted in balsam, but 
I think I have obtained better results from one 
specially prepared and mounted in glycerine." 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 



EXHIBITING THE LENSES OF A 
BEETLE'S EYE. 

A METHOD of viewing the seconds' hand of a 
watch through the numerous lenses of a 
beetle's eye is contributed by Dr. Whittell, 
of Adelaide, S. A., to the Monthly Microscopical 
Journal. The Doctor says:— "In looking about 
for something interesting to exhibit at the late 
soii-6e of the Adelaide Club, I made many 
experiments with a view to produce the above-named 
result, and after numerous failures I hit upon the 



SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



THE METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

THE usual monthly meeting of this society was 
held on Wednesday, the 15th inst., at the 
Institute of Civil Engineers, Mr. H. S. Eaton, 
M.A., president, in the chair. R. Trout Hawley 
Bartley, M.D., Thomas W. Grindle, Assoc. Inst. 
C.E., John Waford Budd, Major F. Bonnycastle 
Gritton, Lieutenant-Colonel George E. Bulger, 
Junius Hardwick, F.R.C.S., W. Brown Clegram, 
M.Inst.C.E., Alfred 0. Walker, aud J. Sanford 
Dyason, Rev. E. William Watts, M.A., John 
Eunson, Assoc. Inst. C.E., were balloted for and 
duly elected fellows of the society. The names of 
eighteen candidates for admission into the society 
were announced. The following papers were read : 
— "On the Rb6- Electron: etre of Marianoni," by 
Robert James Mann, M.D., F.R.A.S. ; "On the 
Variation of Errors in Hydrometers," by R. 
Strachan, F.M.8. ; "On the Deduction of Mean 
Results from Meterological Observations," by L. 
F. Kaintz (translated from the " Repertorium fur 
Meteorologie " by J. S. Harding); "Summary of 
Observations made at Stanley, Falkland Island, 
daring 1875," by F. E. Cobb; "Contributions to 
the Meteorology of West Australia," by R. A. 
Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 



USEFUL AND SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 



The Rosse Statue.— The bronze statue of the 
late Earl of Rosse, by Foley, has been publicly 
unveiled in Parsonstown, King's County, by Colonel 
Bernard, lieutenant of the county. 

According to some recent observations of M. 
Heckel, published in the Comptes Rendus, the 
glands of the flowers of Parnassia have a digestive 
property like that of the leaves of Drosera. 

Large Paper-Making Machine.— A new paper- 
making machine, probably the largest ever made in 
the United States, has just been completed at the 
Gavit Machine Works in Philadelphia, the total 
length of which is 00ft., and weighing over 60 tons. 
The machine is what is termed a 08in. Four Jrinier 
machine, capable of making a sheet of paper 92in. 
wide, at the rate of 125ft. per minute. The machine 
was built within eight weeks from the time of com- 
mencement, and is intended for the Public Ledger 
mills, near Elkton, Maryland. 

Protecting Photo Baths.— A rather ingenious 
idea appears in one of our German contemporaries, 
which, no doubt, is found to answer its object very 
well. It is a plan for preventing the dipping bath 
from being broken, which is a very vexatious thing, 
indeed, when it does occur, and in the case or 
travelling apparatus the circumstance is unfor- 
tunately rather rife. To reduce the occurrence to 
one of greater rarity, it is recommended that a 
buffer of paraffin be put between the bath and the 
case, which has the effect of protecting the thinnest 
utensil. Solid paraffin is melted and pouro 1 . iu the 
wooden case ; then the glass bath itself is carefully 
and gradually heated by means of hot water, or 
otherwise and pressed down into the molten 
paraffin gently. In this way the bath is made to fit 
with solidity in its wooden case, and will withstand 
the strongest pressure that is put upon it with the 
screw-top.— Photographic News. 



ON Tuesday last week the Duke of Rich- 
mond and Gordon stated, in answer to 
Lord Henniker, that the report of the Vivi- 
section Commissioners was under the considera- 
tion of the Government, but he could not say 
when any legislation upon it would take place. 
Mr. Cross, in answer to a deputation from the 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty of 
Animals, said on Monday last that there was 
neither an intention nor a desire on the part of 
the Government to shelve the question. It 
was receiving their most anxious attention, but 
aa to any legislation on the subject he could 
not say. 

The second reading of the Patents for In- 
ventions Bill passed off without eliciting any 
criticism, except the mild expression of an 
opinion that the fees were too heavy — an ob- 
jection which is not answered by referring to 
the recommendations of a committee, or by 
pointing to the large sums of money some- 
times gained by successful patentees. 

Mr. Gladstone, who is now a real full-blown 
professor, has removed from the political to the 
scientific quarter of London, having taken the 
house in Harley-street which belonged to Sir 
Charles Lyell. 

The storms of Sunday, the 12th, and that on 
Tuesday night (14-15) seem to have been true 
cyclones. On Sunday the barometer is said to 
have stood at the lowest point known for some 
time, and at Forest-hill, near the Crystal 
Palace, red snow was found. This red snow 
resembles nothing so much as strawberry ice, 
and when melted leaves a red deposit, which 
under an ordinary microscope looks like vege- 
table cells — at least so says a writer who has 
had an opportunity of examining it. The 
Meteorological Office seems to have been quite 
unaware of the approach of these storms. 

The Lord Chancellor seems as unfortunate 
with the Trade-marks' Act as with the Patents 
Bill. A deputation of the Manchester Trade- 
marks' Association waited on him last week, 
and pointed out several objections to the 
measure passed last session. The bleachers 
pointed out that they were not the proprietors 
of any trade- marks, but would be liable to pro- 
ceedings in Chancery by a person claiming their 
ordinary stamps and trade-marks as his own. 
The excessive cost incurred by obedience to the 
present law by the compulsory registration of 
so large a number of trade-marks, together 
with the expense of furnishing the registrar 
with engraved blocks and copies of each mark, 
was also urged, the deputation pointing out 
that under the present Act the registration of a 
stamp or mark, consisting merely of a word or 
words, appeared to be impossible. The Act 
soems to press very heavily upon the cotton- 
goods makers, and the Lord Chancellor, in 
reply to the demand for a commission of 
inquiry to be sent to Manchester, said he would 
consider the matter and see what could be 
done. 

Our musical readers will be pleased to learn 
that a new competitor of the justly intoned 
type of keyboard instruments has been intro- 
duced to public notice in the shape of a voice 
organ, or harmonium, by Mr. C. Brown, the 
Euing lecturer on music at the Anderaonian 
University. The invention has been patented, 
but as the specification is not yet complete no 
details are furnished. The keyboard is 
described as possessing three rows of keys, but 
we learn from the local papers that the finger- 
ing in all keys is the same, and is easily learned, 
even by novices. All the notes are in perfect 
tune, and the effect on the harmony is said to 
be something marvellous. The new keyboard 
is not confined to the harmonium, but may be 
used for the pianoforte or organ. 

The death of Lieut.-Col. Strange, F.R.S.. is 
announced at the comparatively early ago of 
57. Colonel Strange was for many years the 
astronomical assistant in the great Trigono- 
metrical Survey of India, and after his return 
to this country was appointed to superintend 
the construction and testing of the instru- 
ments required by the survey. He was also 
for several years the Foreign Secretary of the 
Royal Astronomical Society. 



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Mabch 24, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WOKLD OF SCIENCE : No. 574. 



85 



At a recent meeting of the Society of Public 
Analysts Mr. A. H. Allen read a paper " On 
the Estimation of Quinine in Organic Liquids," 
and during the discussion which followed Dr. 
Dupr£, F.K.S., took occasion to congratulate 
the author on his courage in facing no. little 
abuse in connection with certain recent pro. 
ceedings against sundry Sheffield druggists. 
Dr. J. Muter followed with a paper " On Butter 
Analysis," in which he described a method 
testing in principle on the determination of 
"soluble and insoluble fatty acids," the rela- 
tive proportions of which Dr. Muter says are 
practically constant in pure butter. The ana- 
lysts of the Inland Bevenue, it will be recol- 
lected, recently gave an analysis in direct oppo- 
sition to that of three regularly appointed local 
analysts — one cf whom was Dr. Muter. The 
latter now believes he has a trustworthy 
method, and will support h s statements in a 
pending prosecution. ; 

It is stated by the medical papers, who have 
made a great fuss about the American pedes- 
trian, "Weston, that the latter chews coca, the 
leaf of the Erythroxylon coca. All sorts of 
statements have been made as to the value of 
the leaves, but we know that Sir Kobert Chris- 
tiaon found them very stimulant, and that 
seems to be the general description. They are 
largely used by the inhabitants of Peru and 
other parts of South America, and it is stated 
that by their use Indians frequently perform a 
journey of two or three days without food or 
sleep. Like other stimulants, thoy have their 
disadvantage, and habitual chewers rarely 
reach an advanced age. 

Professor Morris has identified a bone found 
in the pit at Cray ford as the thigh bone of a 
British species of lion. Some teeth of rhino- 
ceros were also found at the same place. 

Professor Nordenskjftld will make another 
expedition to the regions north of Siberia next 
summer, and this time will attempt to pass 
along the whole line of the coast, returning 
down Behring's Straits, after exploring the 
estuaries of the great Siberian rivers. 

The Italian expedition for the exploration of 
Central Africa has left Naples. The journey 
will, it is contemplated, extend over four years. 

The German Staff has reported that their 
experiments made since 1871 to direct balloons 
have failed to attain the desired object. They 
will be continued, however, with the hope of 
finding a method of ascending and descending 
without lettingout gas or throwing over ballast, 
the waste of gas being supplied by chemical 
means. 

Among the numerous roccnt developments 
of the theory of descent are those contributed 
by Dr. Dohrn, of Naples. He would add to 
Darwin's principles of adaptation and heredity 
a third — that of parasitism — which also acts' 
powerfully without changing tho organism. 
When a parasite has reached the body of its 
host it no longer needs to carry on the struggle 
for existence ; so it often loses organs which 
it finds useless. Dr. Dohrn adds also a fourth 
principle, explained thus: Each organ has 
several functions at the same time, of which 
one is primary, while the others are subordi- 
nate. Suppose, now, one of the latter func- 
tions so comes into the foreground as to force 
all the others back, the organ will have an 
altered significance in the animal economy, and 
therewith its structure will be altered. Thus 
the chief function of the human stomach is 
digestion of food, but it has the secondary 
fraction of giving a rotatory motion to the 
food mixture in it. Now, in some animals it 
may happen that one part of the stomach bo- 
comes principally occupied with rotating, 
another with digesting; the former will 
develop a strong muscular structure, the 
glands getting fewer and le83; while in the 
other the glands and absorbent vessels will be 
specially developed. Thus the simple original 
stomach may divide into a gland stomach and 
a muscular stomach. Carrying out those 
views. Dr. Dohrn comes to the hypothesis that 
the mouth of the present vertebrata was 
formerly in quite a different region — viz., that 
of the fourth ventricle. Our present mouth 
was formerly only a gill-slit, and in this case 
the gullet would cross the spine, and what is 
now our back was formerly our front. The 



spinal cord was thus on the abdominal side 
under the elementary canal. Should this 
hypothesis be confirmed a correspondence would 
be established between the nerve system of 
vertebrates and that of insects and worms; 
and Dr. Dohrn expects to find that vertebrates 
are descended from forefathers that were in 
many respects similar to our present ringed 
worms (Annelida). These speculations are 
given in the author's recently published work 
("Ueberdas princip. dea FunctionwechseJs," 
Leipsic, 1875). 

The phenomena of thunderstorms in Ger- 
many have lately been studied by M. Gustav 
Hellmann, who contributes a paper on the sub- 
ject to the Austrian Zcitschrift fur Meteorologie. 
He finds that the mean annual number of 
storms increases, in general, from N.E. to S.W. 
On the shores of tho Baltic it is least, in the 
tipper Rhine region greatest (Memel 9, Darm- 
stadt 30). The influence of height above the 
sea level appears in the fact that the number 
of storms increases up to a height of 1,300 to 
1,400m., then quickly decreases. The maxi- 
mum of frequency of storms is in the three 
summer months, June, July, August ; but there 
is a difference here, between west and east ; for 
(with exception of the coasts) the greatest 
number of storms occurs in Eastern North 
Germany in June; in Western in July; the 
direction Stettin, Berlin, Torgau, forms the 
partition line of the two regions. Winter 
thunderstorms aro wholly absent from the 
coast of Prussia, and in January and February 
also from the interior. Their number is 
grentest on the North Sea coast and the ad- 
joining lands, Hanover and Oldenburg. For 
the rest the number of winter storms decreases, 
in general, from north to south. We may here 
state that a valuable paper on the periodicity 
of storms, by Vice- Admiral Fleuriot de Langle, 
appears in the Revue Maritime el Coloniale for 
March. The author's researches appear to 
leave no doubt of the force of lunar attraction 
and its influence in the production of storms. 

Dr. Lewald (according to an Italian medical 
journal) has lately been studying the elimina- 
tion of medicinal substances by the milk of the 
nurse, and its bearing on treatment of infants 
at the breast. He operated on goats, the milk 
of which he afterwards examined. The fol- 
lowing are some of his results : One may ad- 
minister to the nursling a greater quantity of 
iron by the milk of the mother than by any 
other means. Bismuth is also eliminated by 
the milk : it is found some time after inges- 
tion. Iodine does not appear in the milk till 
96 hours after ingestion. Iodide of potassium 
(2"R gr. per day) appeared 4 days after inges- 
tion; it was still present 11 days after. 
Arsenic appeared in the milk after 17 hours, 
and its elimination continued GO hours. 
Oxide of zinc, antimony, and sulphate of 
quinine are also eliminated. But elimination 
is not certainly demonstrated in the case of 
alcohol and narcotics (though in some instances 
it occurred). 

In the Isthmus cf Panama, the Oallinato, 
a black vulture, is a very familiar object. You 
see it everywhere, perched on the houses and 
walls, or walking about on tho streets and over 
heaps of refuse. It renders great service in 
cleaning the streets, removing carrion, &c., 
and there is no need of any law to protect it. 
The Gallinazo is of a uniform black, but its 
head and neck are entirely devoid of feathers. 
The inhabitants of Panama have a reason to 
give for this baldness. They say that at one 
time the gallinazo had feathers on its head. 
After tho deluge Noah, when ho was opening 
the door of the ark, thought it well to give a 
word of advice to the released animals. " My 
children," said he, " when you see a man coming 
towards you, and stooping down, go away from 
him ; he is getting a stone to throw at you !" 
" Very good," exclaimed the gallinazo, " but 
what if he have one already in his pocket V 
Noah was somewhat taken aback at the reply ; 
but he decided that in future the gallinazo 
should be born bald, in token of its remark- 
able sagacity ! (Les Mondes.) 

An important survey has recently been set 
on foot by the Government of Brazil. It will 
have for result the exact measurement of an 
arc of a parallel of 23° south latitude, and ex- 
tending 9 1 to 10 5 in longitude, connecting the 



capital of the empire with tho great meridian 
of Brazil. But the principal operation will be 
the measarement of an arc of meridian ex- 
tending from 2° N. latitude, on the frontier of 
French Guayana, to a south latitude of about 
33J°. All the arcs of meridians and parallels 
that have been measured within the last cen- 
tury, in Europe and America, or are being 
measured, are situated in the northern hemi- 
sphere (with exception of the small res of 
Peru and the Cape). The Brazil measure- 
ments will fill a great gap, and will do ubtless 
afford material help in a mathematics, 1 study 
of the complete figure of our globe. 

A valuable memoir, by M. Levy, "On the 
Different Methods of Structure of Eruptive 
Bocks," studied in the microscope by means of 
thin plates, appears in the Annalet dee Miwt 
(5th number for 1875). It is accompanied with 
several excellent drawings. Mr. Ma let's well- 
known theory of volcanic phenomena has 
recently been controverted by the German 
mineralogist, M. Both, a summary of whose 
argument is given in Der Naturforteher for 
February. 

A series of experiments has lately been con- 
ducted by M. Wagner, with a view to deter- 
mine the influence, on formation of rust, of the 
presence of various substances employed 
against incrustation of boilers, especially soda, 
limo, chloride of barium, &o. He has observed 
that the presence of substances with alkaline 
reaction, such as lime and soda, entirely pre- 
vents the oxidation of iron under water. 
Chlorides, on the other hand (of magnesium, 
sodium, barium, calcium, &c.), repeatedly 
attack iron, either in cold, or with ebullition, 
whenever air can have access. One may then 
ask whether the employment of chloride of 
barium as deincrustant is really useful, and 
whether the advantages resulting from elimi- 
nation of gypsum are not neutralised by the 
injurious action of tho chloride formed. This 
evil may go very far if the feed water is greatly 
charged with sulphide of magnesium, in con- 
sequence of the corresponding formation of 
chloride of magnesium. The presence of 
ammonia is in every case injurious. The addi- 
tion of oil or fatty bodies to feed water of 
boilers cannot be hurtful ; on the contrary, it 
diminishes tho formation of rust. 

We have lately heard a good deal about at- 
traction and repulsion connected with radiation 
of heat and light. In a recent number of 
Poggendorft Annolen, Dr. Dvorak, of Prague, 
has an interesting paper "On Acoustic Attrac- 
tion and Eepulsion." 



Limits of perception of Musical Tones. — 
Prof. Preyer has endeavoared to fix the lowest and 
highest limits of pitch within which musical tones 
can be perceived, by means of experimental methods 
of greater precision than any that have beam 
hitherto employed for the purpose. The minimum 
limit for the normal ear was found to lie between 
sixteen and twenty-four single vibrations per 
second; the maximum limit reached 41,000; but 
many persons with average powers of hearing were 
found to be absolutely deaf to tones of 16,000, 12,000, 
and even fewer vibrations. The author then pro- 
ceeds to inquire into the power of discriminating 
relative pitch and of appreciating musical intervals. 
In the last section of the paper be treats of silence, 
defining it as a state of uniform minimum excita- 
tion of the auditory nerve-fibres, and joining issue 
with Fechner and others who deny its claim to be 
regarded as a positive form of sensation at all. 
Fechner distinguishes between the effect of absence 
of light upon the eye, and that of absence of sound 
upon the ear: black he regards as a sensation, 
silence as an absence of all sensation. Preyer 
points out, on the contrary, that the two cases an 
m every way analogous, and that the_ auditory 
organ never sinks, any more than the retina, below 
the zero of sensation. The pressure of the fluid 
contents of the labyrinth, and the flow of blood 
through the vessels, must giro rise to sensations 
of which we are unconscious only because of their 
uniformity, their constancy, and their low degree 
of intensity. Silence, when the attention is con- 
centrated on the sense of hearing, is found to vary 
in degree, just as the blackness of the visual field, 
when light is excluded from the eye, has been 
observed to vary. But the complete absence of 
sensation is obviously incapable of varying. Lastly, 
the parallel between the auditory sense and that of 
vision U borne out by a study of the entotic sensa- 
tions which may be produced artificially, and which 
are closely analogous to well-known entoptical 
phenomena. 



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36 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD.OP SCIENCE : No. 574. March 24, 1876. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



[Iff do not hold owm!*« rmptmtibU for On, opinion* of 
aw corrsspondsnfa. !TX« Sailor rtaptctfxuly rtqu—U thai ail 
communication ihovXd b* drawn up at brwjty aj pomlU.] 

i4U eomminuoattonf should b« addressed (o I h« Hdi (or 0/ the 
Bstsubh Hecbavic, 31, Tuvistsok ttr i t t, Covtnt-fardm 
W.C. 

AU OKtqtm and Pott-oJfU* Orimrt U bs ntcds payoN* to 

J. PAflSMOBB EDW1EM. 

%" In ordVr to facQitaU rt/iwsnos, Gerrstpondsnts, was* 

»r»f fntu°o ti^wtmbirr ^tas°l!stt#r ,, *iosB w **y | ^'^" 
•Koh « appears. 

" I would have everyone write what ha knows, and m 
nmch m ha knows, hut no mere : and that not in this 
only, but in all other subjects: For such a parson may 
hare some particular knowledge and experience of the 
nature of such a person or such a fountain, that as to 
other things, knows no more than what everybody doss, 
aad yet. to keep a clutter with this little pittance of his, 
will undertake to write the whole body of physioks : arios 
from whence great inoonrenieaoes derive their original." 
— MontaigM's Xnaus. 

"ADVANCING" SCIENCE a little 
FURTHER — KILLING, FIGHTING, 
AND INFLICTING PAIN FOR SPORT 
— 40 LYNCIS— GREENWICH TIME AND 
LOCAL TIME — LUNAR CYCLES — 
SATURN ON THE EQUINOCTIAL — 
AXES OP THE PLANETS—* ARIETI8— 
SMOKING — MY SLIDE - REST - 31 
ORIONIS — THE SUN ALL GAS P — 
QUEER, OR QUERIST. 
[10635.] — Probablt many of your readers will 
hare joined in the surprise with which I perused the 
accounts of alleged empressement with which the 
Duke of Richmond received the recent deputation 
from the British Association on the subject of the 
" Advancement of Science." So ranch was I struck 
with the printed account of such reception that I 
hare been making inquiry since as to how far the 
report of it corresponded with the reality ; and bare 
been informed, on excellent authority, that the Duke 
of Richmond exhibited decidedly more official reti- 
cence in his reply than he is made to show by the 
person who wrote the account of it, and that he was 
not so gushing about the laboratory for astrono- 
mical physics, &o. , as he is represented to hare been. 
I think, however, that I have a little clue to the 
mystery, for I find that tho IH'mes' report appears 
verbatim in Nature, without any acknowledgment 
of its having been extracted ! To those who know 
anything of the back stairs influence in journalism 
this one significant little fact will speak volumes. 

Inasmuch as letter 10584 (p. 663) is headed " To 
'P. R. A. S.' and others," common courtesy de- 
mands that I should attempt a reply to it ; albeit I 
fear that in doing so I may seem to be adopting the 
role of the " Devil's advocate." It will be plea- 
santcr, however, to commence where I am abso- 
lutely in agreement with '* The Harmonious Black- 
smith," and therefore I would say in the outset that 
I heartily endorse your excellent correspondent's 
dictum that " all human incitement of the combats 
of animals ... is unwarrantable." Happily, 
though, in this country at least, bull-baiting and 
badger-drawing are practically extinct, while dog 
and cock-fighting are only carried on in tho strictest 
secrecy by the very scum of tho population (since I 
believe that Admiral Rous's defence of the latter 
form of "sport" is merely theoretical), and the 
12 and 13 Vict., ch. 92, s. 18, provides that three 
calendar months' hard labour, without tho option of 
a fine, may be awarded for wilfully abusing or 
torturing an animal. I confess, though, tbat I can- 
not put fishing and shooting in the same category 
with boll-baiting or dog-fighting. It may be that my 
f.ent&l type is akin to that of those who, Butler says, 
Compound for sins they are inclined to 
By damning those they have no mind to ; 

or, as the " H. B." more scripturally puts it, that 
my perception of the fact that shooting at a 
wretched dazed bird, boxed up in a trap, is a mote 
in my brother's eye, prevents me from seeing tbat 
shooting pheasants or partridges (which I and my 
friends afterwards eat), is a beam in my own eye. 
Now in limine, I believe death from a fair gun-shot 
wound to be as painless a one as any animal can die. 
I suspect that the bird's sensations, following one 
another with inconceivable rapidity, may be resolved 
into a kind of dull stunning blow, and absolute 
unconsciousness. We are well aware that a man 
may be hit in action, and know nothing about it. 
Certainly, if I were a bird (possessing human intel- 
ligence), I would very mnch rather receive my 
quietus from a good shot than Ik> torn limb from 
limb by the cruel beak >and talons of a hawk or 
falcon. Then as to fishing with a rod or line, it 
really appears to me even to be free from some ob- 
jections which may be brought ncainst shooting. 
The plain fact is that when a ti>h plungos abont it is 
from a sense of restraint, and not from the pain he 
feels (using pain in it* ordinarily nrcepted meaning). 
" How," say some well ineaninppcople with hazy ideas 
on anatomy and physiology, *' how would you like to 



hare a great iron hook through your jaw?" " Not 
at all, my good soul," would be my response, " but 
the cases aren't in the least parallel." It is an 
elementary fact that sonsibility varies directly in 
proportion to the distribution of nerves in any given 
spot, a fact of which the "Harmonious Black- 
smith " may satisfy himself by a simple experiment 
with a pair of compasses. Let him in the first 
place open the points a very little way and apply 
them to his lips, or the tip of one of his fingers. 
Near as they may be together he will feel them 
distinctly as two separate points. Now separ- 
ating them for an inch or two, let him touch 
his forearm with them, or his shoulder, and 
he will only feel one prick. Why ? Because in the 
latter parte of the body the nerves are so much more 
sparsely distributed than in the former. A fish's 
month is mere cartilage, without any nerves passing 
into it at all, and is no more hurt by the hook than onr 
finger-nails are hurt by the scissors when we cut 
them. As for the death a fish dies when removed 
from the water, it is precisely that which a man 
would die if held under it — simple asphyxiation. 
The consentience of people who have been drowned 
and resuscitated as to the pleasantness of this mode 
of death is notorious. Apropos of hunting, we all 
know what the old bunteman said (most truly) : 
" The men likes it, and the horses likes it, and the 
dogs likes it; and (perhaps not quite so truly) I 
believe the fox likes it too !" £ do not, however, feel 
called upon to pursue this part of the subject, be- 
causo I will tell the " H. B."— if he will promise not 
to mention it to any one else — that I no longer hunt 
myself. With regard to his suggestion for killing 
animals for food by electricity, I am afraid that 
there would be hygienic as well as practical objec- 
tions to it. The bodies of people struck by lightning 
become putrid almost immediately ; and I should 
fear that, apart from the unwholesomeness of meat 
killed " wit ^ the blooc} in it," decomposition would 
set in too rapidly to enablo meat to oe stored any- 
where, even in the coldest weather. 

With regard to query 25358 (p. 672), I may say 
that 40 Lyncis is a star which I do not remember to 
have previously observed ; but that, after reading 
what " Oculus" says, I availed myself of the first 
clear gap in the night sky to scrutinise it. The 
comes was seen at ouce to be double, its 5 or 10 
magnitude companion boing at a rudely estimated 
position angle of 325' or 330 . " Ocalus " (or con- 
ceivably the printer) professes to quote the R. A. of 
this star from Webb as 19h. 13m., but it is really 
9h. 13m. Moreover, be is wholly mistaken in his 
supposition that 40 Lyncis does not appear in 
Proctor's " Library Atlas." He will find it inserted 
there (quite correctly), as a Lyncis in that constella- 
tion in map 6. 

The query of " Inquirer" (25581, p. 672) is rather 
a curious one. How can "correct Greenwich 
time" be anything but the time at that particular 
instant at Greenwich? If we take tho Liverpool 
Observatory to be 12m. 17s. W. of Greenwich, then 
llh. 47m. 43s. a.m. at Liverpool it will bo mean 
noon at Greenwich ; but quite obviously llh. 47m. 
43s. is local mean time. To show Greonwich mean- 
time at this instant the Liverpool clock ought to 
indicate Oh. Ora. 0s. The railway clocks all over 
En>rlaud show— or are supposed to show — Green- 
wich mean time, so that if yon took one from, say, 
Chester and put it side by side with the one at 
Chatham they ought to show precisely the same 
hour, minute, and second. I must caution " In- 
quirer" that (as I said on p. 607, Vol. XXII.) letter 
10170 " is the merest hopeless nonsonso from 
beginning to end." 

The first thing which strikes me in connection 
with the somewhat heterotreneous mn«< of questions 
embodied in qy. 25384 (p. 672, Vol. XXII ) is that the 
arithmetic of " Iostepbanus " is of an odd and 
abnormal character. " 18'5997 years," he says, 
" which is certainly equal to 223 lunations— that is, 
223 » .29 53059 ., whercas T make 223 x 29 53059 

365 2122 3 ' 365 2122 

= 18 03, or 18 years 10 95 da>-9. This so-called 
"Cycle" is really the Chaldasan "Saros" (signi- 
fying the bringing back) of eclipses, and by its aid 
they were formerly predicted ; because it is only } 
hour short of 212 nodical months, and, reckoning 
from any givon year after the lapse of 18 03 years, 
eclipses will recur in the same order aud magnitude, 
although (as raipht be imagined from the odd 
fraction) not at the same hours of the day. Tho 
Lunar Nodes thein«elves make one complete mean 
revolution iu 18 51)97 year* ; but I rather fail to see 
how they have got mixed up with the period of the 
Saros. There is another Lunar Cycle, the so-called 
" Metonic" one of 235 eynodical revolutions of tho 
Moon, which differ by only about an hour and a 
half from 19 years of 365 25 days each. In 
virtue of this, the so-called "changes" of tho 
Moon occur on ihe same days of the year as in a 
lapse of 19 years. The monkish foolery of the 
" GoMen Number" and the rules for finding Easter 
have their origin in this cycle. Turning now to tho 
next part of the query, Sa*urn will be on the eqni 
noctial about midnight on March 20, 1879. his R.A. 
at the time being approximately Oh. 21m. 45s. At this 
time, howevor, he will pretty obviously be quite 



close to the son, and invisible. To what I may call 
section three of " Ioetephanns's " query, my answer 
must be indefinite to a degree. Nothing in the 
least degree trustworthy is known of the axes of 
Mercury or Venus, and Sir William Herschel's 
determination of that of Mars has been gravely 
questioned by_ so good an authority as Mr. 
Proctor. Jupiter's north pole points towards a 
barren part of Draco, and that of Saturn to a point 
situated approximately in R. A. 2h. 23m., and 
Deo. N. 82 s 52d". "The nearest visible star 
(says Proctor, * Saturn and its System,' p. 77) is 2 
UrssB Minoris of the 5th magnitude — about 3" from 
Saturn's north pole." The remarks made with 
reference to Mercury and Venus apply a fortiori to 
Uranus and Neptune. No planet's axis can remain 
rigidly parallel to itself, unless it be precisely per- 
pendicular to its orbit, hence phenomena analagous 
to the terrestrial precession of the equinoxes 
must exist in other members of the solar system. 
In the case of Saturn (loc. cit. supra), the complete 
revolution of his vernal equinox occupies 412,080 
years, that of the earth (as my querist knows) re- 
quiring only 25,868 rears for its performance. 
In answer to Mr. Simms (query 25385, Vol. XXII., 

S. 672), the latest measures of > Arietia that I can 
nd are those of Messrs. Wilson and Seabroke, at 
Rugby, and of Mr. G led bill, at Halifax. I giro 
them in a tabular form : — 

Messrs. Wilson & Seabroke. Mr. Gledhill 



I 1 

S .23 

£ 



196 3 l' ; 26 1871*95 198 10 1870 65 

200-5 1 5 187217 1997 1 07 1873 94 

1987 T69 1872 86 

1975 1 10 187292 

2005 1*41 1873 14 

There is considerable discordance in some of these 
measures of distance, but I copy them ont without 
any effort to reconcile- them. I may further add 
that Mr. Talmagc measured 1 Arietia, at Leytop, 
with Mr. Barclay's lOin. Cooke equatoreal, in 
1872, with the following results :— Position, 198-7W; 
distance, 1051" ; epoch, 1872 865. 

"The Harmonious Blacksmith" (query 25392, 
p. 673) will find some very curious information on 
the subject of the antiquity of smoking, in Daniel 
Wilson's "Prehistoric Man," a work invaluable 
for its facts, but disfigured by disingenuous 
attempts to twist and pervert them whenever 
they seem to contradict the Book of Genesis. It 
deals especially with tho aboriginal races of the 
American Continent, but the author derives illustra- 
tions from the Old World as well. Smoking in 
America would appear to bo of incalculable an- 
tiquity, as pipes are found in (among other places) 
t'.se sacrificial mounds of a race as to whose very 
existence tradition is silent. In connection with the 
Old World Dr. Wilson quotes from Yates's Travel* 
in Egypt, a description of a painting which he saw 
on one of tho tombs at Thebes representing a 
smoking party ! The Chinese, too, are alleged to 
have used tobacco long enough before Columbus re- 
discovered America. 

I must thank "J. K.P." for the very elaborate 
instructions for lathe a-iustment generally con- 
tained in letters 10592, Vol. XXII., p. 665, and 
10631, p. 16. To follow out all his directions in 
their integrity would involve the possession of much 
more elaborate mechanical appliances than mine ; in 
fact, the return of my lathe to its maker, bodily. It 
may, however, possibly interest him and others who 
have so kindly and readily come forward to help me, 
to hear that, having satisfied myself that the 
stock was at right angles to tho lathe-bed, and tbat 
the axis of the mandrel was parallel to it, I set to 
work to file and scrape the A groove in the i° aD °*l 
tion plate of my slide-rest, and tbat I have succeeded 
in bringing tho latter into complete adjustment, 
when it is bolted dorcn. I italicise the»e words, be- 
cause when the screw on the bolt beneath the bed 
is released, tho rest does not slide quite so smoothly 
and evenly along the bed as it did before I operated 
on it. 1 nave not felt it necessary, however, to pack 
the groovo in any way, inasmuch as the mere 
tightening up of the handled nut brings everything 
absolutely square at any part of the bed— and this i» 
all I wanted. 

In reply to query 25160 (p. 24) I may say that 3i 
Orionis is a star with which I am not personally 
familiar, and that (considering the present state of 
the sky) ray chance of making its acquaintance just 
now is exceedingly remote. Mr. Gledhill, however, 
measured itatthe beginning of 1874 at Mr. Crossleys 
observatory at Halifax, aud found ita position to he 
86", tho distance of its components 13", and their 
magnitudes 5 3 and 11. My querist must ob«erve 
that these magnitudes are Struve's. Argdander 
rates the largo star as of tho 5th magnitude, anu 
Struve's 11th maj. approximates to tho 13th 01 
Smvth and Webb. . . 

With regard to query 25176 (p. 24) I think that 
Professor Balfour-Stewart's utterance (quoted by 



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Maech 24, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 574. 



37 



" Saul Byrnes ") may be fairly regarded w> a rather 
exag gerated and hyperbolical description of wme- 
thing akin to a physical fact. No one can erer 
hare witnessed one of thoae astonishing uprushes of 
h ydr o g en which take place with such utterly incon- 
ceivable violence daring the period of maximum 
•star activity, without at once per cei ring that the 
ga« muit have been previously repre ss ed — in other 
words, that it Boat be issuing through an aperture 
ia a crust at tome sort, be that crust solid or 
liquid. One of the greatest (if not the greatest) of 
our solar physicists. Professor Young, of Dartmouth 
College, Hanover, U.S., has propounded the start- 
ling . bat perfectly philosophical, theory that a 
continuous metallic rain is going on at the 
surface of the Sun, and that this forma a kind of 
"bottomless ocean, resting upon the compressed 
vapours beneath." In the light of our existing 
knowledge, then, the truth would seem to be that 
the snn is nothing but a gigantic metallic bnbble, 
inside and outside of which gasee exist at a tem- 
perature and pressure of which it ia simply impos- 
sible for our finite intellects to conceive. On this 
subject I should strongly recommend " Saul 
Hymen," to read an article " The Sun a Bnbble," 
in Proctor's " Science Bjways." which you re- 
revWwed on p. 289 of your last volume. 

What in the world is the meaning of the reitera- 
ties in query 25480 (same page) ? It ap peared last 
week almost verbatim (25384, Vol. XXII., p. 672), 
and I have, to the best of my ability, answered it 
above. 

A Fellow of the Royal Aatronomloal Society. 



WHENCE! CAME NATURE P -MANNERS 
AND CUSTOMS OP THE FAB WEST- 
SUN - SPOT AND GOOSE - SPOT — 
WEATHER PREDICTIONS — ADDEN- 
DUM — PACE "CINCHONA." 
[10636.1— In a letter entitled "Whence Came 
Nature r" (letter 10374, p. 528) a correspondent re- 
marks that I have given an opinion about ths past 
and future of Nature, and proceeds to point out that 
my premiaMs (the infinity of space and that of 
matter) are both uncertain, and the uncertainty 
of ay conclusion the product of the two, adding 
that what is no more than a dubious possibility 
should never be laid as a flattering unction to the 
soul. I really do not think I ever laid a flattering 
unction, compounded of tho infinities of space and 
matter, to my own soul or to any one else's. I 
merely suggested that possibly there may bo in the 
neofruary infinity of space and the possible infinity 
of matter a way of escape— though quite beyond our 
power of comprehension — from the thought of an 
absolute beginning and an absolute ending. I can- 
not see how, constituted as our minds are, the 
infinity of space can be denied. Whatever is finite 
is necessarily within a boundary of some sort, and 
space, if finite, is within a bounding surface, for 
space can be no otherwise limited than by surface. 
Bat every part of a surface has two aides — one 
towards the space which is inclosed within the 
surface, the other turned towards what is outside 
the surface. Towards what, then? Necessarily 
(according to our conceptions) either towards vacant 
apace or towards matter — that is, either towards 
occupied or unoccupied space. There U, then, space 
outside that finite space which was supposed to include 
all space, which is absurd. Therefore space cannot 
he other than infinite. This is rather a roundabout 
way of presenting the argumeut for the infinity of 
space. In reality Aristotle's argument for the finite- 
nesa of apace leads to the best argument for the 
infinity of apace. For he argued " that the straight 
line joining any two points of the universe is neces- 
sarily finite, and that a universe of which this can 
be said must itself be finite." This, says Sir John 
Hertchel, ia an argument whioh never satisfied any- 
body, yet one whioh nobody can refute. But with- 
out directly refuting it one can meet it with a 
cognate argument. Thus the finite straight line 
joining any two points in the universe can be pro- 
duced to any length in the same straight line, and 
a universe of which this can be said must necessarily 
be infinite. 

By the way, does the writer of the above letter* 
consider his systole and diastole theory much better 
than a dubious possibility, or suppose that flattering 
unctions for troubled souls can be safely made of 
aueh " penetrable stuff" P 

To-morrow I reach the extreme westerly limit of 
my peregrinations on this continent, at Lincoln, 
Nebraska, where I give tho ninety-fifth lecture of my 
present series. I have noticed for the first time, in 
this region, evidence of peculiarities of manner 
corresponding to what Dickens has described in his 
"American Notes," and has still more clearly 
pictured in " Martin Chuazlewit." I most confess 
I had begun to think that Dickens had drawn 
entirely on his imagination for some of the more 



• I am uaablo to refer to him by name. I was reading 
tho elotiac sentences of bit letter in the open air, on one 
of the platforms between two ruil way-cars, when an 
«n»iom wind curried from me the leaf containing pages 
$&SSt of the Ksousu MacsuNfc, and I had not noticed 
your correspondent's tuuna or cognomen. 



offensive traits he has indicated ; and in any case it 
seems unfair to describe occasional peculiarities as 
though they were characteristic of the nation at 
large. I had not, however, seen a single instance 
of anything corresponding to the offensive behaviour 
described in the well-known dinner scene, where 
Elijah Pogram rebuked Martin for his dislike of 
American institutions. Yesterday, however, I was 
favoured at Des Moines, Iowa, with about as 
remarkable a display of the " institution " in 

3uestion as I could desire, if my tastes lay in that 
ireetion — which they do not. A person, in the 
garb of a gentleman, save for his display of rings 
and breastpin, was waiting till bis tea should be 
brought. Growing weary, or perhaps stimulated by 
the presence of " a stranger," he began to while 
away time by sucking the blade of his breakfast 
knife, preparing, as it were, for action. Presently 
he plunged the blade into the sugar basin, and 
licked off the sugar thus secured. He next tried 
with the same knife some cream which stood in a 
goblet for general use. After this he alternated 
between the cream and sugar, using his knife-blade 
steadily, some five inches disappearing within his 
lips at each effort. There was a combination of 
horrors about the entire process, enhanced by a 
peculiar elbow play whioh seems characteristic of 
Western feeding. In fact most Americans out here 
seem all elbows and wrist when eating, just as 
when sitting tbey seem all boots. To-day I observed 
at the railway breakfast that the polygonal outline 
of an originally round piece of butter was more 
abundantly adorned with gravy, yelk of egg, frag- 
ments of vegetable, and so forth, than is customary 
in eivilised regions, suggesting the frequent use of 
knives other than the butter-knife ; but after that 
first look I avoided further research. I am, there- 
fore, unable to describe the actual knife practice 
which took place on this occasion. On the whole 
I shall not be sorry to find myself at St. Louis and 
Chicago again, where any tendency towards bestiality 
is restrained by the good sense of the majority. At 
any rate, nothing like what I have described is ever to 
be seen in those parts of either city whero men " most 
do congregate." I would not hare it supposed that 
such offences are common here in the West, but I 
hold that a community of civilised beings should so 
treat such offences as to make them impossible. 
The fault is not a result of mere ignorance— It is a 
wilful offence against decency. 

We have had the most wonderful winter this year 
in America, certainly much milder on the whole 
than the average English winter. In December, at 
St. John, New Brunswick, I walked from lecture- 
hall to hotel with my overcoat over my arm. At 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, early this month, when 
usually the thermometer shows 20* or 30° below 
zero, I found the weather mild and genial, though 
sleighing was going on. There have not been in 
all ten days of really bitter weather. When I was 
in Kentucky, late in January, I found great faith 
placed in a form of weather prediction which I 
would commend to the attention of the advocates of 
the proposed physical observatory for guessing 
weather from the spots upon the suu. The Ken- 
tuck ian system, deserving of equal respect, consists 
in observing the spots on the breastbone of a spring 
goose. These spots indicate the cold periods of the 
next winter. I was told last January that each " cold 
snap" up to that time had been correctly indicated by 
the geeseof last spring, and that the concensus of goose 
predictions pointed to great cold throughout Febru- 
ary. Unfortunately for my own faith (otherwise pro- 
bable) in this method of prediction, February has 
been far warmer this year than usual. However, 
the system will doubtless be just as much in favour 
as ever next year. 

Omaha, Feb. 25, 1876. 

I have to-day received the English Mechanic 
for February 11, and, having a few moments to 
wait before train leaves Lincoln, take the oppor- 
tunity of noting that "Sigma" has already indi- 
cated the argumeut for infinity of space which I 
have used above. I see " The H. B." inc mires in 
another place whether there can be more infinities 
than one (referring to the title of my book, "Our 
Place Among Infinities"). Surely the infinity of 
space is not the same thing as the infinity of time, 
to mention no others. 

" Cinchona" (I am writing in the waiting-room of a 
railway station, and cannot refer to the English 
Mechanic for page and number, the paper being 
in my valise, now in baggage- waggou) uses paren- 
thetically, in his letter about atoms and molecules, 
the words "pace Proctor," where he refers to a 
theory which be attributes to Mr. Lockyer. Does 
he suppose, I wonder, that because I have corrected 
some statement* by Mr. Lockyer — for instance, that 
the attractions at the surface of different globes 
are proportional to the volumes, that the stars 
which pass vertically overhead in London " rise and 
set on a slant," that the epochs when the equation 
of time changes most slowly are those wlien it 
posses through the value zero (instead of being those 
when it has its maximum value), and so on — I 
must necessarily consider that Mr. Lockyer can 
never by any possibility oxpress a correct opinion? 
Let me assure " Cinchona" that I am by uo means 



so prejudiced. I should not wonder if there were 
some truth in the opinion " Cinchona" attributes 
to Mr. Lockyer, though why "C." should not 
attribute it to its true author I am at a loss to 
understand. Possibly " C." has been reading Mr. 
Lockyer's edition of Goillemin's " Physics," wherein 
a laudatory paragraph respecting Mr. Lockyer ap- 
pears, which certainly has no existence in the 
original, while a laudatory paragraph respecting 
Mitscherlich and others which bad adorned the 
original has somehow disappeared. If " C." is a 
friend of Mr. L.'s I think he would do wisely, in 
any future reference to his authority, to leave my 
name out. Riohd. A. Proctor. 

Lincoln, Nebraska, Feb. 27, 1876. 



SIGNS IN THE HEAVENS. 

110687.]—" It is an extraordinary coincidence, to 
nse no stronger phrase, that at the present time Dr. 
Camming is by no means alone in predicting that 
the terrible cosmioal convulsion by which our earth 
and its inhabitants shall pass away, will surely over 
take us about September of the current year.' 
Such are the horrifying words whioh I have just 
been reading, taken from the Weekly Budget of 
March 4, 1876. But, in justice to the editor, be it 
-aid that the article, whose opening sentence they 
form, is copied from an American paper — to wit ? the 
New York Sunday Mercury. Let not the timid 
fear that I am going to transcribe the whole article. 
I merely want to ask a little information from 
" F. B. A. S." or others, with regard to one or 
two astounding assertions that are certainly rather 
staggering. Here is one of them. The writer haa 
been expatiating on the confidence with which man 
has been accustomed to regard the fixity of the 
heavenly bodies, and has just indulged in a little of 
the sublime with regard to the archangelic beings 
who had been supposed to inhabit the " prodigious 
orb " of Jupiter. " It was, therefore," he goes on, 
"a terrible revelation to Prof. Airey [sic], when, 
examining Saturn one night with the magnificent 
equatorial telescope at Greenwich Observatory, he 
discovered that the planet had suddenly changed 
shape. Normally presenting the form of an ellipse, 
he beheld with awe that the two tones of the planet 
corresponding with the north and south temperate 
zones of our earth were mysteriously flattened, 
communicating what he termed a 'square-shouldered 
aspect' to the hitherto beautiful orb. In plain 
terms, the planet looked like a rectangle with rounded 
corners. The astronomer was convinced that his 
eyesight was impaired. He tried another combina- 
tion of lenses, and a different eyepiece ; but the 
result was the same. There was Saturn and his 
belt out of all shape. An assistant was summoned. 
He, too, saw the extraordinary ehange. What could 
it indicate?" Ah, what, indeed? Nothing less, 
surely, than that the planet had " bust up " com- 
pletely , and that the celestial beings, if any, who 
inhabited it had "gone to Judgment." How it is 
to bo inferred that our turn is to come in September 
is not distinctly stated, but that this " busting up " 
is not by any means uncommon among planets is 
proved by the fact that two or three of them are 
hors de combat already. " Mercury is probably 
burnt to a cinder, or, more probably, resembles a 
red-hot ball uninhabitable except by celestial sala- 
manders. Mars and Saturn are dead " (the death 
of Mars, who was carried off by a gigantic spasm is 
described elsewhere). Then follows the death of 
Jupiter described in the words of Herr Sehrdter of 
Lillenthal, from whom the last quoted words are 
taken, and who was present (telesoopically) at his 
death-bed. " He reports the awful catastrophe aa 
follows :— The evening being extremely fine I was 
watching the second satellite of Jupiter as it grace- 
fully approached the transit of Jupiter's disc. It 
appeared in contact about half-past 10 o'clock, and 
for some minutes remained on the edge of the disc, 
presenting an appearance not unlike that of the 
lunar mountains coming into view during the moon's 
first quarter, until it finally disappeared on the body 
of the planet. After an interval of exactly 12 
minutes I again turned to Jupiter, when, to my 
utter astonishment, I perceived the same satellite 
outside the disc. It remained visible for precisely 
four minutes, and and then suddenly vanished. No 
possible explanation of this most extraordinary 
phenomenon can be conceived. Of course, even to 
suppose that a cloud layer rose or fell in a few 
minutes several thousand miles — about 8,000 miles — 
is as inadmissible as to suppose the solid erust of a 
globe to undergo so vast a change of level.' Thephe- 
omenon will probably for ever remain an impenetra- 
ble mystery ; but there remains not aa atom of doubt 
that such a gigantic throe involved the instanta- 
neous destruction of everything resembling life on 
the planet. Death, in fact, overtook Jupiter, as it 
had overtaken his three brothers, and as it may in a 
few months overtake our earth, or any reader of 
these words." These are startling facta truly, 
though, as said above, no reason is given why our 
turn is to come in September, exeept that Dr. 
Camming says so. Will some of your astronomical 
readers kindly inform me if the experiences of 
Professor Airy and Herr Schroter, as above recorded. 



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38 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE : No. 574. March 24, 1876. 



are true, or whether they are evolved from the 
imagination of the New York Sunday Mercury ? I 
never heard of them before and I should think that 
anch important deaths as those of Jupiter and Saturn 
would be in the papers. Claudio. 



COMTTX8 TO 40 LYNCI8, 38 LYKOIB, 
, DRAOONIS. i UB8JB-MAJOBZ8, AND 
w PERSIST. 

[106 38.}—" OcDliPfl " u perfectly right (query 
25358. p. 672) about the duplicity of the 8 or 9 
magnitude star in the field nJ. 40 Lyncis, which 
also bears the synonym of the Greek letter •, and is 
so marked on Proctor's " Atlas." The double (hi 
DX, 84?) is No. 1342 of Strove, who estimated the 
magnitudes as 8 6 and 11 of his scale ; but the 
comes does not appear to be smaller now than 10 
magnitude of Smyth's scale, as it is very easy with 
the 2Jin. Wray object-glass. I tried it on the 11th 
of March, at 8*45 p.m. (some time after the moon 
had risen), with stops on the 4*28iu. object-glass, 
commencing with 2Jin. down to liin., and even with 
the latter aperture it was still risible. I can only 
■oppose that " Oeulus " must have examined the 
object under extremely unfavourable circumstances. 
My own situation is not at all a good one, being on 
the outskirts of a large manufacturing town, with a 
population of about 200,000, and surrounded by 
houses on all sides. Below the equator objects are 
viewed over chimneys, and below 16° south declina- 
tion they cannot be seen at all ; yet at mode- 
rate elevations I have been successful with many 
delicate double stars usually considered to be 
beyond the reach of my instrument, even in the 
most favoured situations. "Oeulus is under a 
misapprehension in the use of the word " definition " 
in connection with the above double, as it is too 
wide to be any test for definition. Struve's 
measurements for epoch 1830-77 were 17 895" 
Dee., and 326 94° position angle. I cannot 
understand how Mr. Webb should have overlooked 
the comes to the 8 or 9 mag. companion he men- 
tions on p» 261 of "Celestial Objects" (third 
edition), bnt he will, no doubt, insert it in the next 
edition. 

38 Lyncis would be more like a test for definition, 
though not a difficult one for the 4in. aperture of 
" Oeuhu." 

I find the 10 magnitude come* to i Draoonis 
obvious with 113 power on 4 28in., and 70 power 
■hows the 13 magnitude comet to < XJrsm Majoris 
readily, but on increasing the magnifiers it disap- 
pears with the higher powers ; so it would seem to 
bear out Herschel'a supposition that this comet may 
shine by reflected light. 

Referring to the diagram by " F. B. A. S." (p. 
555) on February 11, of the group around « Persei, 
I examined the asterism on that evening, for the 
purpose of confirming an additional star, n.f. the 
primary, I had plotted in my note-book some two 
years ago, and on glancing over the group I noticed 
that the faintest star (the one s.p. the Herschel 
and South Comes ") had the appearance of being a 
dose doable. On applying a higher power (240) my 
suspicions were almost confirmed ; but the moon 
was shining too brightly to be quite certain. I esti- 
mated the magnitudes as 13-14 of Smyth's scale ; 
P 110° ± D 4" - 5" ±. I havehad three observa- 
tions since, and had then no doubt of the duplicity 
of this vary delicate object. Webb's " Celestial 
Objects " (third edition, p. 281) says of the group, 
" Burn Lara 5 faint companions ;" but there is no 
mention of any of these stars being double. Mr. 
G led hi 11, of Halifax, has kindly promised to send me 
measures of the pair on the first opportunity. 

Linea. 

THE SOL AH PARALLAX, AND OC- 
CULTATIONS OF STABS BY THE 
PLANETS. 

[10639.1— From the report of the meeting of the 
Astronomical Society (given on pp. 6 and 7) it would 
appear that the method of determining the solar 
p a ra l l a x by observations on the occulta tion of stars 
by Mars during his next opposition was brought 
before the notice of the society by Captain Noble, 
who stated that the method was described in a book 
by M. Normand, " On the Occulta tion of 8tars by 
the Planets," and had been communicated by him 
to the French Academy. It will probably be in the 
recollection of most of your astronomical readers 
that this identical method was proposed by mo in 
February, 1874 (English Mechanic, Vol. XVIII., 

B». 533 and 610). As, however, I have not seen M. 
ormand's book, I have no means of knowing the 
date of his publication of the method, though I 
presume it is somewhat recent. 

I see that M. Normand raises the question as to 
the accuracy with which the necessary observations 
could be made. There are evidently only two main 
sources of error entering into the observation — viz., 
the effect of the atmosphere of Mars, and the pos- 
sibility of the star being lost sight of in the glare of 
the planet. The first of these would have no appre- 
ciable effect were the Martial atmosphere even as 
extensive as that of our earth ; and on this head I 



may quote a passage in Webb's " Celestial Objects " 
(p. 136) : — " Cassini exceeded all bounds in sup- 
posing that the atmosphere (of Mars) could obscure 
email stars at some distance. This effect, resulting 
from the contraction of the pupil in a bright light, 
was imperceptible in the great telescopes of Herschel 
I., and the idea has been overthrown by the expe- 
rience of South, who has seen one contact and two 
occultations of stars without change. In the last 
his great achromatic (now at the Dublin Observa- 
tory), 11 Jin. aperture, and nearly Oft. foeus, 
actually showed the star neatly dichotomised in 
emerging." 

As to the visibility of very minute stars near the 
limb of the planet, perhaps " F. B. A. 8.'s " expe- 
rience of occultations at the bright limb of the moon, 
or in the case of the satellites of Jupiter, might 
enable him to give an opinion. 

Unfortunately, in the coming opposition, Mars 
will not occult any considerable star ; but it is pos- 
sible that even small stars, down to the 8th or 
9th magnitudes, might give satisfactory results. 
Occultations of stars from the 4th to the 6th mag- 
nitudes, however, cannot be very rare ; and I still 
think that were such an occnltation observed as 

Snerally as the late transit, and under tolerably 
rourable circumstances, the solar parallax might 
be determined to within the 10,000th or even the 
20,000th of its true value ; while the polar and 
equatorial diameter of the planet could be deter- 
mined to within half a mile. 

Of course occultations by Mars would be superior 
to those by any of the other planets, although 
these are by no means to be despised. Those by 
Jupiter or Saturn would certainly be worthy of 
careful observation, while the very rare occurrence 
of an occnltation or reappearance of a star on the 
dark limb of Venus would, I should think, give 
results even more accurate than in the case of Mars, 
though such a phenomenon would perhaps not 
happen, under really favourable circumstances, more 
than once or twice in a century. 

Q. F. Hardy. 

ETHERIC FORCE. 

[10640.]— According to my promise I now send 
you some details of tho experiments by which I have 
arrived at what I believe to be an explanation of 
the phenomena ascribed by Mr. Edison to a new 
force. 




rig 3- 




My apparatus, represented in Fig. 1, consisted of 
an electro-magnet formed of two coils, each 5in. 
long, and wound with No. 23 cotton covered wire. 
At one end the cores were joined together by a bar 
of soft iron in the usual way ; at the other end was 
a brass pillar which supported, on conical bearings, 
a brass arm carrying the soft iron armature at its 
lower end, opposite the poles of the electro-magnet. 
This armature was pulled away from the poles of 
the magnet by the springs, and the arm was thus 
pressed against the contact screw b, which screw 
passed through an ebonite bush, let into the brass 
pillar, a. Platinum contact points were soldered on 
to the end of the screw and the brass arm carrying the 
armature. The battery used was a Leclanche, the 
carbon and peroxide of which were inclosed in a 
canvas bag, and the zinc cylinder surrounded the 
bag. E is the arrangement for holding the carbon 
points. 

Experiment 1. — The apparatus was connected as 
shown in Fig. 1 ; six cells were used. The armature 



arm vibrated against the contact screw, b. A wire 
was led from the, pillar a, to the rod carrying the 
upper carbon point. The battery and magnet were 
on one table, and the instrument carrying the carbons 
was on another. Bright sparks passed between the 
carbon points, which increased greatly in brightness 
when either the lower carbon or the end of the coil 
was put to earth. 

Experiment 2. — The wire from the pillar was dis- 
connected from the carbon holder, and the end of. it 
pressed lightly against the tip of the tongue. The 
carbon holder was held in the hand. A slight 
tingling was perceived, but there was none whatever 
when the wire was laid firmly on the tongue, nor 
was there the slightest sensation in the hand. 

Experiment 3. — The lower carbon point was com- 
pletely insulated by being supported on a rod of 
paraffin. Not the slightest spark passed. 

Experiment 4. — The lower carbon was again put 
in its brass holder, and insulated simply by the wood 
work of the instrument, but the battery and electro- 
magnet were insulated by being placed on sheets of 
ebonite, and these sheets again supported on legs of 
paraffin. No spark could bo perecived until the 
lower carbon was joined to earth, when a feeble 
spark was seen. 

Experiment 5. — The end, g, of the wire of the 
electro-magnet was put to earth, the sparks imme- 
diately became bright, but ceased almost immediately 
the earth was removed. 

Experiment 6. — The end, g, of the wire of the 
electro- magnet was touched with the earth wire, and 
the lower carbon insulated with paraffin as before. 
Not the slightest spark was visible. 

Experiment 7. — Earth was removed from the end, 
g, of the magnet wire, and the lower carbon point 
connected through an insulated resistance of 36,000 
units to the point, g. Brilliant sparks passed 
between the points, which ceased immediately the 
wire was removed from the point, g. The connec- 
tion of the earth wire to any part of the circuit, 
scarcely affected these sparks. Even through this 
great resistance the shock was perfectly perceptible 
when passed through the fingers. 

Experiment 8. — The magnet was uninsulated, and 
the upper carbon was connected to point, g, instead 
of the brass pillar. Sparks passed, which were in- 
creased in brightness when the pillar was put to 
earth. 

Experiment 9. — I now connected the apparatus 
differently — namely, as in Fig. 2. 

I could now get sparks when the contact screw, 
a, was joined to the upper carbon, but only an occa- 
sional very feeble one when the pillar or armature 
was so connected. In this latter case, however, 
directly the contact screw, a, was put to earth 
brilliant sparks passed, which ceased on removing 
the earth wire. It will be seen that one end of the wire of 
the coil was joined to a small well-insulated screw, and 
further that any leakage from it wonld pass into the 
pillar, and thence through the battery to the other 
end of the coil. 

In these experiments we hare, I think, traced the 
spark to its right source. In Fig. 1 one end of the 
coil is connected to the pillar, a, and consequently 
with the armature and with the upper carbon point ; 
the other end of the coil is joined to the pole, c, of 
the battery. Any leakage between the lower carbon 
point and the battery will allow the extra or self- 
induced currents generated in the wire to pass, 
causing a spark at the junction of the carbons. 
The more we insulate the lower carbon from the 
battery, and hence from the end of the coil con- 
nected to it, the more we reduce the spark. On 
the other hand, the more we decrease the insula- 
tion between these points the brighter become the 
sparks, until, when we join them through high 
artificial resistance, the shock, instead of being 
only faintly perceptible to the tongue, becomes 
perceptible to the fingers. 

I do not think, however, all the effects obtained 
could be attributed to leakage- Thus, in experiment 
4, when the battery and instrument were well in- 
sulated, I got a feeble spark when the lower carbon 
was put to earth. Agaij, in experiment 3, if the 
carbon was very small, and itself inserted into the 
paraffin pillar, I got no spark ; but if I put tho 
carbon into the holder, which was of brass (having 
a brass flange 2in. in diameter attached to it), and 
insulated the carbon holder by the pillar of paraffin, 
I got feeble sparks. 

In neither of these cases could the sparks be doc 
to leakage, but a sufficient explanation can be 
found in the electrostatic capacity of the apparatus. 
In experiment 3 the brass holder with its flange, 
and in experiment 4 the battery itself, presented 
surface, aud henco had a small capacity, sufficient, 
in fact, to explain the phenomena, when it is re- 
membered that the electromotive force of these 
self -induced currents is very high, almost approach- 
ing that of frictioual electricity. This electrostatic 
capacity of the apparatus will, no doubt, explain 
all the difficulties in the American experiments. 
Thus Dr. Beard says that when a small penknife 
was fixed in a block of paraffin no spark was ob- 
tained (in consequence of the feeble capacity of the 
knife-blade), but when a large file was used in the 
same way sparks were obtained. In many cases, 



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Mabch 24, 1876 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : ko. o< 



however, the spark can bo directly traced to the 
actual leakage of the extra or self-induced current, 
mainst the electromotive force of which mere wood 
work form* a very poor insulator. 

Experiment 10.— I now tried whether the anna- 
tare had any power of its own to cause a spark 
when it waa in no way connected with the coil. The 
arrangement i* shown in Pig. 3. No spark what- 
ever pasted when the key waa pressed. The key 
worked rapidly, but still no spark. The key 
wis pressed, and the connection between the lower 
carbon and earth made and broken rapidly, but 
still no spark. 

Experiment 11. — Instead of joining the upper 
carbon to the armature, it was joined to the point, t, 
of the key ; at every break of contact of the key a 
bright spark passed between the carbon points. 

Experiment 12. — The whole apparatus was now 
carefally insulated, including the lower carbon. The 
connections were the same as tboso in experiment 
11, except that an additional wire was led from the 
end, if, of the coil to the lower carbon, through un 
artificial resistance of Kmi.imhi It. A. units. Spark-, 
were observed when the key was worked. The wire 
was now disconnected from the support of upper 
carbon and held against the tongue, while the 
terminal connected with the support of the upper 
carbon was held in the hand. A very feeble tingling 
sensation waa felt, and only so when the end of 
the wire was touched lightly on the tip of the 
tongue; sparks were, however, observed between 
the carbon points. 

Thus we hare exactly imitated the effects of the 
so-called etheric force, by means of what we know to 
be self-induced currents, and we have moreover 
proved that the armature when unconnected with 
the coil is unable to give rise to the phenomenon of 
the spark at all. 

Ono point must not be lost sight of — namely, the 
instantaneous nature of the electro-motive force of 
induced currents, and I think this alone would fully 
account for the absence of cbemioal and electroscopic 
action, ae also for the continuance of the spark when 
the spark itself can only be accounted for by the 
electrostatic capacity of the apparatus. The spark 
is from this cause probably doublo — that is, it pro- 
bably consists of a charge, immediately followed by 
a discharge, when the electro-motive force of the 
self-induced current has sunk to zero. In fact, it 
is stated by M- Monton, that in a secondary wire of 
an induction coil the difference of potential of the 
two ends of the wire does not stop at zero, but 
changes sign and oscillates several times before it 
finally settles to zero ; and we have no reason to 
believe that this is different in the case of the 
primary circuit, after the rupture of the battery 
circuit, since the conditions are indentical. 

G. K. Winter. 
Telegraph Engineer, Madras Railway. 

Arconum, 18th February, 187G. 

A NEW SLIDE-REST TOOL— A CON- 
VENIENT SUBSTITUTE FOR THE 
ORDINARY BOEING COLLAR WITH 
CONICAL HOLES. 
[10611. ! — This contrivance affords great facility 
and readiness for squaring, boring, or internally 
screwing the end of a tube or other cylinder— a 
troublesome operation in the old way, especially if 
the tube be thin and long. A A and B B (Fig. 1 
and 2) are two flat bars, bent 30° from the straight, 
and riveted together so that the angle at their 
opening is 60°. The shank of the fork thus made 
is fixed in the tool-holder of the slide- rest; the line 
of juncture, X Y, to be exactly at the level of the 
lathe centre. Then a cylinder pressed home into 
the angle, A Y B, whatever be its diameter, will 
always have its centre at that level, and by the 
slide-rest transverse screw it may be brought truly 
parallel with the bed of the lathe. The bar, D, is 
brought up against the circumference of the tube 
and champed by the jaw and nut, E, keeping the 
tube close into the angle, A Y 15. The tube as it 
revolves is kept from coming forward endways 
away from the mandrel front centre (or chuck) by 
a flat bar, C, which is adjustable for distance by 
two nuts, N N (Fie- -I, and turning on its pivot at 
N (Fig. 1), is adjusted for height by a slotted bar, 
8, which is hinged on the end of B, and clamped on 
C. This bar, C, serves at the same time as a rest 
for the screw tool, or other tool for operating on 
the end of the tube, inside or outside, for so much 
as projects in front of A (Fig. 2). The work is 
readily taken out for " trial " or " fitting," without 
altering any of the adjustments of the tool, by 
simply sliding away the slide-rest. The lower bar. 
B, should be of such a thickness, or permanently 
packed up by a supplementary plate, that the line, 
X Y, shall come at once in the tool-holder, to the 
level of the lathe centre, and the insidos of A and 
B in the angle nicely smooth and rectilinear. The 
tool can be used without a slide-rest. It must then 
be fixed on a vertical cylindrical shank, like the 
ordinary hand- rest; if this shank be made with n 
shoulder or stop, so that the proper height of the 
tool be established it will at once assume the proper 
lore), and give little more trouble than with a 



slide-rest An ordinary conical-holed boring collar 
is (for all light work) far inferior in convenience. 
The end of the work cannot bo squared, and for 
screwing (internally) thin tubes it is very awkward, 
even if one of the holeB should happen to suit in 




Fig 1 

FhOnT v i £ W 



i y 



PLAN 



diameter, which is very likely not to occur, and 
there is difficulty in getting any ordinary rest up to 
its work behind it. I have made, at intervals, 
several of these tools for differently conditioned 
lathes, and have found them extremely handy and 
satisfactory. «L H. St. 

ADJUSTABLE SLIDE-REST 
GRADUATION. 

[10642.1 — "F.R.A.S.'s" query about his slide-rest 
suggests that the plan of a graduated reader for the 
turntable, which I made for my own lathe some 
years ago, may be useful to him and others whose 
lathes were not originally first-rate. It has the 
great advantage of being adjustable, and if the 
absence of a division plate prevents the graduation 
being done at home, this reader can be ordered at no 
great cost on a drawing to scale, and fitted on very 
easily. This will be better understood from the 
drawing, which is arranged to show the way in which 
the scale can be turned up and graduated on the 
face-plate of the lathe, and also the mode of attach- 
ing it to the slide-rest. A is the face-plate of lathe 
to which a piece of wood has been screwed from the 
back and faced off true. B is the piece of stout 
sheet brass (it should be about Sin. thick), from 
which the scale is to be mode. This is first set as 
flat as possible with the hammer, and then drilled 
for the screws that are to hold it to the wood as 
shown. These holes must be deeply countersunk, 
so that the screw heads shall not come into collision 





the brass from the face-plate, which may, of course, 
be removed from the lathe. It is also well to drill 
the holes for the screws which are to fasten the plate 
to the rest, before sawiug out the piece. When this 
is done the piece may be carefully fixed in the vice 
with wooden clamps, and the edges finished up. A 
piece of wood centred to fit on the pin in the turn- 
table of the slide-rest, and turned up to exactly the 
same radius as the scale, will servo to adjust the 
plate on the rest for marking the holes which have to 
Iks drilled and tapped in the latter. Tho screws may 
be made with round prominent heads, which will be 
useful in protecting the scale from accidental blows. 
The holes in the plate may be a trifle larger than the 
blank part of the binding screws, to allow of adjust- 
ment if necessary. C is a plan view of the rest with 
reader attached, and shows the iudex in plan. D U 
nn enlarged and perspective view of the index. This 
is made of a thinner piece of sheet bras;, cut and bent 
to fit on to the circular part of the rest. The holes 
for the screws are oval , to allow of lateral adjustment, 
as shown by the right hand hole, without a screw in it. 
The screws in this case are put iu with small washers. 
A piece of brass is taken from the sheet out of which 
the scale was out fas it will then be the same thick- 
ness) and carefully fitted, so that it may be soldered 
to the thin plate to move round inside the arc of the 
graduated scale and flush with it. A fine line on 
this little tongue, E, will give a very close and 
accurate reading. In ray own case I have a second 
tongne and index, placed as far as possible to the 
right of the other, so that it may take up the read- 
ing when the first has run its 30° and passed off the 
scale. To adjust the principal index, tnrn up, 
between the centres, a piec6 of hard wood as long as 
the slide- rest will manage, and adjust experimentally 
until the result is a perfectly parallel cylinder, which 
Ulbest ascertained by callipers reading to '001 of an 
inch. When the cylinder is true, adjust the index 
to the zero of the scale. If tho graduation and the 
reading scratch on the tongue aro fine enough, a 
much closer reading may M secured than by an 
index reading on graduations cut on the slide- 
table itself. The second index can be adjusted from 
the first. D. H. G. 

ADJUSTING SLIDE-REST. 

[10613.]-The etrees laid by " B. P. A." (10523) 
on tho necessity of testing the axial continuity of 
tho poppet-head, both " in and out," at different 
distances from the mandrel headstock, and 
"F.R.A.S.'s" reference to this " in-and-out " test 
in connection with his own mandrel, at p. 659, in- 
duce me to point out that it can prove nothing 
whatever with regard to tho truth of the mandrel. 
It is most desirable that the poppet-head should be 
subjected to the "in-and-out" test at some one 
part of the lathe-bed ; but it tests nothing but itself, 
and the repetition of the test at any other distance 
can only prove that the lathe-bed is truo (10593). 
I cannot agree with " Treadles " as to the effect he 
describes being due to tho wear of the edge, pro- 
vided of course that the test is applied by a pro- 
perly shaped tool, properly adjusted. If these con- 
ditions are not regarded, it will account for almost 
any extraordinary phenomenon. I am quite ready 
to admit as an abstract proposition that the form 
of surface may be affected by the wear of the edge. 
But if this is to be even appreciable in paring off 
10 or 12 inches of cast iron (after it has been 
roughed), the necessary corollary is that, if a lathe 
is to turn out true work , it should be set out of truth . 
My own experience is, that with a tool properly 
Bhaped on the double-edged principle and properly 
adjusted, so that both edges may be at work at the 
same time, the difference of result arising from the 
tool being led inwards or outwards is absolutely in- 
appreciable. Any attempt to turn up a flush plate 
from the centre outwards is worthless as a test, be- 
cause a suitable surfacing tool cannot st-irt on its 
trip under fair conditions if it has to commence by 
being forced in at the flush centre like a drill. It 
may do bo with a bore bole to starf. from, but even 
then the diameter of this hole must be large enough 
lo suit the form of the tool if tho operation is to be 
accepted as a test. I am disposed to think that the 
effect described by "Treadles" is to bo looked for 
either in bad tools or good tools bndly applied, or in 
a want of firmness iu the slide-plat*, or the collar- 
plate which holds the leading screw in its place. 
When there is any slackness in these parts the mere 
act of setting the tool up to its work will not bring 
everything to a solid bearing, and the tool will 
gradually seek for this during tho progress of its 
work, more especially if it be not l>oth I or mod and 
applied on the truo double-edged principle. Tho 
qnestion is hardly worth tho space I have asked for 
it in its direct connection with the adjustment of 
mandrel or slide-rest, bnt it derivos considerable 
importance from directly involving tho principles 
relating to the form and adjustment of slide-rest 
tools D.H.G. 



with the turning tool when facing off the brass. 
After facing up, tho segment is cut out to the 
required radius, and the scale is graduated with fine 
lines. The outline of the required piece is then 
carefully scribed and sawn out without removing 



[10641.1— Will " F. R. A. S." excuse my saying 
that I fancy he will find the BITOT to be in the slide- 
rest not being square with the bed of the lathe, 
which he says is square (query parallel) with the 



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40 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE: No. 574. March 24, 1876. 



mandrel head-stock P "P. R. A. 8." can soon 
satisfy himself on this point, if, after taking a cat 
to the centre and finding the work dished (or conical 
towards the mandrel), be continues the cut past 
the centre (reversing the rotation of the lathe). If 
the fault is as I suggest he will by this means get a 
cone conical from the mandrel, or the reverse way. 

B. P. A.. 

HOOKS AND EYES FOB LATHE BANDS. 

[10046. J— It is worthy of note that Mr. T. 
Fletcher, F.C.8., and " D. H. G.," who have been 
writing as to overhead apparatus, agree as to the beet 
mode of putting op the hooks and eyes of gut bands 
— til, to file the gut taper so an to enter, then to 
apply grease, then to screw in, and then to sear 
with a hot wire the end just protruding through the 
screw. Here we have the agreement of two practical 
men oh a most important though small subject 
matter. B. P. A. 

GOUHMET AND GOURMAND. 
[10646. J— It seems to me a very odd thing that 
the word " gourmet," which, by the dictionary, 
means a connoisseur in wine, should be constantly 
used in some of the daily papers as meaning an 
excusable, if not estimable, kind of gourmand, 
which latter word, including, as it does, gluttony in 
ite signification, cannot pass without exciting a 
feeling of reprehension towards the person bo cha- 
racterised. I have for some time had a notion of 
collecting evidence of this circumstance. This very 
11th of March, in the Times, p. 11, under the 
heading of "Game Smuggling," the word gourmet 
underlined stares us in the face, and very unmie- 
takeably referring to eating and not to drinking, in 
an extract from the Globe. I have been long on the 
look-out for some such passage, for in many pre- 
vious instances, as, e.g., once where oysters were in 
question, it did not seem certain that the context 
might mot have enabled the writer to get away from 
tbe accusation of using a word of a foreign lan- 
guage without knowing its import. Years ago, 
eay about 1846-50, there was a shop for the sale of 
foreign wine in glasses, if I remember rightly, about 
the t>pot occupied now by tbe north corner of the 
Channg-cross Railway-station, on which, over the 
door, appeared in large letters, " Au Gourmet." I 
had then never met with the word, which I looked 
out in the dictionary on arriving at home, with the 
result named above. It is, perhaps, less odd that 
the mistake should have been made so often, as it 
is probably always by the same writer, than that it 
should have gone on so long without remark. 

J. K. P. 

SPELLING BY SOUND. 
(10647.1 — I B S* ft letter signed "E.Jones" on 
p. 612, in which he asks, " What is the use, tbe aim, 
the object of spelling, or the combination of letters 
into words ?" and so on ; and then answers his own 
question thus : " The intention of alphabetic writing 
is to indicate the sound or pronunciation of 
words." Now here I beg to join issue with him 
most distinctly. In a language like English, which 
is derived from a dozen or a score of sources, the 
" alphabetic writing " is intended to indicate 
primarily the signification of the words, and only 
secondly and subordinately tbe sound. I shall not 
go to tbe trouble of instancing examples, of which 
every page of tbe dictionary will exhibit some. 
And, as to sound, has not every county in England 
its peculiarities ? Adopt what spelling you will, 
you cannot hit thorn off, and who is to say which 
is the correct one? Are not also the unfortunate 
foreigners who are learning our tongue to be con- 
sidered? How could a newly -arrived importation 
from abroad recognise " fonetik ntis " to have any- 
thing to do with the last new thing out in literature, 
theatres, revolutions, or anything else, nntil he 
became aware that derivations are put out of the 
way altogether, and that written English must be 
studied, like arrow-head inscriptions or Chinese, as 
a thing of iteelf ? No doubt it is convenient to be 
able to sing Italian as it is written, and to read 
German in like manner ; but it should not be over- 
looked that the reason why German is pronounced as 
it is written is that it is a language of itself, and 
quite independent of foreign aid, and that until 
lately at least it was always proudly kept pare of 
foreign lingo, its own capabilities being such that 
any combination of ideas or words could be met by 
te equivalent in pure German. With English it is 
a totally different thing. It is hard enough in all 
conscience already for foreigners to master the pro- 
nunciation with the present spelling ; but alter that, 
and the language iteelf will be past comprehension to 
any but natives. Do not deprive tbem of their last 
chance of learning a language which is already 
spoken more generally than any other, and is sure 
to be the language of the future. If language was 
given to man to conceal his thoughts, that is no 
reason why he should so clothe his words as to 
render them unrecognisable. An intelligent foreigner 
would take " fonetik uiiz " to have some relation to 
nux vomica. 



I do not think much of E. Jones's syntax either 
when he shoves forward such a sentence as this, two- 
thirds down the middle column, p. 612 : — " Take 
the words ' chain,' 'sheep,' 'thing;' each of these 
letters (sic) are (sic) perfectly regular in their (sic) 
construction, and present (sic) no difficulty to 
learners." I might parody his succeeding sentence, 
and say that if all sentences were reduced to such 
types as this all grammar would be solved in 
confusion. 

Now, in conclusion, I wish to say, once for all, 
that I have said my say, and do not intend to be 
drawn into what is mildly called a controversy. 
What I have written may just bo taken at 
" quantum valeat." J. K. P. 



EXPRESS ENGINES— SPEED OP 
TRAINS. 

[10648.]— In reply to the concluding questions of 
" Express Driver's" letter (105S6, p. 639). I have 
worked out the heating surface of the tubes of a 
locomotive boiler, "225 tubes of ljin. diameter, 
lift. 9Jin. between tube plates." The answer is 
1,215^ square feet. Some of your correspondents 
frequently require to know the heating surfaoe of 
locomotive- tubes, and I think it will be useful to 
them to have tho following rule :— Diameter of 
tubes in inches and decimals x 31416 (for circum- 
ference), x length of tubes between tube plates is 
inches and decimals, x by number of tubes + 144, 
= area in feet and decimals." A* to tbe second 
question, " How many turns 4ft., 5ft., 6ft. 8Jin., 
I and 7ft. wheels make a mile?" I have worked out 
| the following table showing the number of revolu- 
' tions different sixes of railway wheels make per 
! mile : — 



Diameter of Wheel. 

3 feet 

4 feet 

5 f oet 

6 feet 

6 feet 8i inches 

7 feet 

8 feet 

March 7th. 



^Revolutions per Mile. 

560-22 

42016 

33613 

280-11 

25058 

24009 

21008 

C. E. 8. 



[10649.}— Iwcwwbd I beg to hand you the speed 
of two of our fastest trains — vix., the 11.45 a.m. 
express Paddington (Great Western), and the 10 
o'clock express King's Cross (Great Northern), as 
worked out from the time-book. I have only worked 
the latter's average to Newark, in order to corre- 
spond, as near as possible, with the Great Western. 
Next week I purpose giving the completion of both 
these trains — i.e., to Exeter and York, and also the 
actual working from observation : — 

Great Western. 

Miles. Stations. Arrive. Depart. Speed. 

... Paddington 11.45 ... 

'77i ... Swindon June. ... 1112 ... 1.22 ... 53 2758 

106} ... Bath ... 1.56 ... 1.58 ... 52 0588 

1181 ... Bristol ... 2.21 30 6521 



3)1359867 



45-3289 

per hour. Or, on taking out tho actual time 
stopped, time running 118fc miles = 156 minutes — 

(10 + 2) = 144 minutes ,\ average = — }- *— 

144 

=• 49*375 miles per hour. 

Great Northern. 
Stations. Arrive. Depart. 
King's Cross ... 
Peterborough ... 11.30 
Grantham ... 12.17 



Miles. 



Speed. 



76, 
105} 

120 ... Newark (pass) ... 12-41 .. 



10. 

11.35 
12.21 



50 8333 
41-4285 
44 25 



3)136 5118 



45-5039 

per hour. Or, on taking out the actual time 
stopped, time running 120 miles » 161 minutes — 

(5 + 4 min.) =» 152 minutes .'. average = — - * ?? 

152 

— 47 365 per hour .'. difference in speed = 49 375 
Great Western, and 47 365 Great Northern. Great 
Western exceeds Great Northern by 2 01 miles per 
hour. Ariel. 



[10650.]— I am very much surprised to see the 
statement of " Express Driver " (10556) with regard 
to tho weight on the G. N. B. bogies. Does he 
think that, because these engines are not designed 
and constructed by Midland meu, they are so 
absurdly weighted as to have 2 J tons on each bogie- 
wlieel ? If the G. N. men were a set of boiler smiths 
l and labourers, I would let it pa.«s, bnt as I have seen 
several of these splendid engines weighed, I beg to 
inform " Express Driver " that, instead of placing 
2J tons on the bogie-wheels, the leading pair had 



7 tons ; trailing pair, 8 tons ; driving wheels, IS 
tons ; trailing wheels, 8 teas 9 cwt ~ 38 toni 9cwt. 
Now, this looks very different. I also inform 
" Express Driver " that he is in error when saving 
that the G. N. engines left tbe metals so easily at 
Abbott's Bipton owing to the bogies. Now, as one 
of tbe engines was a 7ft. single-wheel engine, and 
there was hot one bogie engine (No. 48), Iain at a 
loss to see where the bogies were ; beside*, whatever 
Midland men may think, I know that it is a very 
generally understood thing among locomotive sum. 
neers that " bogie " engines are preferable to those 
with a single pair of wheels. Of course, if " Express 
Driver" and his coupled engine bad been running 
the unfortunate train in tho above instance, we 
should have seen " Narrow escape of the Scotch 
Express," and not " Terrible double collision on the 
G. N. B." The discussion on express engines has 
certainly been very instructive, but I can't see that 
it has been proved that coupled wheels wo prefer- 
able to single. I take the G. W. B., the G. N. £., 
and the Caledonian, where I know that single 
engines have done ijood service. The new single 
engines of the G. W. B. Co. are very fine— cylin- 
ders 18 x 24, driving wheels 7ft. But why it 
" Express Driver " so remarkably silent as regards 
the littlo accidents on his own road? For instance, in 
February last I remember the express at Derby 
walking off the road as coolly as possible, and cer- 
tainly not going 10 miles per hour. Then tberewai 
the Luton accident, again, and several others I saw 
at the beginning of the year. " Express Driver" 
must remember all these were engines with one fair 
of leading wheels. I suppose he thinks that the 
old ball and socket joints on the feed-pipes are pre- 
ferable, as I see the Midland are still partial to 
them. Will " Express Driver " kindly tell me how 
much water and coal the Midland tenders can boU ? 
I also observe in engines of one class that the blast- 
pipes are often 2in. above and sometimes as mach 
below tbe top row of tubes, and the pipes themselves 
vary in their diameters ; some are 4in., others 4Ji«., 
others 44;in. diameter. Now, as this is dene on the 
tho Midland, of course it is right, hut will " Express 
Driver" give us reasons for all these? I bat* 
known meu that have been scene-painters, goods' 
guards, ironmongers, and boiler smiths put on rail- 
ways in responsible posts. Most railway men that 
read our paper will have seen or heard of tbe sane 
thing. " Engine Drivers," Ac., tried before a set 
of shopkeepers and clerks as a jury, and railway 
companies fretting out of every scrape they get into 
with something like a caution from the learned and 
highly intelligent gentlemen of the jury — men that 
don't know a slide from a cylinder. 

John H. Chalmers. 



REVOLUTIONS OP WHEELS. 

[10651.}— In answer to " Express Driver," to find 
the number of revolutions In a mile made by a wheel 
of given diameter, since there are 5,280 feet in s 
mile tbe number of revolutions is found by dividing 
5,280 by the number expressing the circumference 
of the wheel in feet. But the circumference is to 
the diameter approximately as 22 to 7 — i.e., as 5,280 
to 1,680. Therefore the same result is obtained by 
dividing 1,680 by the number expressing the dia- 
meter of the wheel in feet. Thus the number of 

1C80 

revolutions made in a mile by an 8ft. wheal is —„ 
1080 

= 210, by a 6ft. 8in. wheel -jj = 252, 4«. G. 



STAYS FOR GENTLEMEN. 

[10652. |-lN answer to " J. K.'s " inquiry (letter 
10503, p. 611), I can give the results of 17 years 
experience of wearing stays without intermission. 
At the age of 14 I had the misfortune to contract I 
lateral curvature of the spine, for which I underwent 
a tedious course of treatment by a oe '? Dr ft*?^/?"5 
surgeon. I was duly tormented by being stretched 
for four hours daily upon a " lit mecanique,' with 
my ankles in padded stocks, iron cratches under 
my arms, my wrists strap red down to tbe *<™ S J'! 
my couch, my waist confined immoveably in a broad 
leathern belt, and even my head fixed to the pd»" 
by a complicated leathern bridle. Tbe spine was 
then straightened by the bed itself being gradually 
screwed out longitudinally ; but tbe aotusl pain 
endured by the proportionate pressure on the ankles, 
waist, and armpits was really very considerable. 
Before being released from the couch I was always 
supplied with an apparatus to maintain tbe spme 
in the position gained during the treatment. I"» 
consisted of a padded steel belt resting on tbe nip*, 
to which was attached a back-bar ana a CTOM "£. e " 
carrying crutches for the arms, the whole banw 
made to fit like a glove by means of straps an 
buckles. I was only relieved of this to be again ex- 
tended on the mechanical couch, and forto»iejJ> 
being of a strong constitution, I was able ^obear tnu 
severe treatment for the necessary six weeks during 
which it lasted, and at the end of which time W 
spine was certainly rendered as straight as a m • 
Hut the weakness of the back continued, and j£. 
Taveruier insisted upon my constantly wearmk 



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March 24, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 574. 



41 



mechanical stays, made very like ladies', but with 
perfect] j stiff busks both in front and at the back, 
•ad aUo at the sides. These were laced on closely, 
Wit not tightly, and after a year I was able to leave 
them off, and was then told to wear ordinary ladies' 
itay.4, strongly wbalel>oned ; and the comfort and 
tqpport I hare ever since derived from these hare 
orrer permitted me to discard litem. I have occa- 
uoaally tried doing so, and, altbongh my back is 
now quite strong again, I would sooner forego any 
comfort than my stays, which feel so intensely com- 
fortable and keep one so well together, besides cer 
taudy, to a great extent, prereu ting corpulence. ] 
generally get them in Paris, from a stay maker in 
Use Bee de la Paix ; but the last two pairs I bare had 
aide in London — one in the Tottenham Court-road, 
oo the left-baud side going up ; and the other by a 
rtaymaker near the Victoria Station. Both have 
toe new swanbill busks, which are more comfortable 
than the eld kind, and keep the figure very fiat, 
bare never found any difficulty in getting stays 
made to my measure, and I think the only difference 
between them and ladies' is the proportionately 
larger lite of the waist in men to the hips and 
cheat- I am 92 years old, nearly 6ft. high, and my 
Hte for stays is about 13in. depth in front, a little 
more behind, waist measure about 27in. or 28in., 
cbstt and hip measure 38in. or 40in. These may 
Mm for a guide to "J. K." Of coarse the stays 
isould nerer meet behind, to allow for the varying 
wsiit measure, which will be found to undergo a 
wonderful change at different times of the year and 
rader different states of health, ice. I hare often 
pulled myself in with the greatest comfort to 25in., 
ir.d as often had to change my stays for a larger 
pair, allowing of nearly 30in. , or even 31in. There 
is nt role, as " J. K." will find. As I wear a jersey 
both summer and winter, I generally wear my stays 
onr it ; but I know tome men who prefer wearing 
thra over the shirt, with a high waistcoat. I am pas- 
riooattly fond of tennis (real — not lawn), and, as I 
plat ia a flannel shirt and trousers, I naturally leave 
off stars during such violent exercise- 
As the subject may interest many readers, I trust 
tUs letter, notwithstanding its length, may be 
allowed to appear. Evelyn H. Stanley. 

P.S.— It would interest me greatly to know 
whether the treatment for spinal curvature in 
EjSgUsh orthopredic institutions in any way re- 
sembles what wa* applied to mo in Paris. It was 
certainly most effective ; and I don't suppose the 
tmp'.e Ijing-down process, as sometimes recom- 
mended, would bavo ever cured me. I have dis- 
tinctly felt, by the diminished pressure on my 
ankles and arms, the spine gradually returning to 
it* place ; and tbo lending screw, which produced 
the stretch, was often moved several threads during 
one operation. The most unpleasant part of the 
process was the manacling of the wrists : but this 
was quite necessary, as otherwise tbo pull on the 
crotches wonld have forced tho arms out laterally. 
Besides, the bracelets were very carefully lined with 
leather. The helpless feeling of restraint was, 
however, distressing at first. — E. H. 8. 



definiteness of chemical character; while progres- 
sive departures from these simplest conditions give 
multiple variations up to the limit of absolute simi- 
larity, with no ratio of combination whatever. 

This electro-law is universally paramount, seen to 
best advantage in the primary union of elements, 
but generally predominant with idic and ealtic 
forms of combinatiou. 

"A strong acid (most negative) and a strong 
base (most positive) form by their union neutral 
stable salts, which are not perceptibly decomposed 
by water, and are not modified by excess of base." — 
Bertholet. 

Herein is anticipated the contention of our 
greatest living authorities that atomicities " perse" 
must be gives np ! And these groups are only rela- 
tive or in relation with O, 01, aad the negative or 
acidifying elements. Chlorine is definitely raon- 
atomic with E, yet most normally quin- or septic ic 
with 0, &o. 

A good list of the elements is quite a thing of 
the future, and, did we respect a passing fashion, 
the oerite metals would have to be placed high up 
the series, with sulphur or gold, as tri-atomic, 
which they certainly are not ! 



Oxygen 
Chlorine 
Bromine 
Iodine 
V* Fluorine 
it Nitrogen 
Phosphorus 
Antimony 
Arsenic 
Vanadium 

Sulphur 
Selenium 
Tellurium 
Gold 
03 Chromium 



CIO7 
BrOj 

10; 
FQ, 
NOi 
P0-, 
SbOi 
AsOj 
V0& 



Uranium 
Aluminum 
_ Iridium 
Ruthenium 
Cobalt 
Thorium 



U2O, 

AljOj 

IrsO, 

RujO, 

Co.O, 

Th."0| 



S0 S 
8e0 3 
TeOs 
AuOs 
CrOj 

Molybdenum MoOj 



TRICYCLES FOB LADIES, OR LIGHT 
PLEASCBH CARRIAGES FOR AIR- 
INGS, &a. 

[106S3.}— Yod bad a hint in your paper of 3rd fast, 
v to the number of valuable suggestions which con- 
stantly appear for the benefit of tho " sterner " sex, 
aooVhallenging some consideration of the same kind 
for that of the " weaker." The remark struck me in 
r*eard to the rage just row for bicycles, and revived 
a thought I bare long'had in my own mind, which 
i» this— viz., could there not be devised and brought 
out into use, something to suit the hvly — not the 
mere aged or invalid— hut the ordinary one, who 
can walk but little, and would prise some means of 
out-door airing or of reaching longer distances 
than could otherwise be compassed, except at con- 
nderaNe cost and trouble. I am convinced that, 
were a "tricycle ladies' carriage," graceful and at- 
tractive in size, form, and de.-ign, light of wheel, 
saieand comfortable in seat, and as easy of pro- 
pahion from tahind as possible, brought out under 
share (at firet at least) of suita'-lo patronape, 
taocfsads and tons of thousands of Indies would 
hail and secure in time the use of the same, who 
Mw almost envy the "little ones" in the pcram- 
bslator, but w fao would never step into the Bath 
or invalid chair, ami thousands more who do, for 
want of something better. J. L. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS. 

^lOtti.}— B. Tebvet wishes fur an elcctro- 
»jrangemeot of the* elements. The following is 
offer*! ss an incipient approximation, giving groups. 
•- parallel lists ol oxide*, chlorides, bromides, 
ttdide*, and cyanid.s be compared, taking tho most 
"armsl types of combination, they will be found 
ronarkably identical in character; we therefore 
aUe«»as representative of the others. 

The ideas iuvolved are, that electro-remoteness 
P T * strength of union, simplicity of type, and 



Tungsten 
Bismuth 

Carbon 
Boron 
Silicinm 
Tin 

Titanium 
a© Mercury 
Zircon inm 
Palladium 
Platinum 
Niobium 
Tantalum 
$ AsOs AsCls 
) AuOj AnCe 3 
PtOj PtCe, 



Olncinnm G10 

Erbium ErO 

Didymiura DiO 

Lanthanum LaO 

Yttrium YO 

Cerium CeO 

Indinm InO 

Silver AgO 

Manganese MnO 

Nickel NiO 

Thallium TIO 

Lead PbO 

_ Cadmium CdO 

Hydrogen HO 

Copper CuO 

Iron FeO 

Zinc ZnO 

Magnesium MgO 

Calcium CaO 

Strontium SrO 

Barium BaO 

Lithium I.iO 

Sodium NaO 

Potassium KO + 

Aslj AsSj 
AuBr 3 Anlj AnF 3 AuSj AnCy 3 
PtPn s Ptl 2 PtF 2 PtSj PtCvj 



WOj 
BiOj 

CO, 
BoO, 
SO, 
SnOj 
TiO, 
HgO* 
ZjO, 
P.IO, 
PtO, 
NoO, 
TaO, 
AsBrs 



In the letters on " Constant Batteries " I have 
seen carbon-cutting referred to with feelings akin to 
dislike. This is not unnatural, but a travelling 
"plater," whom I accidentally encountered the 
other day, gave me a useful hint on the subject. He 
said it was a common thing, in " working " gas 
carbon, to make first a groove, and into this run a 
very little fluoric acid— when, according to him, an 
old rusty saw wonld go through " like steam." 
This statement must be accepted with the tradi- 
tional grain of NaCl, but still, on once more trying 
he unpleasant task, I found it a great assistance. 
Of course great care must be taken not to get the 
acid en the skin, for the sores which it produces 
display a deplorable want ef alacrity ia healing. 

Micro. 



li CojOjCojCej CojBrj C0-T3 
1 IGIO G1CI GIBr Gil GIF 
»K0 KC1 KBr KI KF 



Cn.-SjCojCy, 
G1S Glfy 
KS KCy 
Eclectioua. 



OXYGEN APPARATUS. 
[10655.]— I cannot say how Mr. Young (letter 
10585) arranges his portable oxygen apparatus, but 
I can inform Mr. Lancaster bow others have done 
the same thing. If your correspondent is still on 
the look-out for the some one with a few hours' time 
to devote to a method of producing oxygen in some 
simple way not yet discovered, as suggested by him 
some time ago, I fear he must look further yet. The 
apparatus I speak of consists of a retort with a small 
reservoir for the gas generated. As soon as this is 
full it affects the light applied to the retort, and no 
more gas is generated. When the supply is partly 
exhausted the fall of the stock of gas again turns 
up the light ; tans no more is made than is wanted, 
but as it is wanted. A. Pumphrey. 

OXY-HYDROGEN GA8. 

[1 0656.1 — Dobs " Uranium " Getter 10586) mean 
to suggest that when this compound gas is used it 
is one bag aud sent out in that way for use P If so, 
it strikes me as a novelty, for I always understood 
that the gases were sent out in two bags, and only 
allowed to mix in or near the burner just before 
ignition, and even then with all precautions in the 
shape of safety burners. B. P. A. 

CONSTANT BATTERIES— CUTTING 
CARBON. 

J10657- !— The letter of " Tostepbanus " (10577) 
might possibly convey the impression that I sailed' 
in the same boot with the gentleman who wrote of 
"horrid centimetres" — an honour whirh I do not 
de-ire. Lot me, therefore, remark that in my 
opinion, a* in that of " Iostephanus," a knowledge of 
the metrical system is simply indi-pensable to 
the scientific student. And why object to that of 
which the great merit is its extreme simplicity r 
Blessed with decimal weights and measure?, and a 
decimal (centigrade) thermometer scale, I, for one, 
long to have the handling also of a decimal coinage. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING A 
SMALL INDUCTION COIL.-II 
[10658.}— Wb will suppose that the secondary 
wire has been tested, and is found or made all 
right. Now, place the bobbin in the uprights, 
take one end of the wire and fasten it round 
the end of the coil, leaving 18in. out for con- 
nection ; this should be rolled round the wooden 
mandrel so as to keep it out of the way while 
winding. This should alway be started at the 
opposite end from where the primary begins and 
ends, or at the side marked B, Fig. 2, and should 
also finish at the end. Now commence and wind 
on the wire from B to A. This should be done as 
neatly as possible, eac'« layer close to the last so as 
to get as many turns from B to A as possible ; none 
of these should overlap, but should be like the 
thread on a bobbin as it comes from the winder. 
When you wind over to A you require to insulate this 
layer, which is done as follows : — Take the narrow 
slip of paper same as used for the primary, and 
cover with it over to B, return i towards A, then 
back to B and finish here, fastening the end of the 
paper with varnish. This gives two thicknesses 
of paper at one end where insulation is least required, 
and six thicknesses where there is most danger, as 
the difference of tension is greatest at this end ; 
now wind the next layer of wire over to B, in- 
sulate as before, but this time commencing at B» 
and finishing at A, with six thicknesses as before, 
thus giving the greatest thickness at each end 
alternately, and just when required. Great care 
should be used always when approaching the end 
with the wire, and eaeh layer should be made a 
little shorter than the hast, to prevent any possibility 
of the one layer touching the last, as this would 
cause the wire to pass across where the two layers 
touched, and thus the whole effect of these would 
be lost, and would be worse than useless. Continue 
winding the wire and insulating each layer carefully, 
as explained, until it is all used. You should finish 
winding at end marked B, so as to have both ends of 
secondary at one end of coil. Now wind half 
dozen or more layers of paper on top of the wire 
as before, going right across with each layer ; then 
get a large earthenware dish like a jelly pot ; this 
should be 4iu. deep and 3 across ; fill it half full of 
paraffin wax, and melt this in boiling water, same 
as you would melt gluo. In fact a glue-pot, that is, 
the outer vessel, answers well for this purpose. You 
should now dry your coil thoroughly before the fire 
until you can scarcely hold it in your hand ; this 
should be done slowly so as to allow the heat to get 
quite through. Now stand the coil on one end 
amongst the paraffin, and allow it to stay there for 
an hour; then turn it upside down to allow the 
other end to get the same time in the paraffin, which 
must be kept quite hot all the time ; allow the coil 
now to cool down, aud when nearly cold take a 
brush and dip it in the melted paraffin, and allow 
the paraffin to rnn off the brush into the spaces at 
the coil ends between each layer of wire. This 
should be done very carefully, so as to prevent any 
chance of contact taking place between the different 
layers, and if properly done will make the coil 
quite water-proof. The coil is now ready for 
mounting. You must now turn, or got turned, two- 
ends for the coil, about 4in. in diameter and jiu. 
thick, with a nice round i bead on middle of edge, 
in one of the ends whilo it is chucked in the lathe, 
which can be done best with black pitch on a wooden 
chuok ; put a hole through tho centre lin. diameter, 
then when tho one side of the end is fini^heil, which 
can be done by hollowing it out a little from the 
centre to the edge, leaving these thickest, take it off 
the chuck and cluck it on another one made to fit into 
the lin. hole in the centre, turning the other side 
out— that is, the side that was on the chuck lost ; 
now clean off the pitch aud at the same time widen 
tbo hole in the centre for Jin. in until it fits the 
paper tube the coil is bnili on. The other end is 
done in the same way. but the bole through the 
centre is to be jin., widoning the other side to fit 
the tube, Jin. This should be made of mahogany, 
or some fancy wood. Noxt get n piece of brass 
tube lin. by 7in. ; this is for the regulator, for use 
when using the coil for medical purposes, and will 
regulate the power with the greatest nicety. To pre- 
pare this, chuck it in tho lath", or get it done ; first 
use a rough file, then a smooth one, and finish with 
emery cloth, true the ends, and thin one from the 



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42 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 574. 



March 24, 1S76. 



inside ; this caa be done with cutting-off tool, then 
take a round nosed burninher — as used for burnish* 
ing in the lathe, and by pressing against the inside 
of tubo where thinned at the extreme end the tube 
will become wider there, and should be made to fit 
inside of the coil-tube just neat. This will allow 
it to slide freely through the wooden end of coil, all 
but the part where widened : next tin the other end of 
the brass tube inside about \m . take a piece of No. 
16 wire (brass or copper will do), and solder it round 
the inside of tube. Now put the tnbe back iu the 
lathe, finish off nicely with emery and lacquer while 
hot, next get a glass kuob — these hare a screw on 
them and should fit into the end of tube where wire 
is soldered — cut or grind a piece of the end of 
screw until it U barely iin. long, then put the 
brass tube through the coil-end, keeping the widened 
end to the inside, put tho glass knob in place and 
hold tho tnbe in a vertical position, then pour a 
little plastor of Paris, made pretty thin, from the 
wide end of tube, keep it quite steady for a few 
minutes until the plaster sets. This makes a nice 
finish for the regulator. Tele Lineman. 



RADIOMETERS. 

[10639.1 — At present I do not propose to say much 
more on the radiometer till I have had more time 
to experiment, and have read up on the subject, nave 
to say that in mv letter (10321) I truly described 
what I did, and all that I did, and that I used the 
term light (describing it as produced by a lamp) in 
its ordinary cerise, and with all its ordinary attributes 
—viz., light coupled with heat. The Rev. H. C. Key 
will see from my letter (10582) that I have shown 
that heat without light will make the instrument 
rotate. I must however add that since I wrote 
(10582) I have again tried the experiment with snrno 
results as before. In addition, howover, I tried the 
effect of bringing a lighted vesta near the radio- 
meter after it had been started by heat alone. The 
result was a much increased celerity of rotation. 
I cannot think that the heat was sensibly increased 
by the wax vesta, and I am at present drivon to the 
conclusion : 1, That both heat alone and light alone 
will cause rotation. (I say light alone on the 
authority of Mr. Crookes' experiments, as detailed in 
Daily Telegraph, of 30th April, 1875, in the following 
passage :— " And this effect is very little altered if 
an alum plate be interposed so that no heat-rays 
pass along with tho light"); and 2, that though 
heat alone will cause rotation, still that the addition 
of light, without sensibly increasing the heat, will 
cause a much quicker rotation. See also Times, 14th 
Feb., 1876. B. P. A. 

[10660.]-" B. P. A." (10619, p. 14) has com- 
mitted a common error in supposing that the closing 
of air-inlets to a Kunsen burner reduces the beat. 
If he had tested the radiated heat by a sensitive 
thermometer ho would have found that it is very 
considerably increased, quite sufficiently to account 
for its different action on the radiometer. The 
total amount of beut given by the burner is the 
same, whatever the conditions. With the same gas 
supply iU character aad value for certain specific 
work may be varied, but its quantity cannot be 
altered except by preventing perfect combustion 
and sending off unconsuniod carbon. 

Thomas Fletcher. 



[10661.1— The following notes of some experi- 
ments I have recently mode will perhaps interest 
those of your readers who possess a radiometer, or 
who, without the instrument, are speculating as to 
the cause of its action. 

Experiment 1.— Tuesday night, March 7, 1876; 
time, 9 p.m. Temperature of laboratory, 50' F. ; 
temperature of open air, 38' F. Removed the 
radiometer from tho laboratory to tho open air. 
Result : Rapid reverse revolution. 

Experiment 2. — Thursday morning, March 9; 
time, 10.30 a.m. Temperature of laboratory, 54° ; 
open air, 39'. Removed the radiometer from tho 
laboratory to a dark chamber, placed two hours 
previously under a N. wall, and receiving the full 
radiation! from N. and N.W. sky. Result: Ex- 
ceedingly slow reverse revolution. Admitted the 
light of the N.W. sky for one second. Remit: 
Instant direct revolution. Repeated the experiment 
several times with tho same result. 

Experiment 3.— Sunday, March 12 : time, 10.45 
a.m. Snow falling rapidly and heavily. Buried 
the radiometer, under a N. wall, in a mass of 
melting snow, leaving- a very small hole at the top 
as a means of observing tho discs. Result : Rapid 
and continuous dirrcl revolution. 

Experiment 4. — March 12; time. 0.30 p.m., 
nearly dark. Again buried the radiometer in melt- 
ing snow, leaving a small hole, as iv the morning's 
experiment. Result: Slow reverse revolution. 

Experiment 5.— Covered the instrument entirely, 
and left it for live minutes ; then removed a portion 
of the snow with a spoon previously cooled in the 
melting i>now. Result : Found that the vanes were 
absolutely still. 



Questions. — What caused the reverse motion iii 
Experiment 1 f What the direct motion on admit- 
ting a gleam of light in Experiment 2? Why did 
the vanes revolve so rapidly and persistently as in 
Experiment 3? 

Why did not the results of Experiments 4 and 5 
agree with those of Experiment 3, since all the 
conditions were the same, excepting the intensity 
of the diffused light ? 

Do Experiments 3, 4, 5 tend to establish that 
both light and heat are competent to produce 
motion of the vanes in tho radiometer P 

Q. H. With. 

PETROLEUM STOVES. 

[10662.1— If *' Ariel" Getter 10575) will kindly 
answer the following queries, some practical good 
may accrue to an unfortunate possessor of a four- 
burner stovo:— No. 1. Did you ever cook a fruit 
tart successfully ? If so, how many hours did it take? 

2. Have you cooked, say, in fifteen minutes, a chop ? 

3. Have you ever cooked a niece of moat weighing 
more than half a pound ? If so, what weight, as 
much as four pounds, and how long n time did it 
taker I fear to ask if you ever cooked a piece of 
pork, as by ray experience this is a joint that 
necessitates lighting the stove before retiring to 
rest the previous night for any chance of its being 
properly cooked by dinner time next day. How do 
you get rid of tho dense steam, blowing off all tho 
time the stove is tryiug to cook, which makes one 
feel a heavy wash is going on ? I havo given my 
stove every trial ; the wicks aro properly trimmed, 
and though the heat is great from four burners 
I get nothing cooked — the outside is burnt, the in- 
side quite undressed, a fruit tart comes out unbaked, 
with tho fruit itself burnt to cinder and tho dish 
spoilt. If your stovo only cooks a chop it is an 
expensive outlay of 50s. ; mine cost £h, which is a 
greater useless outlay, if I can even do what yon 
have only as yet done, as fur as I follow your 
letter. I bought my stove from seeing an advertise- 
ment where it was stated vegetable*, fish, and a 
moderate-sized joint of meat could be properly 
cooked in almut the same timo as by a coal tire. My 
experience leads me to think nothing nearer u 
dinner for six is offered than one chop at a time, 
and I am disappointed at the same ratio as my 
dinner is reduced. My imagination led me to believe 
a nice joint of meat, at least, four pounds, two 
kinds of vegetables, aud a fruit tart could be offered 
as a solace against the outlay of five pounds. All I 
get is a complicated apparatus that does not cook 
me a chop, and is as magical in its non-cooking 
powers as some legerdermain contrivances are in 
turning out hot pudding, &c. I believe I am your 
Job, having written some timo back and received 
but slight consolation. Nap. 



[10663.1 — I WA8 unable in my former letter 
(10575, p. 662) to say all I wished to " C. H. R.V.," 
but now proceed to answer his query fully. From 
his description I think his stovo is a cooker, as I 
never heard of any other kind with so broad a 
wick, and I think he must have been using it to 
heat a room, as he complains of the smell. Now, 
these stoves, being intended for cooking, are cut 
down very low, to allow the kettle, or other utensil, 
to approach very near to tho flame, so that there 
is no room for a chimney or other means to make 
the combustion perfect. This, as most people are 
aware, is accomplished by causing a current of air 
to irapivge against tho flame, which current is 
generated by a chimney, or some substitute. The 
substitute in these cooking stoves is the bronzed 
cylinder and utensil used for cooking. The latter, 
by partially closing the orifice at top, and by dis- 
placing a portion of air iu the cylinder (which fits on 
top of burners), causes a quicker draught, as can easily 
be understood by those who have one of the stoves. 
But when the kettle is not on top of the cooker, 
there is nothing to produce the draught sufficient to 
cause the perfect combustion before described. A nd 
consequently the imperfectly burnt oil smells dis- 
agreeably. Another cause of smell and smoke is, 
that some people get the wicks above the slotted 
domes which are placed over the burners ; this must 
never be allowed, as these domes play the most im- 
portant pari in Oanting the impingement of tho air 
ngainst the flame, which, as I before said, is the way 
in which perfect combustion is produced, and these 
domes cnu only fulfil their office when the wick is 
below thom. Care should, thereforo, be taken that 
the wick is below these domes, and a little, say a 
sixteenth of an iuch, above tho flat tubes containing 
tho wick. If the explanation offered in my first 
does not account for the stove smelling, I think one 
of those enumerate 1 above will do so. I would also 
bring before the readers of "ours," who use 
petroleum lamps, the very great importance 
attaching to a perfectly dry wick— i.e., one that 
has been deprived of all moisture by being placed 
in an oven or some such hot [dace, before being 
used the fir.t thus. The wic'.:, while lying by, 
absorbs moist ire from the atmosphere, which, if 
not driven out a* above, prevents the free flow of tho 



oil to the flame, which results from unopposed capil- 
lary attraction. After tho wick has once been 
soaked in the petroleum, the oil prevents the absorp- 
tion of any moisture. A lamp is often accused 
of being badly constructed, and condemned as a 
nuisance, simply on account of the wick not having 
been dried. To the uninitiated it may seem a very 
small matter, but I can state from personal expe- 
rience that the result of doing it is wonderful, in fact 
it makes all the difference between a lamp, whether 
used as a stovo or alight, burning satisfactorily and 
unsatisfactorily. 

Petroleum stoves ! I have written your praise — I 
havo defended you from your detractors, I have en- 
deavoured to instruct the tyro in your use. Desir- 
able though you be to warm a bedroom on a cold 
night, useful and expedient to cook a chop or boil an 
egg, still I must be honest, and , comfortably settled 
with heels on the mantel and a weed for a com- 
panion, I cannot help exclaiming, " Grate-ful(l) fire, 
with all thy faults I lovo thoe still." Ariel. 



HARMONIUM REEDS— A CAUTION. 

| .10664. J— I am much obliged to " W. N-— L." fp. 
18, reply 25140) for the information concerning the 
" broad bent reeds voiced and tuned." I did not 
know what they were like — now I can guess. It may 
be as well, however, if I say to those who aro build- 
ing or intend to build harmoniums, that if they use 
the scales aud sizes of apertures given here and 
there by me, with " broad bent reeds voiced and 
tuned," they will probably be disappointed in the 
result. They will, on the contrary, be quite safe if 
they buy ordinary reeds. I do not believe it to be 
possible to '"voice and tnno " reeds properly until 
they are on the pan ; doubtless, a skilled workman 
can make them somewhere near, but " somewhere " 
is enough to make an amateur beware. It stands 
to reason, too, that a large reed will require a 
greater volume of wind, i.e., larger inlet and outlet 
than ordinary reeds, and if more loudness is wanted, 
probably enlarging the pallet holes will give as much 
as is worth having. The bent reeds in harmouiums 
are, I believe, thicker than the ordinary ones, and 
require mora pressure. I am glad to see the 
" Skeleton " on p. 17. Now jour readers, " Arizona" 
and others, ecu work away. By tho way, amongst 
your many musical amatours who are workers in 
metal, is there one who has tried to make steel roeds ? 
I do not suppose tho qnality of the tone would bo 
better, but I think it possible that greater pressure 
might be used without the roods giving, and they 
could be easily voiced by softcuiug the tips. 

Saul Hymen. 



CLARIONET v. FLUTE. 

fl0665.~ — Your correspondent, Frederick Carre 
(10571), is by no means tho only person I have met 
with who has mistaken tho oboe for its great uncle, 
the bassoon ; they both, indeed, l>elong to the same 
family of instruments, being played with a double 
reed. There is. however, a still larger instrument than 
tho latter — viz., tho oontra-bassoon. which is 
afflicted with a still more " awfully bad cold in its 
head ;" between the bassoon and oboe are two other 
instruments, the alto-bassoon (which I don't know 
anything about), and the cor-anglais, the latter 
bearing much the same relation to tho oboe as the 
viola to the violin. Tho oboe itself is a straight 
wooden instrument like tho clarionet, but conical in 
tho bore, and rather under two feet in length ; tho 
compass is from middle B (or B flat in some), to 
about G in alt. ; I could never myself get comfort- 
ably above F. iu nit., which, iudeed, is quite high 
enough for all practical purposes. 

As regards the choico between clarionet and 
flute, in my caso there would bo no hisitation at all, 
but should at once select the former ; and although, 
perhaps, I have no business to reply to n question 
addressed to J. C. Darker, yet I am sure that gen- 
tleman will coincide with mo in demurring to the 
statement that, "even with a tolerably skilful player, 
the tone is inevitably nasal." 

Being an ardent lover of the orchestra, among 
other things I havo paid great attention to the pecu- 
liarities of wind instruments, and have always 
thought that the clarionet carried the palm from all 
others. The only thing against its use in a room, 
being the slight noise of rushing wind, often apparent 
with the tone to a person standing close by ; this is 
absent in tho oboe. O. 



SWIMMING. 

[106CG 1— I should like to make a few remarks 
on the subject of swimming, particularly in reference 
to the opinions of " C. S .," which, I think, are 
calculated to mislead people. I do not think that 
we have any evidenco that it is easier to swim in 
deep than in shallow water. In saying this I leave 
learning to swim ont of the question altogether. 
From a long experience of swimming in depths from 
15 fathoms to as many inches, I am of opinion that 
there is not tho slightest difference pcroeptible 
between swimming in deep and in shallow water. I 
always found it a> easy to swim in water where my 



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March 24, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE: No. 574. 



43 



hiod< or feet could touch the bottom as out at sea. 
-C. S. " in his last letter (March 10, p. 662) as in 
t former one, offers the suggestion that bodies float- 
is! in deep water are not so much affected by gravi- 
totion si those in shallow water, as a reason that it 
it easier to swim in the deep water. Does your 
ewrwpondent mean to say that a body a milo out at 
tea is farther from the centre of gravity of the 
Mrth than a similar body close to shore at the same 
instant, and supposing the height of the tidal ware 
t» be the same at both places P I confess I cannot 
nwJentsDC his arguments, but state my firm belief 
that s body floating in deep water displaces exactly 
Of same amount as the same body in shallow water 
of isse density. The only cause that would render 
i body more buoyant in water would be the presence 
in it of some solid matter, suoh as salt in solution, 
of wbieh the Black Sea and Dead Sea are instances . 

Bingfad. 

WATCHMAKING— To " Maturaliaed." 

10667. j— I quits agree with your correspondent, 
"S'stonlised," that the principle adopted by the 
Wsltham Company— the going barrel— is the best one 
for the production of a good, sound, cheap watch, 
ui I sm satisfied that it could be applied with 
neoeu in tbi* country. At the same time I may 
•tears that it would be by no means such an easy 
Batter ss some persons, unacquainted with the 
vateb trade of Eogland, might think it to be. 

It is quite true, as your correspondent observes, 
that prejudice runs high in the trade against the 
iJopuon of the principle in this country, and so 
tfUj conservative are the workmen — of course I do 
tot refer to their politics (so also are the factors, or 
merchants, and the retailers)— that I am satisfied 
(hat if a manufacturer determined to adopt the 
principle, be would hare to produce most of the 
nukral* himself, and , following the example of our 
wlsfcle Prime Minister, " educate a party of work- 
ma op to the question. 

Xow this, it is perfectly clear, would require that 
i man should be possessed of not only an extensive 
knowledge of the trade but a considerable capital, 
tails. mot correspondent intimates, plenty of 
English plnck. I am afraid few manufacturers could 
W found possessing all these requisites ; but, given 
that conditions, I firmly believe that a thorough 
fooi time-keeper, in a strong hall-marked case, could 
W produced at a price that would place it within the 
nach of thousands of the people, who are now unable 
b procure a sound reliable watch. 

It will, perhaps, bo a source of satisfaction to 
'Naturalised " to learn that I am informed, on 
, pod authority, that a manufacturer of some emi- 
"tte in England has alreadly erected a large 
factory, in the Midlands, where he is engaged in the 
projection of a watch of a somewhat similar charac- 
ter to the Waltham — of a quality and at a price that, 
vom I am very mnch deceived, will cause a revolu- 
tion in the watch trade of England. W. H. B. 



It is also easily cooked, and is very digestible ; it is 
probably more easily assimilated than any vegetable, 
and there is a much more rapid metamorphosis of 
tissue in carnivorous animals than iu vegetable 
feeders. J. Pooock. 

Erratum.— Overhead Gear for Lathes.— In let. 
10633, p. 16, the word " other " in line 16 should be 
hither. 



REPLIES TO QUERIES. 

In their answers. Correspondents are re- 
rpectfully requested to mention, in each instance, 
the Mle and number of the query asked. 



DEAR MEAT— CHEAPER POOD. 
[10668. J— It appears quite useless to quote any 
vrittr, however good an authority he may be con- 
wiered on the subject of the analysis of food, as, if 
Sr^ RiehardVon's statement is correct, even the 
bat authorities seem to contradict each other. Mr. 
mchirdton sayB that Dr. Parry states that beans, 
P^i and lentils contain about one-third more 



"trt»en than meat. Now, Dr. Carpenter, taking 
tie nitrogen in human milk as 100, gives the fol- 
*rin|J a» the proportion present in the articles 



»am«l:-Eice.81; wheat, 119— 144 ; brown bread, 
I«;peaa, 239; beans, 320 j boiled mutton, 852; 
™*A beef, 912. This shows the proportion of 
■atrorrn in beef to be nearly six times the quantity 
J™*a>t in bread. Again, Dr. Parkes, in his 
metiesi Hygiene," given the following table :— 



Water. Nitrogen. Carbon. 



328 


. 10 35 . 


. 64 


236 


. 19 


. 1177 


175 . 


.. 5 05 . 


. 119 


65 6 . 


. 8 07 . 


. 172 


59 


. 7 


. 176 


65 6 . 


. 15 


. 161 


13 . 




. 187 


324 


.' 1 


. 49 



Salts. 
7 
13 
56 
13 
6 
10 
2 
•4-4 



Bmd . 

Kiue 
fta. ... 
Sorar 
P«tatoei 

The above shows the weight in grains of each con- 
otattt man ounce ef the substance. Here, again, 

Slw ■ ** m lB *P°*" com 6 some distance behind 
J* ««f in the quantity of nitrogen they contain. 
*f»arM there is a great deal to be looked at in the 
of food besides its chemical composition, a 
P*| «e»l depending on the digestibility of the par- 
■Jg article, and also on the digestion of the 
Mindo»l. It u rUo m we n. known fftct that> if an 

Uus *J be fed entirely on one kind of food, how- 
J7J «« the nutritive value of that food, it may 
«" «* of starvation, owing to its disgust of such 
«« preventing its proper digestion. With regard 
wtbeadrantages of meat, Dr. Parkes says : " The 
jl^C** °f meat as a diet are— its large amount 
* Brtrogenous substance, the union of this with 
■»» 1st, the presence of important salts and iron. 



.]— ChangingFage Numbers of Account 
Rooks (U.Q.).— Have the books cheaply bound, 
and leave the paging in — it will be no detriment. I 
do not think the price you would obtain would 
admit of a good binding being put on. The only, 
and a very simple, way of doing away with the 
paging is to have it cut off during the re-binding : 
but this would spoil the heading if the books are 
ledcer, journal, or cash-book. You could erase with 
a knife, though it would disfigure the books, and 
almost take more time to do than the paper is 
worth.— Relieub. 

[24710.]— Atr-Pump (U.Q.).— You have not 
stated in query what your cylinder is made of, hence 
one cannot answer. Write again with particulars 
respecting cylinder, whether brass tubing, glass, or 
any other material.— W. J. Lancaster. 

[24899.] -Microscopic (U.Q.).— The heliopelta 
is procured from Bermuda infusorial earth, and 
the arachnoidiscus is found attached to a seaweed 
used in Japan for the manufacture of soup. It may 
also be obtained from guano. "C. D. E." will 
have no difficulty in getting a small sample of 
guano, but the onlv persons from whom the in- 
fusorial earth could be obtained would be the 
professional object-mounters, who would hardly care 
to part with the source from whence they obtain the 
beautiful specimens which they offer for sale at so 
small a cost. With a slide of each diatom, mounted 
without balsam, the one for use with spot-lens or 
parabolic illuminator, and the other as an opaque 
object, with silver-side reflector or condenser, 
" C. D. E." can learn, without much trouble, all he 
can wish of such lovely objects, which, being things 
of beauty, are "a joy for ever." — H. T. R. 

[24928.]— Lacquer (U.Q.).— The following arc. 
good varnishes:— 1. For gold: Alcohol, 1 gallon; 
turmeric, 41b. ; macerate for a week, then filter, and 
odd 2oa. gamboge, Ooz. shellac, ljlb. gum saudarach, 
dissolve in warm bath, and add lqt. of common 
turpentine varnish. For red lacquer nso 1 Jib. 
an not t a instead of the turmeric, and 80s. of dragon's 
blood instead of the gamboge. 2. Pale: Alcohol, 
80s. ; turmeric, 4drs. ; dragon's blood. 4scrs. ; red 
Banders, lscr. ; hay saffron, 2scra. ; shellac, lor. ; 
gum aandarach, 2drs. ; gum mastic, 2drs. ; Canada 
balsam, 2drs. : dissolve, and add l.)dr. of spirits of 
turpentine. Some of these ingredients may be dis- 
pensed with. 3. The following is an excellent 
lacquer for brass :— Seed lac, 12os. ; copal, 4oz. ; 
dragon's blood, 80grs. ; extract of red sandal wood, 
50grs. ; saffron, 70grs. ; pounded glass, Jib. : spirits 
of wine, 2qts. This is very durable.— Rob Rot. 

[24926.]— Lacquers (U.Q.).— I have the follow- 
ing on good authority. Pale lacquer :— One gallon 
methylated spirits of wine, 60s. of shellac, 4oz. of 
gum sandarach, and los. of gum elemi, mix in a tin 
flask and expose to a gentle heat for a day or two, 
then strain off and add half gallon of spirit to the 
sediment and treat as before. Pale gold lacquer :— 
Ono gallon methylated spirits of wine, lOoz. of seed 
lac bruised, and \oz. of red sandera ; dissolve and 
strain.— John. 

[24933.]— Blacking Mill.— Would "Ignoramus" 
oblige by stating the number of revolutions the 
cylinder in the blacking mill revolves per minute ?— 
Shifting Clack. 

[24918.]— Limelight.— Will "Large Bore Jet" 
state exact size of pencil he could get into jet used 
at Polytechnic ? It must, indeed, be smaller than any 
I have yet seen. I use an ordinary size jet, ana, 
with 2cwt. on gas bags, have brilliantly illuminated 
a disc 27ft. in diameter. The lanterns have SJin. 
condensers, size picture used, 3in. circle, and 
lanterns standing about 70ft. or 72ft. from screen. 
The jets at Polytechnic I saw 3 years since, I should 
think, were a smaller bore than any pencil could enter. 
I should like Mr. Lancaster's opinion about the 
gas-bag explosion at Newcastle. My bumble expe- 
rience is that such an event could not be caused by 
concussion, even supposing that oxygen and 
hydrogen were mixed in the one bag, although 
'• Uranium," p. 66-4, says it Is generally known.— 
Fbed. Fishsb. 

[24955.] — Triple Objecot-glaases. — When I 
wrote I had not seen the following. It is from " A 
Treatise on Practical Astronomy, by the Rev. S. 
Vince, A.M., F.R.S. " dated 1790, p. 187. Speaking 
of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, he says:— 
" The telescopes proper for making these obser- 
vations are common refracting ones, from 15ft. to 
20ft., reflecting ones of 18in. or 2ft., or the 46in. 
achromatic with three object-glasses, which were 
first made by Mr. Dolload."— Subvetob, No 2. 



[24998.]— Leather Oaa Bag (U.Q.).— Leather 
would not answer for gas bags unless specially 
prepared, and then would not be so good, beside 
extra cost in making up. — W. J. Lanca btkb. 

[25003-3 — Astatic Galvanometer. — For the 
information of " Woodhall Spa," and others. I 
should like to state that I recently constructed a 
reflecting galvanometer with a set of interchange- 
able coils, one of which is of No. 24 copper wire, 
covered with cotton per se, and when used with 
Wheatstone's bridge it will readily detect a differ- 
ence of '0001 Ohm in the resistance of branches. 
Of course, silk insulates better than cotton, and 
takes up less room ; but the latter answers very 
well, except for currents of high tension.— J. B., 
Belfast. 

[26005.]— Lead of Valve.— I am much obliged 
to " Aqua " for his reply to my query. Moles worth 
gives (seventeenth edition) the fermula I referred to 
twice over in his " Pocket Book " — once for the 
locomotive, and again for engines in general— see 
pp. 254 and 276. The formula takes no account of 
the speed of engine. I should be glad if "Aqua" 
would give me a rule for finding the lead for various 
speeds.— McD. 

[26046.] — Incrustation of Boilers. — The 
writer's chief object in resuscitating this question 
was not so much the verification of the fact that 
potatoes closely met the want, but, as the Editor 
remarked, "is not that a waste of potatoes?" It 
would be well if some of our friends were to try if 
bran, sawdust, chaff, and any other like substances, 
having an affinity for lime, would not fulfil the same 
purpose. — Manus. 

[25050.1— Fixing Colour on Book Edges. — 
Equal quantities of white of egg and water mixed 
up with the colour to about the thickness of cream ; 
rub on the book edge with a piece of cotton-wool ; 
when dry there will be no difficulty in burnishing. — 
Relibub. • 

[25093.]-Ajtifloial Horison.— " F. R. A. S.,' 
please notice. I have just beard of the following 
artificial horizon, which " S. P. E. C." might try: — 
Obtain from a sextant-maker a square of perfectly 
true glass. Ask for a " horizon glass " for sextant, 
which will cost from 2s. to 4s., and be as perfect as 
those in your sextant. This is to be levelled to act 
as your reflecting horizon— a task which is not im- 

Eossiblc but simple. Cut a square bole in a disc of 
ard wood, and let the glass in firmlv. Choose a 
firm place for fixing it, and construct some arrange- 
ment with three screws (or three wedges might do) 
for levelling the disc containing the plate. Leave 
room underneath to insert a trough of mercury t the 
surface of mercury to be as close to glass as possible, 
and protect mercury from wind when in place. 
Level tho plate approximately, and on looking into 
it two reflections of any object sufficiently elevated 
will be seen close together, one from the mercury 
and one from the glass. When these two are made 
to coincide, the object observed being sufficiently 
distant for the rays from it to be parallel, the plate 
is absolutely level. Fix by a terrestrial object first 
a finish off on a bright star towards the zenith. 
The mercury may now bo removed, and the plate, if 
firmly fixed, used alone, testing occasionally with 
the mercury. Make a cover for it when not in use. 
to avoid touching it often for cleaning. I should 
like " F. R. A. S.'s " opinion on this. It seems as if 
it would bo quite accurate enough for sextant 
observation, the glass being of the same quality as 
those of tho sextant, and the means of levelling 
simple and efficient. If the glass had any curvature 
the reflection of tho star from one part of it would 
coincide with the mercurial reflection, and from 
another part it would not. I hare no sextant, or I 
should put it to the teat.— Outdo. 

[25112.]— Imperishable Letters. — Presuming 
that the letters are cut in tho marble in the usual 
way, drill two or three small holes as in sketch, 
as shown by the dots, about 
4in deep, then get chips of 
lead, and holding them in 
the quirk of the letter with 
one hand you beat them in 
with a mallet made for the 
purpose, and when the 
letter is well filled, rub the face down with frit-stone. 
The holes are for the purpose of a key to hold the 
lead. Price in the trade is 6d. per letter.— Mason. 

[25112.1 — Imperishable Letters. — First cut 
them in the ordinary way. then in each letter drill 
three or four holes in such a way that when filled 
with lead it will form a kind of dovetail. Care 
must be taken not to drill under any part of the 
marble that has been weakened by cutting. It is 
best to use a fiddle-drill as the ordinary brace is too 
heavy. When you have finished cutting and 
drilling get a piece of stone. 9in. x Sin. x lin., 
and sink the middle of one of the faces r«iu., and a 
little wider than is sufficient to cover your letters. 
Drill several holes through the stone and lay it on 
the lettering with its sunken face next the marble. 
By pouring lead through these holes the letters will 
be filled and the surrounding marble covered to the 
same depth as the sinking in the stone. Next take 
a very small hammer and lightly tap the lead to 
make it firm, and removo all that is superfluous with 
a mallet and carpenter's chisel. The lettering 
must then be well rubbed with Darlaston stone, ana 
the work will be finished. Roman capitals and 
other letters with fine strokes are not treated in this 
way.— W. K. 




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ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF S< 



WE: No. 574. March 24, 1876. 



44 



[26125.1 — Electric Alarm. — Will "Electro" 
kindly inform myself and others how, if the diao C 
is fixed over the minnte hand, as it appears to be, 
can the alarm be made to ring at any hoar ?— F. C. 
Putlst. 

[26156.]— Potential Energy.— Does " Snifting 
Clack " mean that more heat is evolved daring the 
oxidation of a spring when it is wound up than 
when it is not P-C. W. H. 

[25161.]— Electric Bella.— In the sketch on p. 
668 (no doubt given in haste) " Old Smoker " is in 
error with regard to position of battery E. The 
wires from bell, B, and from push, D, should be joined 
before reaching the pole of battery, not at the 
copper, as represented. Supposing the push, C, to 
be closed, the sketch shows the circuit, C B, without 
the battery, E, being interposed in it.— El-Hadjeb. 

[25184.]-Mole Skins — I think " Ploughman " 
ana "Birdstuffer" will find the following method 
answer well ; it will do for any small skins of 
animals :— Take the skin fresh and immerse in a 
strong solution of alum and salt. To ascertain 
when it has been long enough in this solution take 
it out and double it, flesh side outwards, twice, and 
press it firmly between the finger and thumb until 
the liquor is well pressed ont. If, when opened, 
the crease on the sktu looks white in the angle it is 
dressed enough. Take it out and immerse it just a 
minnte in warm flour and water, then wash out the 
flour under a stream of water. When the akin ia 
about half -dry lay it on a flat smooth piece of board 
and scrape off the flesh from the skin with a blunt - 
edged knife or rub it off with pumice stone. If 
these directions are properly carried out your skin 
will be as mellow as a Dent s kid glove.— Iota. 

[25180.1— Kauri Pine.— I would venture to in- 
form "Uranium," and those interested in Kauri 

Sine, that it is an entirely different wood from Swiss 
eal ; it looks more like birch or beech, according as 
it is cut on the quarter, or plankwise, and presents 
very little likeness to any kind of deal. It comes 
from New Zealand, and some of the logs are of 
immense length, 100ft. and upwards ; is so strong 
that it is used in the Royal Navy for masts and 
spars. Its musical capabilities are very great. It 
baa been advantageously employed for the sound- 
boards of pianos, and makes excellent fiddles and 
basses, and appears just the wood for organ-building 
— both for pipes and case. It runs in a free straight 
grain, remarkably free from knots, is firm and 
uniform in its texture, and will, I have no doubt 
when properly handled, produce an organ-pipe of 
glorious tone. It has one remarkable quality, 
almost peculiar to itself — that is, unlike other 
weeds, it shrinks in length, and very little in any 
other direction. So markedly dees it contract longi- 
tudinally that a set of stair baniaters made of it, 
after some time, entirely drew out from the shorten- 
ing of the Kaon. For violins and basses, of coarse, 
it must be cut on the quarter, and, it has occurred 
to me, if it was so cot far the Bides of organ-pipes, 
it would bo better, as the principal vibration of the 
wood of an organ-pipe is in the sides, little in back 
or front. The Kauri hears staining and varnishing 
well, is much easier to work than pitch pine, and 
looks better; all the available wood in this town 
has been most satisfactorily used for furniture. If it 
were more generally known it would be a favourite 
wood. For organ pipes it would require careful 
study and experiment to obtain the best results ; but 
I feel such results would bo of the beat. If 
V Uranium " will favour me with his address, per 

Sat, I should like to write to him. — Thomas Birt, 
.D., Qrove House, Leamington. 
[28190.1— Plana of Mines.— I disagree with 
" Mine Surveyor " in the method of colouring 
colliery plans, when surveyed half-yearly, by sepa- 
rate colours. Suppose an extensive colliery, such as 




in many parts of the country, of 50 years' standing, 
the plana would present a picture of all the colours 
of the rainbow, and consequently mystify the work- 
lrgs. I inclose a small sketch of a colliery pillar 



and stall working, showing how the plans a l"e 
extended, and pillars shown as drawn. This is *>Jy 
experience, which has been upwards of 20 years, in 
Scotland and the North of England.— ENGINEER. 

[25189.]— Model Steamboat Engine.— Ton will 
find this to bo the only way in which you can work 
a force pump from the oscillation of your cylinder. 
Carry your centre pivot, A, Jin. through the steam 
block, B, and with a crank, or an eccentric, .you 
may connect your pump by means of a connecting 
rod. This is the only principle that can give satis- 
faction in working it from the oscillation of yonr 



rounding. Then comes the second fundamental law 
— viz., that this pressure (at any depth) is exerted 
equally in every direction— upwards, downward*, 
and laterally. # Consequently, whatever pressure is 
exerted on a given horizontal surface as a boae at 
any given depth the same will be exerted on the 
same, or any equal Burface placed vertically (or in 
any other position), provided their centres of gravity 
are kept in the same horizontal line, and therefore 
at the name depth from the surface of the fluid. 
Thus, if A and B be equal surfaces, the one vertical, 
and the other horizontal, or in any intermediate 




cylinder. I would give yon a description of a pomp 
worked from the exhaust, but I think it useless to 
say anything about this principle, as it wonld re- 
quire a more powerful engine. While yon are 
supplying your cylinder with a new pivot get vonr 
face turned up, and see that yonr set screw, C, ia 
a good fit. If it is a spring that keeps the cylinder 
to the block, I think it requires more power.— P. 
M'Phail, Engineer, Edinburgh. 

[25191.1— Australia.— As no one has replied 
specifically to a "Struggling Mechanic," I can 
inform him that a friend of mine, a moulder, a good 
workman and a teetotaller, left England in the St. 
Osyth a year since last November, and arrived in 
Melbourne about Christmas— on Christmas day, I 
believe — and found there a number of moulders ont 
of work, and being unable to get employment in his 
trade, or at anything else, he left for Sydney, and 
found trade bad there. Bnt in the course of two 
or three weeks he got into a foundry, and worked 
for four or five months, when the owner was obliged 
to discharge' some of the moulders, and ultimately 
he had to leave ; bnt the master promised to re- 
engage him aa soon as trade revived. He could not 
get work elsewhere, and engaged himself aa 
machinery oiler on board a steamer trading: from 
Sydney to San Francisco, calling at Auckland, 
hanadanankec ( Fejee Islands), and Honolulu, on the 
way. I had a letter from him a fortnight since, 
dated Feb. 3rd, San Francisco, written just before 
returning to Sydney, and be says he had been to all 
the shops in that town, but found no opening. I 
think if people having such information from friends 
or relations would communicate it, it would prove 
more valuable for particular trades than that to be 
obtained from agents-general.— E. Kino. 

[25200.]— Pressure on Dock Gates.— The first 
fundamental law of fluid pressure is that at any 
depth it ia equal to the weight of a column of the 
fluid, of a height equal to that depth, and whose base 
is equal to the surface on which you want to fiud the 
pressure. Now, a cubic foot of water (pur.;) weighs 

l,000oz. ; therefore a cubic inch weighs i'{™°oz. = 

1./ 28 

"5788oz. nearly. Consequently the pressure on a 
square inch base, at the drpth of 30 feet, would be 
the weight of 300 cubic iuches ; or "5783 x 360, 
which equals 2083H80 = 131b. Similarly the pressure 
on a square foot base, 36 feut deep, would be rather 
more than a ton, for it would be l.OOOoz. x 30 = 
30,0J0oz. = 2,2501b. = a little over 1 ton. On equal 
bases, therefore, the pressure varies as the height, 
quite independently of the quantity of fluid aur- 



position, they will sustain the same press-are, pro- 
vided their centres of gravity, C and C, are in the 
same horizontal line, and therefore at the same 
depth from the Burface. Now cornea the application. 
Let B be the area of a lock-gate, standing verti- 
cally ; it will sustain the same pressure as A — that 
ia, the same aa if it were laid horizontally at half its 
height from the surf ace : that ia, it would sustain a 
pressure equal to a column of water, whose base is 
its own surface, and whose height ia equal to half 
the depth of the gate. For example : The me 




ment of a lock-gate is 1975ft. wide in surface, aad 

1676ft. deep, .'. 1975ft. x 1675 = 330 8125 Bq. ft. 
area. If this area be multiplied by half its height, 
we shall have the cubical column of water, whose 
weight will be the pressure on the gate's surface. 
Thus, 3308125 sq. ft. area x 8375 half height = 
2,770 555 = cubic feet in column of equal pressure. 
Now, a cubic foot of pure water weighs l.OOQos. = 
02'6lb; .•• 2,770 555 x 025 = 173,15908751n» = 
77 tons 6cwt. Oqr. 71b. 9oz. = pressure on the lock- 
gate. Obs. — The specific gravity of salt water is 
on an average 1'028. As that of distilled water ia 1, 
the additional pressure for salt-water on any sur- 
face may easily be calculated— Wh. Wilson, M .A., 
LL.D., Chester. 

[25217.J— Short Focus Mirrors.— " Ignorant " 
wishes an explanation of me, and asks " why, if I 
do not consider short focus mirrors for general 
use comparable to moderate or long, I should give 
my name to them ?" " And having, on the strength 
of my experience, invested in a short focus, don't 
consider it fair to such aa himself "—i.e.. he does not 
consider it an honourable way to do business, to 
make for sale what 1 cannot conscientiously recom- 
mend—no more do I. " Ignorant '* has recently 
purchased a 12iiu. equatorial, which has a rather 
short focus of little over Oft. Vet, hud it oc- 
curred to "lguoraut" that my remarks only 
referred to very short focus— to dutnpys— he would 



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March 24, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE : No. 574. 



45 



probably have Men at once that his did not come 
auder that category, having a focus of diameters, 
bat which, I confess for general use, is quite short 
eengh, and I have not supplied any shorter than 
a diameters. The focus of his mirror is really 
•sorter than I intended it to be, and is rather an 
*tikot. I had an order for a 12lin. of a shorter 
1mm than my 8ft. and 9ft. tools. I prepared a pair 
of tools the focus of which I intended to be about 
At, hot which, unfortunately, in truing up came 
oat only flft. This -did not matter for this one, and 
whenever I had to work on this tool I endeavoured 
to work it out. It now gives a focus of near 7ft., so 
I som it will not get me any further reprimanding. 
With this explanation I think the rest may be 
vttkd with ourselves, for should his mirror prove 
too ihort to his liking, I shall be willing and most 
fcspsj to meet his difficulties.— O. Calvsb. 

SM2.]— Heat of ■Water.— The following table, 
by Bernanlt, gives the relation between the tempera- 
tore sad tension of aqueous vapour from 100° C. to 
ar» C. T stands for temperature and Na. denotes 
the tension or pressure in atmospheres :— 



T. 
1000° 
112-2 
1200 
133-9 
1410 
1522 
1&ST2 
IMS 
170-8 
1758 
180-3 
1845 
ISM 
1U21 
IM'5 



Na. 
1 

Ik 

2 

3 

4 

5 

e 

7 

8 


10 
11 
13 
13 
14 



T. 
lfl6-8° 
2100 
204-9 
2077 
2104 
213-0 
2155 
2170 
2203 
222-5 
2247 
2208 
2280 
2309 



Na. 

15 
16 
17 
18 
10 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
28 
27 
28 



-Hahkt Watson. 
[SM3.1- Heat of Water.— I owe an apology to 

K readers for not saying in my answer that the 
!* I gave included the 151b. to overcome the 
atstoepheric pressure, so that for practical purposes 
the firnres I gave were nearly 16lb. too much in each 
cms.— B. P. A. 

[252*4.] — Oatmeal Cake.— The art of making 
tl» real Welsh oat cake is known only among 
Weha women, and by but comparatively few of them. 
Hjwife is among the privileged few, and is some- 
tin** eupphed with small lots of meal to form into 
tacts for the neighbours. Suppose she has 31b. of 
Hal oatmeal (and not a mixture of oat and barley 
ntu. sack as is too often sold in shops here) to form 
■to bread, from 211b. to 2Jlb. of this she would form 
u>to » stiff dough. This lump she would divide into 
twenty balls, which balls, taking one in each hand 
stj i time, she turns and presses until they are of 
the ibape of shallow saucers turned upside down, 
•wokling them with some of the reserved meal as 
■Mfadi need. These saucer-shaped cakes are then 
aid ooe upon the other, taking care to make a good 
sprinkling of meal between them, and slightly 
r«*ed by the back of the fingers of the left hand, 
ruled around and around by the right until they 
ve, s*y. doable their original diameter. They are 
tien taken up and turned over one by one, the loose 
oeil swept off by a brush of fine goose feathers, and 
» twinkling of fresh meal mado instead. After 
iormrog the pile they are subjected to another p rea- 
rer?, and jo repeating the process until they are of 
'« thickness of ordinary brown paper, or thinner if 
jw wuh it, taking particular care to give them a 
H sprinkling of meal with each operation. They 
fflwt th«-n be baked upon a hot griddle ; if not hot 
•Much the cake will become tough and flavourless, 
rf too hot they are singed ; but If of the proper quick 
bakin* beat they will be crisp and of a delicious 
™W. Hind you, it requires some practice and a 
*wer»te amount of patience to make a tasty 
'Jhne. I have known even adepts being obliged to 
™row a dozen to twenty cakes into the pan to bo 
J***ded. A Welshman, especially a native of 
weconshire. Carmarthenshire, ana Glamorgan- 
•hire, would laugh at yonr offering him, under the 
mu« of oatmeal cake, anything not made of oat- 
«al and water.— J. D. 

L&Mtj-Oat Cake.— Take about lib. oatmeal 
tad one teaspoonf ul of salt, mix in a dish with hot 
■•tor to consistency of dough, then knead out on a 
*tin« board into a cake of, soy, loin, diameter. 
« in fonr and heat on a griddle (a circular plate of 
WW wed in Ireland for baking) or top of a stove 
WJ petty firm, but do not turn it, then set up 
■jwor* » fire, and bake gradually but thoroughly. 
The thinner the cake is the better ; buttormifk 
i»*teid of water is an improvement. A salad with 

oat cake, fresh butter, and pure sweet milk in 
asaxt nook in the country, after a good walk, is 
•'wwlhing to dream about. Thore are ot\er 
prorations of oatmeal. Porridge is simply mix- 
oatmeal in water gradually and keeping it 
•"»|t boiling, the longer the better, say an hour, 
**»og only » little salt; pour out in a plate 
•*> mp with sweet milk. It makes a chwap an.l 
*aole*ome breakfast, highly nutritions aud easily 
With sweet milk instead of water, and 

with a piece of butter placed to melt in the 
"•a^re after being poured out, it is delicious, and nn 
w^ltnt food for children and invalids. Made 
*'W Buttermilk instead of water it is preferred by 
t.%y tven to the sweet milk. The best meal for 
•rote is a kind known in Ulster as Dublin or 



Cnrlowmeal; it is very coarse in the grain, and 
when steeped from the night previous or cooked for 
an honr at least, it swells like rice and is very 
palatable. "Thorough cooking "is the rule for 
oatmeal preparations of every kind.— Dan Rosen. 

[25244.1— Oat Cake.— Joseph William Feonell's 
good lady may be a true Aberdonian, and her name 
may be " Isa Craig," but I wouldn't care to eat oat 
cakes after her recipe. Oat cakes, or bannocks, 
should bo made from meal as fine rs can be not. and 
as newly g.ound as possible. The meal should be 
saturated with lukewarm water, and as much salt as 
can be lifted between the finder and thumb for each 
cake ; stir about well, and squeeze through the 
fingers, adding dry meal until the mass is the con- 
sistency of dough (all this should be done in a basin) ; 
then spread some dry meal on the "bake-board, 
flatten the dough with the knuckles of both hands 
until nearly the sise wanted ; smooth and finish with 
a rolling ptn. I've seen an empty beer bottle used. 
Crimp with the thumb all round the edge, but do not 
cut it in any way. It is now ready for the girdle 
(there never was such a word as " griddle "). Now 
for the " firing," which is of as much importance as 
the "baking." The fire must be clear, and free 
from smoke : as a precaution throw some salt on. 
The girdle should be of malleable iron, and iin. 
thick, with a bow handle. Heat till eult crackles 
on it, brush it clean, and put on th a bannock. 
Give it an occasional turn while on its flat, so that 
it may be equally done. Take it off with thespurtle, 
an instrument made of thin flat iron, sliced like a 
heart, with a handle, to see if well browned. If the 
bannocks are to be " .seoudored " do them on the 
other side the same way | but they are much better 
to have the other side done before the fire on the 
toaster, this will give them a beautiful cnrl, and 
make them nico and crisp. Then you will have real 
Scotch oatmeai bannocks. Yon may add a little 
wheat, and cut and carve thorn to suit your fancy ; 
bnt after all they will be but mongrels. A word as 
to the name. Down in England the word cake may 
be applied to this article of diet, bnt in Scotland 
" bannock " is the proper word. — Gowbie. 

[25245.] — Violin. — The proper place for sound- 
post is as close behind the bridge as possible, say, 
the Jth of an inch, and between the first and second 
string. I have no doubt, if " Curly Head " will 
movo it to that place he will improve the tone. Tho 
age of violins I must leave to some other correspon- 
dent to answer.— Clarionette. 

[26243.]— Tinning Braaa Taps.— The first thing 
to do is to have the taps, Ac, turned or smoothed 
quite clean, and free from grease or oil. Secondly, 
procure, say, a pound, or pint, of what is commonly 
called smoking salts. Put this in a bottle or jug, 
and into this put about loz. of spelter or scrap zinc. 
Leave it till it stops bubbling, and then add about 
one-third water, then it will be ready for use. Now 
melt your tinning metal, which is three of tin and 
two of lead by weight. Melt tin first, and then add 
the lead with a bit of resin to clean it, and stir it 
well together; get it hot, bnt not to a red heat. 
Now take the articles yon wish to tin and dip them 
as short a distance into the liquid as above; dip 
them into the tinning metal, and hold them in till 
yon see it clone round the work ; then wipe quickly 
with some waste flax or hurds. If you find the tin 
adhere in lumps it is not being wiped quick enough. 
— Clarionette. 

[25253.] -Detaching Photos.—" W. S. R." will 
find that the best way to detuch photos is to let 
them detach themselves ; this they will do if he 
will damp sheets of blotting-paper and lay the 
photos, back downwards, on the paper. Put a light 
weight on the picture to keep it flat when damping, 
aud give time. — Si&ah Nosneb. 

[25258.]— Turning Shafting in Lathe — Procure 
a cast-iron bracket, as shown in my sketch, and 
fasten it with the screws to your lower slide 
opposite to cutting tool, d in section is a V-piece 




after this adjust the bracket and V-piece, so as to 
bear nicely against the shaft, taking care to let the 
cutting tool be a shade in advance of the V-piece. 
The inspection of the sketch will show you that the 
V-piece is bound to follow the cutting tool closely, 
ana keep the shaft steady. Of course. I presume 
you have a guide-screw onyour lathe, otherwise this 
contrivance will not do. — Berlin. 

[25258.]— Turning Shafting.— J. B. Francis may 
turn his shafting without a backstay, and a deal 
cheaper, in the following way :— Get an iron socket 
that will slip over the shaft about 5in. long, }in. 
thick ; turn this true on the outside, tap three holes 
in each end for Sin. pins ; put tho shaft in the lathe, 
and set this socket with these pius true on the out- 
side. Now, get the socket of your hand-rest, and, 
instead of the T-piece, get a socket cast with a V- 
top, with fiats on each end as per sketch. In thoso 




mado of steel and hard, all edges rounded off nicely 
to prevent them cutting into the shaft, as well as 
reducing friction as much as possible ; a, shaft ; F. 
cutting tool ; C C. set screws ; B, bracket. Proceed 
as follows :— Chuck your shafts between centres ; 
toko a proper cut about 2in. without the appliance ; 



flats drill two holes, one in each for Jin. pins ; fasten 
the hand-rest socket on tho lathe bed. pull the, V- 
piece up to the one that is on the shaft ; get apiece 
of iron about 2$iu. by <in., drill holes in this to 
correspond with them in the V-piece ; with two pins 
fasten this to the V-piece, not so fast as to stop the 
lathe, bnt sufficient to keep the shaft from jarring. 
By attending to the following he will have no diffi- 
culty in turning his shaft. In turning small shafting 
they often spring, but may be sprung back by 
wedging the shafting up tight, and with a pieco of 
copper in one hand holding it on tho shaft and 
hammering with hand hammer.— J. H. S. 

[25272.]— Curve.— " Cycloid " says the curve — 
which by its revolution generates the liquid surface 
—is a parabola, and " lostephanus " says it is a 
hyperbola. Professor Goodeve, in a course of 
lectures on "Applied Mechanics" (Vol. XIV., p. 
829), affirms it to be a parabola. Would " Cycloid " 
give the demonstration ? How docs he make the 
subnormal constant ?— 0. W. H. 

[25287.]— Telegraph.— As " J. S. W.'* has only 
partially supplied " Express Driver " with " code 
time," 1 beg to furnish the remaining letters used 
to denote the four intermediate minutes in every 
complete period of five minutes. The letters B, S, W, 
X, are employed. B, denoting the first, 8, the 
second, W, the third, and X, tho fourth minute 
after each hour, or after each complete period of 
five minutes. These twelve letters, A to M. more- 
over, stand not only for the twelve hours, but for 
the twelve complete periods of five minutes each, 
of which each hour is composed. Thus A stands 
for one o'clock and for one period of five minutes : 
B stands for two o'clock, and for two periods of 
five minutes, or ten minutes, and so on. If the 
letters be used singly, they show the hours only ; if 
they be used in combination they show the hoars 
and some number of periods of five minutes in addi- 
tion to the hour. Thus, M, B, means 12h. lm., or 
one minute past twelve ; M, A, B, means 12h. 6m., 
or six minutes past twelve ; and so on. Thus, by 
the use of not more than three letters, the time at 
any period of the 24 hours may be expressed. I 
hope, from above description, "Express Driver" 
will be able to mako " clock dial " of " code time " 
for himself —if not, will sond sketch. — J. M. Rogers. 

[25317.]— Aquarium.— If in putting in the glass 
the least crock occurred on the edge, say Jin., 
difference of temperature to which the glass on the 
aquarium is very liable would cause it to break. On 
a very hot day last summer there was a sudden 
Bhower of rain when a sheet of plate glass in one of 
my windows split across. Tho cause was what I 
have stated.— Vincent. 

[25317.]— Aquarium. — After numerous failures 
with wood-bottomed aquariums— some coated inside 
with melted pitch others with Portland cement — I 
at last resolved to make one with a slate bottom 
about the same size as "J. S.'s " aquarium. The 
onlv slato I could procure was the broken slate of a 
billiard table, iin. thick. This was sawn the right 
size and a panuoled wood b-jttom was made to 
support the slate ; the pillars aud mouldings were 
polished mahogany, the glass 32oz. sheet. It 
looked very well and Btood very well for_ about 
seven months, when, on coming down stairs one 
morning, I was considerably surprised to find the 
front and back glass broken and the water all over 
tho place. The place where it stood was in a shop 
window, facing a street thai has a good amount of 
heavy traffic. I had often noticed a perceptible 
tremour ou the surfaco of the water when any heavy 
loud passed, and thought at first that the vibration 
paused by the traffic was tho cause of tho accident, 
but I fonnd out afterwards that it was the vibration 
caused by a new steam roller, 10 tons weight, which 
bail gone past early the same morning. The broken 
glass was replaced with plate glass iin. thick. 
Each corner of the aquarium stands on a slab of 
vulcanised sheet rubber, and l»«is no* stood for six 
< car* perfectly water-tight and proof against steam 
roller*.— Nosvvau. 

[2V.22.] -Pcint or Varnish to Stand Soda or 
Soap Suds.— If " Washington" will procure lib. 



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ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE: No. 574. March 24, 187G. 



(4d.) of bellhanger's black varnish, and heat metal 
articles before application, he will find that it will 
resist tbe action of both, and wear well, having 
used it myself. — Old Man. 

[25323.]— Cut-off.— The kind of work you require 
your engine to perform and the dimensions of fly- 
wheel are required to furnish you with an exact 
answer, but the following will be a guide for you : — 



acirlnm mynsichti, acidnm pbospboricum) and 
nnx vomica, in powder, from one to throe grains 
twice a day, are to be recommended." Patients 
should avoid violeut continuous or rotatory 
exercise, abstain from highly nutritious nud heating 
j articlea of diet and suppers ; they should not indulge 
I in much sleep, or the BUM of feather beds or of 
! warm baths. Counter irritations to the skin by 



1 


2 


3 


4- 5 


B 


7 


8 


B 


10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 




45 




in 
rv 




m\ 


m 


"1 


ad 




























b b 

to M 


in 

OJ 
C«J 


CO 


m 

£ 


in 


n 


r>* l 

CVJ 

at 


OJ 




•* 

<a 






x- 

m 






H 
























o 


o 


CO 






K 







For light work (sawing, hair-brushing, turning), in 
which speed is more required than power, and 
occasional resistance overcome by the momentum of 
fly-wheel, the steam has to give a short impulse 
only at the beginning of eueh stroke ; but for 
heavy work (traction, lifting, weight, mill, Ac), it 
will be necessary to let the steam fully on much 
longer, and trials only in your instance can deter- 
mine.— Geneve. 

[25321.] — Cremona.— In the event of no one an- 
swering Laurence Saunders' query as to his 
Rtiegerius," I write to say that, if his violin is a 
genuine "Ruggerius," ho has, from a woman's 
standard of estimation, a more valuable instrument 
than the Amati, because of the richness of its 
delicate tones, its outline, purfling, finish— in fact, 
its whole construction is more "fiddle-like'' than 
the Amati — delicate and beautiful as the Armati is. 
Then the timber is so grand, and looks reedy and 
full of quality of tone. The model is small, stop 
short, and these instruments fall into position with 
an ease and grace that eminently qualify them for 
lady-violinists. Hart's book on violins will tell 
" L. 8." all that is kuown of " Rucgcrius," and if 
his is a genuine instrument of this maker, never 
part with it. These violins bavo good constitutions 
(being well timbered), and will live for aires. There 
U a curve or wave-lino running round within an 
inch of, and continuing over, the purfling. which, 
meeting at the four _ corners, makes a climax of 
beauty, and gives a distinctive character to " Rug. 
gcrius's " instruments.— Cordelia Broden. 

[25321.] — Cremona. — The following is taken 
from a " Treatise on the Violin and all Bow 
Instruments," by Jacob Augustus Otto, instrument- 
maker to the Court of the Duke of Weimar, dale 
1833: — "The violins of Joseph Guarnerius arc 
beautifully constructed. They are extremely similar 
in shape, model, and the cutting of the S holes to 
those of Nicholas Amati, and are coloured with 
the same deep yellow amber varnish. These, 
together with Kutjgcri's and Alhaui's, differ so little i 
from one another that it is extromoly difficult to ! 
give an exact description of them." Of Nicholas 
Amati's violins he says:— "Those of Nicholas 
Amati are conspicuous for having a somewhat 
Bmaller form (that is. smaller than those of 
Hieronymns and Antonius Amati) and a peculiar 
model ; the swell ri*cs gently near the purfling, 
and afterwards springs up more abruptly, so as to 
form a difference of an iuch iu height between the 
highest part at the centre and that at the edges. 
They Bwell more abruptly than those of Hieronymus 
or Antonius, and in the centre form a sharp ridge. 
This is the peculiar mark by which his violins_ may 
be distinguished." "Tho edges are beautifully 
rounded and the ' S ' holes are well shaped and lie 
together as in all Italian instruments." "The 
wood for the belly is not in all of them of au equally 
fine train . but that iu the back, the sides, and the 
neck is of a beautifully figured maple. Those that 
passed through my hands have been covered with a 
reddish yellow amber varnish. I have not yet seen 
an iustancc of one coloured with brown varnish." 
Nicholas Amati lived at Cremona about the end of 
the seventeenth century, and Guarnerius at the 
beginning of tho eighteenth. Otto includes 
Ruggerius or Ruggeri in the list of M Crcmoncse " 
makers. I am sorry I cannot at present give 
Laurence Sunders any information M to the period 
when Ruggeri made violins.— X., Ediu. 

[25321.] — Cremona. — There were several of the 
name of Rugger ius, Crcmoncse makers, from 1968 
till 1730 — Frnnciscus. Guido, Johannes Baptist a, 
Peter, James, and Vinccut. What colour is the 
varnish P — 0. Dickson. 

[25327.1— Giddiness —About five years since T 
was troubled with the same complaint. 1 could not 
stand on rising in the morning, and fometimos 
wheuiu bed it appeared to turn round, and I had 00 
idea I was falling out. I Went to a doctor and he 
told mo that it was weakness, and ordered a change 
of food from white broad to brown and coarse oat- 
meal porridge and rest. I followed his instruc- 
tions and have been better fever tince. — W. 

WlBBKKLY.' 

[25327.]— Giddiness. — M A Sufferer " is no doubt 
■suffering from vertigo. Romberg, on H Nervous 
Disease." says :— " The treatment depends upon the 
cause, constant regard being had to the constitution 
of tho Individual. In idiopathic vertigo it will be 
necessary to sec whether more erethism is at the 
bottom of the complaint or whether already 
material alterations have taken place. In tho first 
instancy acids (the elixir acidum liallcri, elixir 



sinapisms, foot baths with mustard, tho use of the 
flesh-brush, with cold washing of the trunk and tho 
exhibition of cooling laxatives, are to bo recom- 
mended. Small doses of bitter water (apollinaris 
or pnllna) in doses of a wine-glass full ou goiug to 
bed and the first thing in the morning." My own 
experience differs from this in requiring sleep when- 
ever I could get it, and quiet with the eyes shut 
when at home. "A Sufferer" had better ask his 
medical man to apply the above to his case and 
persevere. Phosphorus is generally highly beneficial, 
and I should think Dr. Pnrish's preparation most 
likely to bo of service; but, above all. electricity 
applied for ten minutes night and morning to tho 
groin has done me the most good. The gentler the 
force the better. — Fellow-Sufferer. 

[25327.]— Giddiness.— The syrup of phosphato 
of iron, quinine, and strychnine (Easton's syrup), 
one teaspoonful in a wiue-glassful of water three 
times a day will relieve " Sufferer " almost like 
magic— Kino. 

[25328.]— Harmonium.— " D. M. L." can build 
a good-sized instrument for the price he names— 
4J row at least, I should think. As ho appears to 
know all but the action of the stops he will find that 
on p. 131, Vol. XXL, and if he looks in tho indices I 
think he will find many other details that may be 
suggestive I said something about making a l|-row 
on p. 18S, Vol. XXI. While writing I might mentiou 
that " Eleve" tells me he has several papers in course 
of completion, including one for a 7J-row instru- 
ment, which, I hope, will satisfy some of your more 
ambitious readers. At any rate, allow me to ask 
those who intend to build big instruments to " wait a 
wee."— Saul Rvmea. 

[25331.]— Staining Black.—" A Dublin Cabinet- 
maker" can get as deep a black dye ns he could 
wish by boiling the extract of logwood iu water 
and adding to it slowly a little of the yellow 
prussiate of potass. Brush ou hot. — KlNO. 

[25333.] — Water Twist. — The twist on the 
wooden tubes, after being boiled in soap and water, 
ought to bo left in the water till used, and put in 
the shuttles thoroughly wet. — George Whkwell. 

[25335.]— Horizontal Engine.— I presume the 
engine possessed by " Glammos " has a cylinder 7" 
stroke x ft" diameter; if so. a boiler on vertical 
principle, 2' 0" diameter and 3' 0" high over crown, 
with one cro«s-tnbo, say, 0" diameter in fire-box, 
would drive it, and with 10" or 12" wheels to saw- 
would cut a* timber.— Old Man. 

[25335.]— Horizontal Engine. — Much about the 
samo reasoning applies to your query as to No. 
25323. Of course, your engine will do if you provide 
it with sufficient steam, and do not exact more 
work than it can perform ; for hard wood a finer 
saw and slower feed than for tender stuff follows 
naturally. As to your boiler, a small one will 
require a rather high pressure, whilst a large one 
will allow you to use more steam at less pressure. 
Your conveniences and arrangements arc to be con- 
sidered in cither case.— Geneve. 

[25:135.] — Horizontal Engine. — " Glammos " 
had better find out what horse-power it will take to 
drive his band saw, and then find horse-power of his 
engine. He has not giveu the pressure of steam he 
intends to work with.— X. X. X. 

[25338.] — Spectroscopic Experiments. — Tho 
lime-light for the spectroscope can be used as well 
as the electric light, only that the spectrum cannot 
be shown without any metallic lines as with the 
electric light. It is not shades you want so much 
as apparatus. It does not come within the province 
of those who reply to say where things are to be 
bought or I should bo glad to give tho name of a 
London house which pays special attention to the 
department of apparatus.— A Pumphuey. 

[25330.] — Spectroscopic Experiments. — To 
pCHORn the experiment! named you will require 
a lantern fitted with either lime-light or electric 
light (tho latter would be better), ami, instead of the 
trout combination, have an adjustable slit ; and. iu 
front of this, a hollow bisulphide of carbon prism 
and focussing glass. If you will write mo 1 will send 
you a list which 1 obtained from a Loudon optician, 
who supplied mo with my lecturing apparatus, and I 
will also lend you the work I have ou the subject, 
and which I use in my school lectures here, which is 
fullv illustrated. In the ntimo I will draw 

a sketch of the plan usually adopted.— Public 
Analyst, Monmouth. 

[25337.]— Boiler Explosions.— Water amongst 
other conditions is sometimes found iu the 



spheroidal condition. Now the spheroidal condition 
of water is due to the formation of a small vapour 
atmosphere around itself, this vapour atmosphere 
being produced by contact with a hot surface. Thus 
a drop of water on a hot-iron plate will run about 
the plate without being converted into steam. Tho 
reason of its doiug so is, that immediately upon 
contact with hot-plate the vaponr atmosphere 
is instantly formed. It then surrounds tbe drop, 
and thus the drop rolls on its own atmosphere, 
which is a bad conductor of heat, instead of rolling 
on plate. Now if the plate be allowed to cool down 
to a little above boiling point, then in a moment 
this little atmosphere is ruptured, the water spreads 
upon plate and is quickly converted into steam. 
Now the boiler in the caso you mention would be 
tipped, probably considerably, or at any rate 
sufficient to cause the hot water to run to one end ; 
hence the empty end of boiler would become heated, 
and if cold water found an entrance it would be 
converted into the spheroidal condition, which aa 
the boiler became cooler would be couvertod almost 
instantly into steam, and if boiler be closed iu all 
directions an explosion would follow ; but by opening 
safety valves the risk would be less.— W. J. LAJH 
caster. 

[25337.]— Boiler Explosions— There was no 
advantage obtained by opening the valves of the 
Vanguard, for when the boilers were covered with 
cold water a vacuum was formed which produced 
15lb. per square inch on the outside of the boiler, 
which, by the way, would stand more pressure 
outside than it would in. — X. X. X. 

[25337.]— Boiler Explosions.— It was a fallacy 
that gained considerable currency by moans of the 
newspaper press throughout tho country at the tint* 
of tho Channel collisiou and sinking of the Van- 
guard, that, if the safety -valves of these boilers hod 
not been opened a disastrous loss of life would 
have ensued. But this could never have happened, 
for tho water rising in the engine-room would first 
put out tho fires, ou further rising it would condense 
the -team in the boilers, forming a vacuum, which 
would open the vacuum-valves, which are fitted to 
every marine boiler for this very purpose of pre- 
venting a collapse when a heavy sea is shipped.— 
Sniftino Clack. 

[25310.]— Artificial Teeth, Ac— No mineral 
filling in a tooth can last long as tho cavity in the 
tooth is continually enlarging, and the filling 
becomes loose. I do not think " Engineer " ww 
find artificial teeth act well with his stumps ; before 
having recourse to artificial teeth his best plan will 
be to have the stumps and defective tooth extracted 
by a competent dentist, who will in fitting time 
supply him with artificials really useful. — T. F. 

[253 12.]— Enlarging Drawings. — To enlarge or 
reduce drawings without the aid of squares I would 
suggest a peutagraph, which is simple in opera- 
tion, and, if carefully used, is very correct.— 
Draughtsman. 

[25312.]— Enlarging Drawings. — " Grantham " 
can enlarge his drawings by having them photo- 
graphed by means of an enlarging camera. By th( 
same method he can have a full-sized portrait en- 
larged from a miniature. — Sniftino Clack. 

[25313.]— Scones, Buns, and Hotch Potoh.— 
As a true Scotchman, I am proud to give " Wemyss " 
tho information he desires. For scones— Take milk, 
or, better, churn milk and flour, and a little car 
bouatc of soda, and mix thoroughly to the con- 
sistency of dough. Roll this out under the rolling- 
pin, and take a tin-pot lid and stamp out as many 
as tho surface will allow. Place them on a girdU 
over a slow, clear fire, and turn ; by inserting a 
knife in the centre you can tell when they are done 
enough— when the dough does not adhere. L«] 
them out on a cloth until cold, ami by no meant 
pile them until quite cold, or tho moisture will con 
dense and spoil them in a few days. Of Bath boa 
I cannot give you any information. As to hotch' 
potch. the most popular dim, and next to the " great 
chieftain of the pudding race," is made in thi 
wise : — Take a bone, with i-ome of the meat remain 
iog (usually a marrow bone), and put this in a pot 
along with water and vegetables, nud boil in thi 
usual way. Tho vegetables used are prepared iu thi 
ordinary way, and arc pens, beans, cauliflower, turnips 
carrots, leeks, in fact, the more the merrier, unti 
you have made a hotch-potch soup, whatever thai 
may mean. This is the true and genuine article : it 
England an imitation is made by serving it as I 
stew, which reminds a Scotchman of the grant 
feast prepared in Franco iu honour of ccrtail 
English guests when tho plum-pudding mnde iti 
appearance among the entrees as a soup ! 1 shal 
be glad to hear that " Wemyss " has succeeded il 
these as formerly.— Sniiti no Clack. 

[253 15. ]— Woodbury Lantern Slides —The* 
slides require placing iu lantern precisely in Boot 
direction as other slides, nnd the following direction 
will. I hope, help you out of your difficulty. Let 4 
be the top corner of slide at right end. 6 bottOB 
corner, and c and <2 respectively top and button 
corner of left-hand side. Now, supposing yon an 
showiug on the sheet, you must hold the slide ii 
front of you, so that any reading may be read 
then invert tho slide longitudinally— th.it is, if yol 

can read slido. When thus ^ ^, you must iuvcrl 

thus, **. Push iuto lantern, and tho reading 

CI v 



Digitized by 



bcii 24, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 574. 



47 



Le right. When you have once overcome tliis diffi- 
culty tou will never wrongly introduce a slide.— 
W. J. Lancaster. 

[25310.]— Harmonium.— Ironmonger," pardon 
me; yon contradict yourself. You say you nave a 
"good harmonium " (13 stops), and yet it is " very 
weak in tone," unless full power is on. I know that 
reed instruments are made of two qualities. The 
rough powerful tone for churches and chapels, and 
the softer, finer quality for the house ; but a " good" 
instrument b never " weak." The pallet stems 
stick in dump weather : tako them out and dress 
them with glass-paper, rubbing on black lead where 
they fit into the action-rail. Tho A natural is 
missing. Send the octave above to a dealer, and ask 
him to supply the octave below. If too sharp scrape 
h little off the vibrator near rivet ; if too flat a littlo 
off the tip.— Saul Rymea. 

[26347.]— Chemical Analysis— The first method 
saves the trouble of digesting with baric carbonate. 
It i* a good method in the absence of manganese, 
ilanzanous salts have a tendency to become oxidised 
and precipitated in tho presence of ammonia. It is 
impossible to separate matigannn> from ferric salts 
by means of ammonic chloride and ammonia. — 
Geo roe Whewbll. 

[S5348.]— Spectra— Read my answer, 2-3336, in 
present number. If you cannot succeed to your 
min-l write another query, with details of failure, 
and I will help you. — W. J. Lancaster. 

pB&P.)/— Heat in Frames. -If " T, M. B." 
Want* a good and constant beat in his frames he 
cannot have better than horse manure well watered. 
The cotton waste would not injure vegetatiou. I have 

••• •'> "•■ ! f" ' ti:- pur; • of .'..-I r..yj in--..-ts. 

without any injurious effect to the plant.— Sniftino 

[35351.1 — Jeweller's Lathe. — " Little Ama- 
tanrV* fly-wheel (toes at a good speed if he gets 
250 revolutions a minute, but no one can answer 
the question which he puts unless ho gives the 
diameter of the fly-wheel. — B. P. A. 

[25352.] — Lights. — The house I occupy has one 
(side) window overlooking a neighbour's garden, 
and the neighbour has erected, on his own ground, 
a screen on two scaffold poles, which effectually 
prevents any light entering or any other use being 
Bade of the opening. I feel certain that if he 
couM have compelled tho owner to close up the 
window he would himself have done so. ami not 
himself have taken the trouble or incurred the 
Eqwnse.-F. F. C. 

[25352.]— Lights.— I suppose " X. Y. Z." is not 
ignorant of the law of right of light. When windows 

ftverlookin.' a neighbour's land have 1 n allowed 

to remain unobstructed for twenty years they obtaiu 
k right of light or easement over that land which 
th- neighbour cannot then obstruct. This is the 
reason why you have received notice from vour 
neighbour as he wishes to bar your right. Still he 
•Aiiuot force you to remove or close your windows ; 
the law on this poiut is, I think, pretty clear. Any- 
one may build to the edge of their land, and if ho 
ijjeas windows overlooking the adjoining property 
Ho action can be maintained ngaiust him, but the 
>wner of the adjoining property can obstruct tho 
windows by building against them or by erecting a ' 
Warding against them on hir. own land at any time 
hiring twenty years after their construction, and in 
Ads way prevent the acquisition oF the easement. 
He must, however, bo careful not to trespass by 
resting any part of tho building or hoarding on or 
igainst the adjoining property. No consideration as 
to the distance of any wall or dwelliug-boiiso or the 
listance of the windows from the boundary line, 
inters into the case. Usually the putter-up of the 
windows sign* an agreement to pay nnnuallv. if 
fiHnd upon, some small sum, say a shilling. This 
jnrcats him acquiring the easement, an.' allows the 
irijoiuiug owner to build to the edge of his property 
A bay tune without any reference to tho windows 
a c,uo«tion. Should there 1»- any other information 
I can givo"X. Y. Z." on the subject I shall be 
uippy to do so.— Makkorio. 

120352.] — Lights. — Without a plan and more 
nlormation as to tho freeholders of the two sets of 
iremises it is imprudent to advise on questions of 
ighl. Assuming the two sets of premises belong 
o two separate freeholders the freeholder of the 
rorluhops or his tenant, with the freeholder's 
onsent, has a perfect right to build " up to the 
ikies" on his own ground if in no doing he does 
lot interfere with the light, air, and ancient lights 
if bis neighbours. Ho can open out as many new 
lfhUsshe pleases. On the other hand the free- 
tolder of the yard or his tenant can, on hia own 
Ma. erect a structure equally high and so block up 
lU these new lights. If both Bets of premises 
feong to one freeholder this would complicate the 
Batter. Is the wall on which the deals rest a party 
■A or does it belong to cither and which of the 
Iwputantsr "X. Y. Z." must consult a good 
(Doctor or he may be plunged into a sea of costs.— 



him for disturbing his neighbour s privacy by 
opening windows which overlook tho adjoining 
property, but it is competent to such neighbour to 
obstruct the windows so opened by building against 
them on bis own land at any time during 20 years 
after their construction, and thus prevent the 
acquisition of the easement." As, however, the 
doctrine of easement is so very intricate, " X. Y. Z." 
will do well to study " Galo on Easements " (price, 
less discount, 21s.), or take bis title-deeds to a 
good souud lawyer, for he cannot be safelv advised 
without a careful perusal of the title-deeds, and a 
thorough knowledge of the antecedents of the 
property. Better to spend a guinea or two in this 
way than run the chance of becoming entangled in 
a ruinous lawsuit.— F. B 

[25352.]— Lights. — I doubt very much whether 
the builder whose yard adjoins " X. Y. Z.'s " 
premises can compel '" X. Y. Z." to close his 
windows, but I believe he may, if he pleases, build 
up ou his own land in front of them provided 
he does so before they have been long enough 
enjoyed by " X. Y. Z." to give him a right to them. 
This is generally considered to require 20 years. 
Suppose " X. Y. L.," instead of using liu. deals had 
used lin. glass for the sides nnd end of the new 
part of his workshop could the builder have made 
him pull it down again ? I think not, unless the 
two properties were formerly ono, and that they 
were afterwards sold in separate parcels, with 
conditions as to not building beyond a certain line 
or above a certain height, Ac, One man might 
almost as well say to nuothcr M You shan't come 
and look over yonr wall into my garden." However, 
" X. Y. Z." should get the best advice he can upon 
the subject from a respectable solicitor, and look 
upon this merely as a hint from— A. B. C. 

[25353.]— The Birmingham Wire Gauge- 
There are so many wire gauges in Birmingham that 
one is at a loss to know which is the real "Bir- 
mingham wire gauge." I have bought wire, metal, 
Ac, from most of the metal firms in Birmingham, 
and the majority of them do uot adhere to any 
standard. Perhaps MM of our readors may be 
good enough to give me tho original and true Bir- 
mingham wire gauge. — W. J. Lancaster. 

[25353.]— The Birmingham Wire Gauge.— 

This gang" is usually considered the standard one, 
nnd Birmingham wire gauge is well known every, 
where ; others are, however, used to a smaller 
degree in other parts of the country. The sizes 
seem unfortuuat.dy to have had no true basis of 
proportion, as you will see below. It is quite time 
that some definite gauze was established upon a 
standard basis. Below I give the Birmingham wire 
gauge in decimals of an inch : — 



No. 1 




•312 


No. 19 




•012 


2 




•28 1 


20 




■086 


3 




•261 


21 




■OM 


4 




•239 


22 




•028 


5 




•217 


23 




•025 







•208 


21 




022 


7 




•187 


25 




020 


8 




166 


28 




•018 


9 




•158 


27 




•uio 


10 




•137 


28 




•014 


11 




•125 


29 




013 


12 




"109 


30 




•012 


13 




•095 


31 




•010 


14 




•083 


32 




txa 


15 




072 


33 




•008 


10 




•065 


34 




•007 


17 




•050 


35 




•|M)r> 


18 




•049 


30 




001 



[13352.]— Lights.— I cannot do better than quote 
he following from /'Gale on Easements":— ' The 
«at to the reception of light and air in a lateral 
faction (without obstruction) is an easement. The 
Met right of property entitles tho owner to so 
Ueb light and air as fall perpendicularly on his 
•M. Ho may build to tho very extremity of his 
iwa land, and no action can be maintained agaiust 



— Matuorio. 

[25353.]— The Birmingham Wire-gauge.— Tn 
measuring thin plates nnd wire some readier method 
than the callipers and rule btQJUM necessary. By 
universal custom notches in the edge of a steel plate, 
of varying widths, and bating no correspondence 
lietwcn them, c?me to be adopted and called the 
"B. W. G." gauge. These notches do not indicate 
tho true sine, nut are numbered. Sir J. Whitworth, 
to whom mechanical science is so largely indebted, 
has drawn up a table which is not only a definite 
scries, but the numbers represent the actual thick- 
ness, expressed in thousandths of an inch. Other 
gauges— the Birmingham plate gauge, Lancashire 
gauge, music-wire gauge, needle-wire gauge— have 
nil found their way into nse, devoid of any reason, 
something lileo our railway 1ft. 8 (J ?) in. gaugo. I 
have something of the feeling of Coriolonus : — 

" What custom wills should we iu all things do it ; 
Tho dust on antique timo would lie unswept. 
And mountainous error be too highly heaped 
For truth to overpeer." 
—Sniftino Clack. 

[25355.1 — Ventilation of Dark Tents. — The 
impossibility of doing this is a most serious draw- 
back to their use. I should be glad shortly, with 
the permission of our Editor, to describe a method 
of working the wet collodion process in the field in 
which this difficulty is entirely overcome.— A. 

1'UMI'H UEY. 

[25355.] — Ventilating Dark Tent. — A good 
method for ventilation of teut is to have an aper- 
ture in upper portiou. on which can lie placed a 
chimney similar to an ordinary magic-lantern 
chimney. I have worked in a tent ou a hot day 
with *uch a chimney only tin. high and with a 
diameter of I'iu.— \V. J. Lancaster. 



[25350.]— Chemical Balance.— I would advise 
you to get Griffin's " Chemical Handicraft." In it 
you will find woodcuts with all the information you 
require. I would willingly give sketches, Ac. hut 
as something like six or eight woodcuts would be 
required, I think it better to recommend you to get 
a book, which will help you very much. I cannot 
recommend you to make a balance, unless vou ere 
an expert in fine work ; there is so much delicate 
work required iu a balance to show 1-lOOth port of 
a grain that I am afraid an nmatoar would, after 
much patience and perseverance, not obtain the 
result he anticipated.— \V. J. Lancaster. 

[25358.]— Double 8 tars.— I have looked at 40 
Lyncis for "Oculus." Uaingafljin. reflector by Calver, 
with a power of 210,1 plainly see the companion of 
this star with a secoud .star of about the 11th 
magnitude at 10" or 12" distance, not mentioned by 
Webb. Tho angle is about 290, and not 40 as 
"Oculus" supposed. "Oculus" will find that 
Proctor's " Atlas '* does show 40 Lyncis, but marked 
as a. I have to thank " F. R. A. S." for his in- 
formation as to the companion of Sirius. I estimate 
the position angle now at only 15' or 20°. If this be 
so, and it was 88* in 18G2. 71 s in 1866 (as stated by 
Webb), and 65° in 187:» (as stated in the letter of 
"F. R. A. S."), it must at present be changing its 
position very rapidly. But is there not an error 
somewhere in these statements P If the angle had 
chnnged 11" in the four years from 1802 to 1800, 
could it bare chauged only 0' in the seven following 
years ? Perhaps before this star passes away for 
thu season " F. li. A. S." will kindly turn his 
telescope upon it and afford the results of his 
observation. May I further ask him whether, if the 
companion shines by reflected light, its position 
would account for its non-visibility for some years 
prior to 1801 ? — Southampton. 

[25358.]— Double 8tars— 40 Lynoia.— " Oculus" 
will find this star in its proper place in Proctor's 
atlas, marked, not with its number, hut with its 
letter, Its distant companion was noted as a 
double star by Sir W. Herschel, and is No. 1,342 of 
the " Dorpat Catalogue." Is there not a mistake 
iu th-i position angle given by " Oculus ?*' Strove 
has P = 320°-91. I) = 17"'895, Epoch 1830-77. I 
observed the star on May 22, 1866, when I estimated 
the mags, of the components 8"9 and 1011, P = 
315° ± : D = 15" ± . Strove marks the small star 
of the 11 mag., whieh estimate seems fully low. — 
Geo roe Knott. 

[25301.]— Rose Trees.— The practical way of 
pruning rose trees is only to be learned by studviog 
the habits of the different varieties, or by taking 
lessons of those who have. I Buppose you do not 
want to know the mere mechanical way. If you do 
not know the names it will possibly be a safe guide 
to prune standards to about 4 or eyes, cuttiag out 
the old branches and the weakest : then of the re- 
mainder cut the weaker back most. In climbers, 
simply cnt away the old and worn-out branches, and 
the nnripened tips of tho new wood. You will find 
that with climbers the more vigorously you cutback 
the more vigorously the branch will grow —to wood, 
not bloom. If you are a rosarian you ought to get 
one of the guides.— Sad l Rtmea. 

[25301.] -Garden.— Cut back the growth of each 
shoot for the senson to within four buds or so of the 
last pruning. Occasionally yon will have to vary a 
littlo according to the strength of the shoot : but. 
ns a general rule, the above will bo fouud to do. — 
Vincent. 

[25306.]— Manure for Potatoes— The potato 
requires a manure containing potash. Cocoa-nut 
fibre and ammonia will not do. The fibre is good 
for opening stiff land ; the ammonia diluted with 
water will force the growth of grass better perhaps 
than anything else.- -Vincent. 

[25373.]— Electrical. — An amalgam of mercury 
to gold or Dutch metal is used I believe directions 
for making it are given in Sir W. Snow Harris's 
book on " Electricity." I think you will prefer the 
IColtss. Try charging the inner cells of tho Grove.*' 
battery with a saturated solution of bichromote of 
potush with 10 per cent, of H 2 S0 4 added.— 
Kathode. 

[25373.] — Electrical. — Alter some seven years' 
science teaching and use of almost overy form of 
electrical machine, I have come to tho conclusion 
that for class work, iu small and sometimes badly 
ventilated rooms, the ordinary cylinder machine is 
by far the best. The plate, whether ordinary glass 
or ebonite in various forms, cannot be warmed 
sufficiently quick for class-room purposes, bnt with 
a cylinder machine and a rose-head burner I have 
obtained a good spark in a few minutes. The sparks 
in less than three miuutes have gone round bottom 
of cylinder from end of silk flap to rubber ; but 
with the plate machine, although several assistants 
have previously warmed and wiped with silk every 
portion yet in some 15 to 20 minutes tho spark has 
diminished fully 50 per cent. ; hence ray preference 
for good cylinder. 2. The best amalgam I know 
consists of tin 1 part, zinc 2 parts, mercury 
parts ; this, when cold, is reduced to a powder and 
well mixed with lard, then applied to robber. The 
cylinder should bo turned in the reverse direction 
for a few moments, then less of the amalgam will be 
wasted. 3. Of t\io three machines you mention I 
prefer the Winter. The Holts I do not altogether 
approve of— tho trouble in gettiug into working 
order is rather too much for a toaciior whose time 
is limited. I would not advise the use of more than 



Digitized by 



48 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE ; No. 574. March 24, 1876. 



ao 18in. Winter ; with thU yon can obtain Sin. 
sparks. With a 15in. plate I last woek obtained a 
fnll 6in. spark, and quite as much as one cares about 
receiving: npon knuckle. 4. The best charge for 
Grove's cells is nitric acid in porous jar, and the 
sulphuric to 10 of water in outer jar ; a cap should 
be made to cover the porous cell. You can also add 
bichromate of potash to the nitric acid ; this 
reduces the evolution of nitrous acid fumes, but I 
prefer the scid alone. 6. I ana not aware of the 
existence of any thermo-electric battery capable of 
producing' electric light; such a battery may in 
time be constructed, but the great expense would 
offer a considerable resistance to purchasers. 6. 
Highton's batteries are not good for obtaining the 
electric light ; Grove's and Bunsen's are tho best by 
far and outweigh all other cells.— W. J. Lancaster. 

[25374.J— Mullein.— There are several species of 
mnllein indigenous to Britain, but I do not know 
whether any one of them is identical with the 
Canadian one. ' The two commonest species with ns 
are the great white mnllein {Verbascum thapsus) 
and the dark mnllein (V. nigrum). Of these I think 
the former is probaory the plant referred to by 
" Segnities." It has many local names, though I 
do not know that velvet dock is one of them ; but as 
it has received the name of vegetable flannel, from 
the woolly texture of its leaves, I think it not un- 
likely. It is also known as hare's beard, torches, 
high taper, shepherd's club, ladies' foxglove, and 
cow's lungwort. Your correspondent may find it 
plentifully on the hedges and roadsides in the vicini- 
ties of Croydon and Dorking, in Surrey ; Hatfield, 
St. Alban's, and Watford, in Hertfordshire; and 
Chalfont, Amersham, and High Wycombe, in Buck- 
inghamshire, in the months of July and Aufrust. It 
is readily recognisable by its densely woolly stem, 
and broad oval leaves of blanket-like substance ; 
and. when in flower, by its conspicuous spike, 4ft. or 
Cft. high, of closely set yellow flowers. As regards 
its medicinal properties I find it stated in Hogg's 
" Vegetable Kingdom " that an infusion of the 
flowers, sweetened with honey, is sometimes used 
as a remedy for colds and coughs ; and, also, that a 
handful of the leaves boiled in a pint of milk till 
reduced to half a pint, strained, and sweetened 
with sugar, forms a pieasant draught for allaying 
coughs, and assuaging the heat of hemorrhoids. 
Dr. W ithering (1797) states the leaves are often 
used as an external application for the latter 
complaint. He also quotes a Dr. Home as an 
authority that a decoction of 2oz. to the quart, 
taken to the extent of a quart daily, is a remedy for 
continued and obstinate diarrhoea. Withering also 
states that it is given, in Norway, to cows which are 
consumptive ; and, from one of its common names 
being cow's lungwort, I suppose it has also a popular 
reputation in this respect in onr own country. It 

G'elds a Urge amount of mucilage, npon which, pro- 
ibly, its efficacy in chest complaints dependB. It 
has also slightly narcotic properties, ana the seeds 
of this and several allied species are sometimes used 
by poachers to stupefy fish. In Lindley's " Flora 
Medic* " it is stated that the flowers of a kindred 
species (V. lichnitis) are used, in many places, as a 
poison for mice. On the whole I believe that as an 
alleviation in consumption and chest diseases gene 
rally it may probably be useful ; but as a remedy I 
fear its use would only result in disappointment.— 
C. J. Savage. 

[35374.] — Mullen. — Mullen, properly Mnllein, 
Verbascum Thapsus (Great Mullein), leaves woolly 
on both sides, running down the stem ; stem simple; 
flowers in dense spikes. Roadsides common. A 
stout herbaceous plant 2-5ft. high, remarkable for 
its large flannel-like leaves and club-shaped spikes 
of' yellow flowers. Two of the five stamens are 
longer than the rest and hairy, the three others 
smooth. The German name for this plant is WolU 
kraut. Walker, in his " Flora of Oxfordshire," 
says : — " A handful of the leaves boiled in a pint of 
cow's milk to half a pint, sweetened andlstrain-ni, 
an emollient medicine." " This draught may be 
taken at bedtime." " The flowers dried in the sun 
give ont a fatty matter which may be used in 
haemorrhoidal complaints," p. 61.— Si bah Nosneb. 

[26874.1— Mullen.— There are six English species 
The most common is the " Great Mullen," er high 
taper {Verbascum thapsus) ; stem, 4ft. to 5ft. high ; 
woolly, nnbranched ; leaves woolly, deenrreut ; 
flowers in a spike, yellow; grows in waste places. 
Several distinct diseases are included under the 
name "consumption," and there is no "specific 
remedy " for them. Certainly mullen is not one, 
though it does good in some cases ; but in tke ease 
of consumption no one ought to play tho dangerous 
part of amateur pbysicinn.— Tressilian. 

[25374.] -Mullein.— Perhaps " Segnities" means 
the great mullein. Verbascum thapsus. This plant 
is n native of England, and usually grows on the 
banks of ditches. It is somewhat plentiful; its 
leaves are large and pointed, a little covered on 
both Bides with thick down, or soft white hair ; its 

Tho above 
)TA. 

[25375.]— Foroes of Impact.— As the energy of 
a moving body varies directly as the square of its 
velocity, when the velocity is doubled, tripled, 
quadrupled, Ac., the force of impact is increased 
fourfold, ninefold, sixteenfold, Ac— C. W. H. 

[25375.]— Forces of Impact. — Any force which 
would impel a ball with a given velocity must be 
doubled if the ball required to be impelled with 



wtu diucd n ftiai uiitK uvnu, ui Buib nuiiv 1 

flowers are yellow ; it flowers in July. Tl 
is abridged from " Brooke's Botany. —Iox 



double the velocity, and increased in a threefold 
proportion if the ball be required to be impelled 
with three times the velocity, and so on. It is 
evident, then, that the moving force of a body will 
be augmented in the exact proportion in which its 
velocity is increased, its mass or quantity of matter 
remaining the same. — Vincent. 

[25376.]— Piano Bridges.— If both the bridges 
were glued 'to the soundboard on which the bass 
strings rest, the knocking of the hammers would be 
unbearable. The knocking of the hammers in the 
piano is much distracting now, although we make 
the wrest plank very solid near which the hammers 
strike the strings.— J. H. Schdcht. 

[25377.]— Piano 8trings— I have made a prac- 
tical experiment, and found the quality of tone rather 
thin, but singing.— J. H. Schocht. . 

[25378.]— Beooil of Firearms.— Firearms will 
recoil if that part behind the cartridge is too light 
in proportion to the rest of the barrel. It makes, 
then, no difference whether a piece is cot off from the 
front, or if that is not desirable the back part may 
be increased in bulk. In both oases the same result 
is gained.— J. H. Schttcht. 

[25378.]— Beooil of Firearms. — As long as the 
projectile remains in the barrel, the gases are press- 
ing on the breech of the gun, and the longer this 
pressure is kept np the greater will be the recoil, 
unless the weight of the barrel is increased in pro- 

Krtion to the increased length ; but increasing the 
igth by adding a few inches to the muzzle does 
not increa.se the weight sufficiently to compensate 
for the extra time the pressure is kept up. Then, 
again, the effect of this pressure increases gradually 
from the instant of ignition of the powder, and in a 
greater ratio than the increase of the pressure itself 
— for two reasons. First— The so -to- speak step by 
step ignition of the powder by which tho gas is 
generated gradually, and the pressure as gradually 
increased being greatest when the projectile is some 
distance np the barrel, and not at the moment of 
ignition. Second— The inertia of the mass of metal 
cannot be instantaneously overcome. It enly admits 
of an accelerated motion— after the manner of falling 
bodies — tho velocity with which the weapon travels 
backwards increasing from the moment of ignition 
to the moment of the projectile leaving the barrel, 
so that the last few inches not only exert an addi- 
tional pressure due to that length, bnt exert that 
pressure in increasing the velocity of the recoil 
which is already taking place, and not in starting 
the weapon from a state of rest. The longer barrel 
would also burn more powder than the shorter one, 
and hence another reason for increase of recoil. — 
W. Wtatt. 

[25378.]— Beooil of Firearms.— To my know- 
ledge recoil is produced mainly by three principal 
.reasons : — 1st, undue narrowing of the bore in front 
of the bullet, as caused by imperfect .boring and 
dirt ; 2nd, by the gunpowder being ignited not 
exactly to its furthest point from the bullet, the 
expansion of gas acts forwards and backwards as 
well, hence repulsion of the weapon against the 
resistance of the atmosphere ; 3rd. by the shape of 
the shoulder-piece or stock of the gun; recoil is 

? reduced in a straight line with the line of fire, and 
he nearer the resistance (of the shoulder to this 
recoil) is to this line the more it is acted on and the 
consequence felt. I might remark that the easy 
firing of the old Swiss carbine, now hardly ever 
seen, was greatly due to the bent shape of the 
stock. As for the length and weight of barrel, 
they have little to do with it, as other guns prove : 
attending to any of the three reasons above will 
answer partly the purpose, supposing the firearm of 
good workmanship, and to be well balanced — that 
is, when held or hung horizontally on . a rest placed 
under the sight, or as near as possible to it, it 
keeps in this position withont difficulty.— Geneve. 

[25379.]— Organ Soundboard.— It is a pity 
your soundboard is not wide enough to get a stopt 
diapason on, as it ought to have one properly. If 
von really cannot find room for it, the dulciana will 
be as good as anything. A slit gamba would be 
very nice : bnt, being so delicately voiced, a little 
dust in the mouth is apt to throw them off their 
voice sooner than a dulciana. The swell is not the 
proper place for a dulciana— it should be on the great 
organ in a two manual, and on the choir organ in a 
three manual. I believe the older organ builders 
used often to put the dulciana in the swell. Of 
course, if it were the case with a very large organ, 
with so many stops that you scarcely Knew what to 
put next, a dulciana then might be put in the swell, 
but for a two-manual organ it is simply useless in 
the swell. The length of the C C C bourdon (scalo 
5}in. by Sin.) would be 7ft. 4in., but I should not 
make the scale any less than 5}in. by fi.Un. Yon 
can manage with an ordinary wind-chest, provided 
yon use very short feet, say 3in. to shoulder, and 
push tho pallet down from the upper side, if yon 
cannot pull them from the under side. I should 
advise a piccolo of ljin. by ljin. (C C) scalo, instead 
of fifteenth.— Uraniom. 

[25380.]— Clock Begulator.— In reply to "In- 
quirer ''—all clocks in England should coincide 
with the standard clock at Greenwich, irrespective 
of longitude of the place. But we require to know 
this diffcrenco in order to obtain Greenwich time 
from our observation of the sun. which gives local 
time. The regulator doscribed in let. 10339, No. 
665, is in reality a rough " transit instrument, and 
shows us when tho snn passes the meridian or 



"souths." In fixing proceed as follows :— From fin 
Nautical Almanac on onr " Astronomical Notes'" 
find the time at which the snn " souths " on the da, 
in question (as only every fifth day is given in tb 
notes, if the day comes between two of the dab* 
given, work out the time for yourself, unaghrini 
the difference from day to day for those five dsyrto 
be constant). Say the time of southing b 
12h. 10m. 3seo. Now if the longitude of your pl*« 
is west, add to this figure 4 minutes for each den* 
of longitude, and 4 seconds for each minute of 
longitude. If east subtract a proportionate amount 
Say your longitude is 2° 10* west, yon will hsva to 
add 8m. 40sec., because the snn will pau yosr 
meridian that much later than it will pus tin 
meridian at Greenwich. Therefore, on that day 
the snn will south with you at 12h. 18m. 43see! 
Greenwich time. Having set a watch to Greenwich 
meantime as nearly as possible (the more accurately 
the better), yon must now fix the instrument (tea 
10339) so that at 12h. 18m. 43sec. by said watch ths 
circle of light is just bisected. The correction 
spoken of by "J. A." (not "T. F. E.") is. u 
described by " F. R. A. S.," mere nonsense ; far 
having once fixed your instrument yon may obtain 
correct time from it any day when the snn shines for 
the rest of your life, by finding what time the bod 
souths at Greenwich, making the correction for 
longitude to find what time it souths with yon, an) 
setting your watch at that time the moment ths 
circle of light is bisected. Use a horsehair instead 
of a thread— pretty heavy weight— and make the 
box of strong well-seasoned wood that will not warp 
if you want it to remain correct for a long now, 
If you make and fix it with moderate care yon will 
find it most thoroughly reliable. — GuiDO. 

[25330.]— Clock Begulator.— In reply to "In. 
quirer," a clock at Liverpool, showing lib. 49m. it 
the moment of Greenwich mean noon, would indicate 
local mean time only. The railway, and nearly all 
clocks in England, Ac., are set to correspond with 
Greenwich mean time irrespective of difference of 
longitude. In Ireland the clocks are set by Dublin 
local mean time, whioh is about 25 minutes later 
than Greenwich. If " Inquirer " sets the regulator 
10 339 true south, he need only correct the wn'i 
noon by the addition or subtraction of equation of 
time and the difference for longitude, as explained is 
letter 10409. The difference arising from the 
earth's motion (spoken of by another contributor, 
"J. A." lotter 10470, not " T. F. R.") is so very 
small that for ordinary purposes it may be entirety 
disregarded.— T. F. R. 

[26381.]— Wood-ohopping Machine. -There ii 
one at work at the pulp mill, Little Eaton, near 
Derby.— W. 

[25381.]— Wood-ohopping Machine.— I b*w 
heard of such machine as need to ehop tender wood 
for paper-making purposes, without sawing; the 
logs were disposed ef at a quick pace, pretty 
regular chips by water or steam power I cannot 
say. I am sorry not to be able to give more par- 
ticulars at present. — Geneve. 

[25382.1— Classification of the Elemeuts.-So 
electro-chemical series can be given, as the position 
of each elemeut varies with the electrolyte used and 
the temperature.— J. B., Belfast. 

[25382.]— Classification of the Elements.-Tbi 
elements nave been arranged in due order in re**™ 
to the positive or negative properties, and the follow- 
ing list will, I hope, give you the information yos 
require. Beginning with electro-negative, and end- 
ing with electro-positive elements, we have them a 
the following order :-0, S, Se, U..F, CI Br. I. P. 



Lancaster. 

[25383.] -Whitewash out of Doors.-Sl*<* 
your lime and directly add at the rate of * donbta 
handful of common salt to a bucket of wash, star 
well and use. This will form a concrete and with- 
stand rain.— Ma nob. 

[25383.]— Whitewash out of Doors.— For whfe 
and coloured washes or colouring, we usually ma 
boiled linseed oil with the sice when hot, stirring 
the same into the whiting or colour, & Uow ™ffJ2 
same to chill before applying to brickwork, tm 
pint of boiled oil to a large size pail is none W 
much. The same may be used in lime wash. —J osEr* 
William Fennbll. 

[25387.1 -Huy ghenian Ey^eoe.-Aboat to 
beBt combination yon could nse would be a -in .aw 
6in., the eye-lens to be plano-convex, and neM-ieni 
I a crossed convex ; they should be mounted H» 
i apart, with a diaphragm l^in. diameter, nt a •»«• 
tance of 2in. from eye-lens. The eye-lens sbonid « 
3in. diameter, and field-lens as nearly 2m. in aw 
meter as your tube will allow.— W. J. Lancaster. 

[23388.] -Pitsroy Barometer.-To "^ed/tlg 
faults in your barometer you must take the y lD v a 
the frame, then empty all the mercury ont of tuoe, 
filter the mercury several times through noter*P« 
rolled into the form of a tundish, with a needle now 
left at bottom for exit of mercury ; then refaU tone, 
and be particular in the removal of least P*rlicleQi 
air. and nil will be well. If yon know the rcdoctio" 
for S L for 29 6 yon know it for all heights.-" • <<• 
Lancaster. 

[25388.] -Pitsroy Barometer— The barorort« 
with liu. of air in the tube is absolutely u«Ja* 
The tube must be removed and the tube turneo 



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24, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 674 



topty-tarvey and tapped gently to make the air run 
up some of the reversed tube. Probably the tube 
will require heating, and probably also the mercury 
boiling- The air can only have got in from one of 
t«ro causes; it is either badly constructed or it. baa 
been carried about without the screw at the bottom 
herns screwed up. -15. i\ A. 

J8SS88.] — Lubricator. — We use needle lubri- 
cators for any shafting running above 25 revolutions 
per minut-. and below that where the bearings are 
«0 situated that it is inconvenient to get at them, 
being quite satisfactory.— Old MA.N. 

[85368.] — Lubricator. — I have a gas-engine 
which I run at about 80 revolutions per minute 
shafting runs at 120, and machiue at 100. I do 
not work engine more than three or four hours a 
day, an ) well oil shafting once a week, with an oil 
cm, unless I run engine more thau usual. I always 
found it act well. This plan I have followed about 
two years.— Rei.if.uk. 

(35380.J— Begilding Ormolu.— Grind well in 
a anller nitrate of potash, alum, and oxide of iron, 
to which add a solution of auuatto, or saffron, 
according to the tint desired, until the mixture 
hecomes a thin paste. Smear this on by means of a . 

task, and if the gilding is ntrong and thick the i { 8 important to " H." I think a small turbino would 
clock mnst be heated until the previous coat curls ' ,e *' 10 most economical means of working the lift. 

In the ordinary cylinder lifts as much water would 
be used for lifting 2cwt. as for 4cwt. — W. Wtatt. 



led away to the hearths to bo risod. At S is 
pinion and ratchet by which a piece at f may be 
raised or lowered and the amount of blast regulated 
at the fan, that which cannot enter the opening 
being thrown back. If U T. B." wishes I will send 
a section and further description. — Kathode. 

[26397.]— German Bullfinches.— Give them as 
many different kinds of seed as you can — rape, 
millet, canary, poppy (maw), lettuce, hips, haws, a 
few groats, a few hemp seeds. A treat to thc« is a 
pinch or two of hay-loft sweepiugs, in which th«>y 
find seeds. Give tuom a variety of gieen food; 
twigs with the buds sprouting they delight in. If 
you want to find the way to their hearts give them 
apple and pear pips. I always carry a little box of 
pips and hemp Bcod and give the birds one when- 
ever I come near the cages ; they hop down when I 
approach and take the seeds from my fingers. Let 
the cages remain in the same position ; bullfinches 
don't like change of domicile. Give plenty of water, 
they are great bathers. Don't let tho perches be 
high from the floor of cage, and keep them very 
clean. Be careful not to offend the bullfinch. — 
Si bah Nosjjeb. 

[25399.]— Hydraulic Lift.— If economy of water 



•t the approach of a wetted finger. If thin, 
We gilding is simply allowed to stand a few minutes. 
Wash well and quickly in a bath of warm water, 
holding in suspension a certain amount of the 
nsttrials for ormolu, then dry quickly, when thoy 
will appear of a darker shade. Remove any portions 
too much coloured by striking vertically with a 
brash of long bristles. If the gilding is not satis- 
fsetory. wash in a diluted solution of sulphuric 
said, and try ngain.— Shifting Clack. 

fiMW.] — Tobacco. — Professor Johnston says, 
■ in* ' Chemistry of Common Life:" — "The 
aborigines of Central America rolled up the 
tobacco leaf and dreamed away their lives in smoky 
rvrenes ages before Columbus was born. It is 
supposed to bo n native of tropical Amorica. In 
IMS Columbus found chiefs of Cuba smoking 
cigars. In 1600 it was brought to France by Nicot, 
and in l.'tSO to England by Sir Francis Drake aud 
tis colonists of Sir Walter Raleigh. It was 
introduced into Xurkey and Arabia about 1610. I 
looked a pipe that was made (as near as I can make 
otttl in the seventeenth century ; 1 found it near 
HM, After a year's smoking it came to grief. 

flSSBl)— Tobacco. — Columbus found that the 
nstiret of the West Indies smoked rolls of a plant 
cilled by them tobacco. — Kathode. 

[M898.]— Pebbles.— The advantages possessed by 
toek crystal over glass, when used for spectacle 
•bsio, are— first, a much greater hardness. This 
allows of a much better polish than the glass, and 
the polish is retained for a much longer time ; hence 
tkeir assistance in retarding the ordinary decay of 
Hfbt. Secondly, p<?bhle being a much better con- 
ductor of heat keeps the surface of eye cooler than a 
would do. The refractive index of rock 
<*yid*l it not of any moment ; much glass is used 
■jdow and above the refractive index of rock crystal. 
torn are pebble s in the market that will «ive rise 
to more harm than ordinary glusi. These bud ones 
on be easily detected between two Nicol's prisms, 
aod should never be worn.— W. J. Lancaster. 

1) — BLast Fans. — Have given rough 
' of inside of fan. They sometimes run at 




[25 KM.] — Lathe Bands. — I answer Edward 
Hooker's query with reserve, because I have not 
experimented with leathern belting. So for as 
elasticity is concernod I see no difficulty if the 
screw tension system is applied, nor any reason 
why leather belts should not answer just as well as 
gut bands for all puri>oses of " sliding. But I should 
apprehend some little irregularities ia accuracy of 
time for screw-cutting purposes. Belting must be 
ruu either on pulleys with a convex surl'aco, or, if 
the surface bo flat, it must be guarded with flanges ; 
and both present difficulties. Auy ono who has 
watched a belt miming over convex pulleys must 
have observed that it hardly ever keens a dead true 
course, and unless it does so it will bo drawing ou 
slightly varying diameters. When u flat pulley is 
guarded with flanges or beads the belt will con- 
stantly show a tendency to run up the bead or 
flaugo. or at any rate to bear so hard against it 
that the time might bo influenced. An ovorhead, 
such as has been described will only take about 
25ft. of gut to meet all its many different purposes ; 
and this is an outlay in which tho difference of cost 
between gut band and leather belting can hardly 
weigh at all when balauced against the great con- 
venience of hooks and eyes in practical use, the 
lighter appearance aud huudling, and the economy 
of wood in the width required for the pulleys. — 
D. H. G. 



UNANSWERED QUERIES. 



Tht numbers ani title* of qtirrie* which remain unan- 
swered for Ave teeefcs art inserted in this list, and if ttili 
unanswered art repeated four weeks afterword*. We trust 
our renders urill look over the lurt, and send vKut information 
they can far the benefit of tlieir jellovwontribulor*. 



Since our last "Rclirmr" has answered 21628: W. J. 
Lancaster. 21710, 24««; " 11. T. U.." 24383; " Hob Hoy" 
and " John," 24026. 

24741. Tho Pnraklta. p. 4C4. 

21749. Blue Dye tor Cotton, 40*. 

2*752. Chrome Steel, 4TA. 

24750. Rouge.— Cyanide Solution. 4S4. 

247<!5. India. Railway Kmploym?ut m. Ml. 

54775. Electric Bell Indicator, 464. 

9080, Pianoforte Notes Dam pad, 435. 

24787. Small Stoel Castings, 4uj. 

24788. Dynamometer, 485. 
2*7.40. Kuamelling Sveamoro, 4S>. 
24795. 8. E. R. Locomotive*, 465. 
24001. Pattern Makiii.'. 465. 



■Ott. Rifle-shootinr. p. JOT. 

25048. Floor-ooTerinr. 56s. 

250W. Scarfing Sow-blnd-n. .WK. 

25050. KUing Colour on Book i :•'--<■ \ 

25051. Colouring Photos on Porcolaia, SOS. 
2505J. Certificated Colliery Manager, 408. 
25053. Hotel Lift*. 669. 

25055. Automatic Cltanging-bax, 568. 

25058. Railway Coupling. 569. 

250U0. Rifle-bullet Problem. 538. 

25064. Manufacture of Brusd, 5^8. 

25070. Keyed Viol. 568. 

25071. Meteoritio Iron. 5»W. 
25086. Stone Pollshimr. 569. 
25080. Bronze Ink, 569. 

2509 4. Galvanic Soale Prorenter for Steam Boilers, 509 

95005. Aeroplane. 569. 

25098. Kleetrioity, *o., 59J. 

BS066. Striking Pore? of Press, 559. 

25100. Varnishing Print-., 5oV. 

25101. Rifle Barrels 569. 
25104. Sails. Tanning, 569. 

25106. Sails for Oanvai Doit. 569. 

25107. Purifying Colza Oil, 569. 



QUERIES. 



revolutions per minute. The size, not tho 
aomber of revolutions, is altered when a larger 
Hoofit of air is required.— X. X. X. 
.t^W.l— Blaat Fans.— A B is an iron box 3ft. 
«t. in diameter ; within it whirls the fan, a a a a, 
of four arms supplied with vnnes, 
with great rapidity on their centre; 




It*? openin S in tne centre for the air to 

fan. As the air enters at o it is whirled 



[25103.]— Embossing on Glass.— The better 
mt-thod for you to employ is that of frosting the 
glass by the gas, and not using the liquid on tho 
glass. The method consists in having a gutta- 
percha or leaden trough as large as the surface to 
receive same; then, into this trough place a suffi- 
cient quantity of hydrofluoric acid to fill it to about 
iin. in depth. Tho glass covered with' wax, with 
the exception of those portions to bo frosted, should 
then be laid on top of tray until the frosting is 
completed, then remove wax and well wash.— W. J. 
Lancaster. 

[25KW.]— Flute.— Has Mr. Abbott triod to bring 
his flute up to pitch by semwiug the cork iu ? If iu 
London he ought decidedly to take the instrument 
to the maker's, as it seems a ino*t extraordinary 
thing that a concert flute should be half a tone 
below pitch.— 8. Mater. 

[25-112.]— Ventilation without Draughts.— The 
simplest and most efficient way to do what is re- 
quired is to have a hollow skirting, connected with 
openings to the outside, this skirting to be perforated 
its wholo length with a row of small holes in such 
a position as to direct the in-coming air upwards. 
An opening in the upper part of the roof, controlled 
by a shutter, will enable the ventilation to be kept 
under complete command, and the in-coming air will 
be so widely distributed us to be inappreciable in any 
part of the room. — T. P. 

[25411.]— Soft Impression Metal.— In answer 
to J. B. Purvis (p. bismuth can be purchased at 
10s. or I2s. per lb., not 2-ls. as stated. I use. instead 
of a bismuth alloy, pure grain tin. Possibly the 
failure may be accounted for by the fact that abso- 
lute dryucss of the die is essential — i.e., it must have 
been recently made very warm, and must be at the 
time of using warmer than the air of the room. The 
nearest trace of moisture from tho air or the hand 
will often completely spoil the reverse impression 
by the formation of steam between the two metal 
surfaces. — T. F. 

[25114.]— Soft Impression Metal — Mr. Purvi3 
should try equal parts of bismuth, lead, and tin. I 
should be inclined to try load and tin with small 
quantities of antimony and bismuth.— S. Mater. 

[25-120.] — Sraoe's Battery. — The fault is 
evidently duo to a faulty connection. You will 
have probably to take the coil to pieces before 
finding the bad connection. Tho batteries may be 
easily tested with a galvanometer, but from your 
description the cells aro in perfect order. You 
should never put such au excess of acid— 1 to 10 is 



u^Zjl - «"» »" »<■ " « l wumuu fuoiuu never pui sucn hu excess oi acid— 1 to 10 is 

•adV uk: chamber, a 1J. »nd d.T.v.rcd from the quit • strong enough for auy worav-W. J. L.w- 
•«"• we arms, o, into the opening, C, whence it is J caster. 



[25481.1— Instantaneous Shutter.— Will any of 
your readers kindly inform me how to make a simple 
shutter to tlx on hood of lens ? And nlso if tho naked 
flamo of a lamp burning a mixture of salt and spirits 
would be practically non-actinic for a very quick process ? 
— Dbms. 

[25485.]-8peed of Trains.-C an any one tell me 
souio facts nliont American express™ t I have seen lately 
paragraphs in the papers about Yandi-rbilfs wild-oat*, 
imply inir that they travel at a mile a minute. As a rule I 
have always undor„tood that America* trains are slower 
than English. — (j. 

[25488.]— Planimeter — Will any correspondent of 
the listn HMS4M0 Kindly favour mo with an expla- 
nation of tho mathematical principle involved in the con- 
struction and working of the instrument called tho plani- 
meter, nsed for calculating anal ? — A Pooa Jf awt. 

[2M37.]— Electric Clocks.— I was glad to see in 
10577 " Iostcphsnm " make mention of electricity from a, 
point of view which encourages me to put a question. Are 
electric clocks on a small or large scale at all to be 
depended on— that, is, graathlg thoy wjll go ? How much 
are they interfered with by changes iu the condition and 
temperature of the air, or by the gradual loss of strength 
in the battery which drives tlicm r and is there any w*y 
of compensating theui P I rooimtly examined ono made by 
Messrs. A. Billeret and C. Morn, Pari«. Itdlfforol from 
tho one described by " Bhwtra," 10553, in having only ono 
magnet, aud that plaoed horizontally in the oentro, and 
required only one battery, Tho dimensions of the case 
wore not morn than about 12iu. by 8in., and the price 
about E4. I did not notice any arrangement for insuring 
the supply from the battery being constant in power ; and 
it seoms to mo that any variation in this would altogether 
interfere with its success a« n timekeeper. This is the 
point " lostephanns " Jut touched a pen, nnd I should be 
(.•lad if he or any other subscriber to " ours " would say 
more about it. I h»ve also a dosiro to have in connection 
with the clock an Blsotrio hell to aet as nn alarum. Would 
the tamo battery do for both ? nnd what would be the 
ho<t way of connecting it so as to insnro its always going 
off at the same tinio ? Iu tbo plans suggested in various 
letters for attaching an electric alarum to au ordinary 
clock it see 'us to me tiu-y would altogether upsnt the regu- 
larity of the clock, whensj I dou't think this could pos- 
sibly bo the ease iu nn electric clocU if the connection were 
pn.pcrly made.— T. llr.r.unr.T. 

[254S8.]-A Cheup a> d Simple Clock.-E. B. 

rvBXtmj says, " In any work on hydraulics the dimen- 
sions of such n v - . 1 uiay found as will allow tho water 
to flow out with ,u ,1 f,,iv. whether it be full or almost 
empty." I rath r think that anv work on hydraulics 
would show this impossible. The velocity of efflux 
depends on the hei.'ht of liquid column above "the orifice. 
Tho form and dimnu.iuu; of the vessel can have no effect 
upon it.— C. W. II. 

[25499.]— Hothearth.— Will some one kindly assist 
me with a plan of a g,n il hothearth for cooking purposes, 
brick front, to burn ODks if possible, for tho sakoof clean- 
liness, nnd oblige — A Coos f 

[•A'.tM.]— The Plonet Vuloan.-Can •' P. R. A. 8.," 
or auy of your a.troiioujiuU sulisonoors tell mn if thooxts- 
tanea ei the planet Vulcan within the orbit of Mercury ia 
rpoth«^^-T^J. J 



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ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE ; No. 574. March 24, 1876. 



[25491.1— Bepeating Watch.— Will any reader who 
is a watciunaker kindly let an improver know how to set 
up the repeating main-spring of a repeating watch ? I 
have purchased an old French repeater with ohain action, 
have put the watch correctly together, but cannot see 
how to set up the main-spring, and how the quarter-piece 
is moved by the pallet on main-spring arbour. — A Yodho 
Watch Impboveb. 

[23462.1— Linen "Webs.— Would Mr. Andrews or J. 
B., Belfast, explain the meaning of linen webs being judged 
by their fineness ? For instance, a web is said to be a 
twenty-hundred. Does it mean that if 1 yard or 36in. be 
taken and the number of threads counted in that yard 
that they will be found 2,000 ? If the linen be examined 
by a lens set in a brass frame with a circular opening at 
its bottom must not the diameter of the circular opening 
be A in., so that every thread counted in this circular 
opening may represent 100 threads in the web P— T. Mac. 

[25403.]— Wire Bopea— Will any kind reader inform 
me what is the best composition for ooating wire ropes P 
I have some 1,000ft. working np and down inclines, and 
are supported by iron rollers 18ft. apart. The composition 
we always have is hot tar and greaae, but this in a few 
days will wear off from constant friction on the rollers 
and the effects of wet weather. If any of my brother 
readers can mention any substance that will produce a 
harder and firmer coating will oblige— Bablwydgm. 

[25494.1— Crusaders.— Can any of your readers give 
me any information on the following subject ? On the 
tombs of the crusaders son.o of the effigies nre represented 
with their legs crossed at the knee and others only at the 
ankle. Is there any reason for the difference in position ? 
—Mat. 

[25495.1— Wheel-Train Movement.— Will any of 
your readers tell me how I can get an equal movement of 
index from a wheel-train by a regular increase of weights ? 
For instance, I take the mechanism of a Dutch clock, 
remove the escapement and pendulum, and rnbstituto a 
fan. I place a weight, cay. of 21b. on the chain and set 
the hand at 12. In one hour's time I will assume that the 
band has travelled from 12 to 2. I set the hand at 12 and 
place a weight of 41b. on the chain, but I find that the 
hand will not travel double the distance in the same space 
of time. The velocity of movement of hand docs not 
increase in proportion to the weight. By whvt means 
shall I obtain a correspondence of movement of baud or 
index with increase of weight, taking the increase of 
weight at regular gradations of from 21b. to 601b P — 
Speculator. 

125496.]— Spinal Disease.— For the last three and a 
halt years I have been suffering from this disease. About 
ho If- way down my back there is a rather sharp anglo. 
below which the spine is curved inwardly, causing me to 
carry myself in a lordly way. Three years ago I bad to 
undergo an operation, which was performed by an eminent 
practitioner. The treatment he adopted was cauterisa- 
tion. The wounds thus caused soon discharged freely, and 
remained open for about six weeks. This made the spine 
a little stralghter, and for a year and a half the case pro- 
gressed slowly, but well, until I was able to walk out a 
little. Since this time, however, I have gained no 
strength, and during the last month have been much 
worse than usual. There is no pain except when I am 
upright, and then the back seems too weak to support the 
weight above. In addition to this my legs are numbed 
and so weak that I can scarcely walk. What is the cause 
of this ? My general health is good, and age twenty- 
three. If some correspondent can say how the back or 
legs can be made stronger the information will be thank- 
fully received.— W. K. 

[25497.]— Dialytio Telescope-To W. Olditbld.— 
I am at present constructing a a inly tic telescope of the 
same size and according to the formula and instructions 
you gave in " ours " some months ago, and, as I wish to 
have the instrument as near optical perfection as possible, 
I shall feel much obliged if you would kindly inform me 
as to the best mode of smoothing and polish in? the object- 
glass and correctors. If you v. on Id favour me with a 
description of the cement polisher I shall feel deeply 
grateful.— Ehoivb Erfctob. 

[25498.1— Astatic Needle. — Perhaps some kind 
reader will solve the following problem, as it is beyond my 
reasoning powers :— When the two needles of an astatic 
pair are of an equal strength the needles set at right 
angles to the magnetic meridian develop the mechanical 
reason of this deportment. Is dia-magnetism a polar 
force ? How can I (rain admission to the Science School 
held at South Kensington, and ou what conditions ?— 
Caxalodcvuh.. 

[25409.]— Arsenious Acid.— I wast a correct method 
of correcting a standard solution of arsenious moid which I 
use for testing bleaching powder.— W. J. 0. 

[25500.1-Coating for Lead Pipes.— We have 2 or 
3 miles of lead-pipe in uto at our place which the rats 
have commenced to gnaw. Can any reader tell me of a 
composition with which to coat tbo pines that will -keep 
the rats away ? It has been suggested that pitoh or 
arsonio and plaster of Paris would answer the purposs ? 
If so, what proportion ; and how is it best applied ? The 
nature of the business* prevents our keeping a cat. — 
T. B. J. 

125501.1— Chloride of Silver Battery— I have 2 
cells of this battery in which the chloride seems to be 

Suite decomposed. I should, therefore, bo greatly in- 
ebted to any correspondent who would tell me the best 
method of renewing the samo P— Uveas. 

[25502.]— Cleaning Vellum.— Could any of your 
readers kindly give me a receipt for cleaning vellum? 
I have a photographic album, the cover of which has 
become very dirty, and wish to get some idea for cleaning 

it.— F.XCEL8IOB. 

[25503 ]— Physical OeogTaphy.— In J. Maoturk's, 
F.B.O.S.. " Physios! Geography," published by Cohn's, 
)>* gives the weight of the earth at 5.425.0!>2.500,000,000,- 
000,000 tonsP How does he come to this conclusion, 
cd| ceially when it is a doubtful point what the interior 
of the earth consists of ?— Bids. 

[25504.]— Engine Boiler.— What 'a the best way of 
preserving the boiler of a small Cornish engine, the me of 
which U not required for a good many month* ? !>hould 
it be filled with water or left dry ? In fact, what should 
•*• to it and the machinery to preserve them ?— W. D. 



[25505.1— Overhead Gear.— To " D. H. G."-I am 
constructing one of " D. H. G.'s " admirable overheads 
for my lathe. I would like to know if he considers a 
screwed rod to unite the lower ends of the swinging frame 
(marked D in Fig. 12, p. 493) would be an improvement, 
so as to take the outward thrust produced by spindle 
centres, and relieve the bearers of the secondary frame 
from so much pressure ? — Ovkbhead. 

[25506.]— Metal Organ Pipes.— I have looked over 
the back numbers of more than two years, and have 
endeavoured to find some sketch or description of the 
manner in which metal pipes are made, but have failed. 
As there are several readers who, like myself, are more 
used to working in metal, I think it is not unreasonable 
of me in asking some of the organ contributors to send a 
description, with sketches, of the manner in which they 
are made ?— TwttTO. 

[26507.] — Harmonium Beeds in Organs. — 
Would the correspondent who in So. 572 gave a descrip- 
tion of his pedal reed soundboard, kindly tell me if a 2in. 
wind is sufficient to work the reeds and make them speak 
promptly ; and whether the ordinary 16ft. bourdon reeds 
will do ? Also would he give me some of the principal 
dimensions of the soundboard ? — Bobbdon. 

[25508.1— A Cheap and Simple Clock.— I was 
rather pleased with the novelty of E. B. Fenncssy's 
clock, but would it not be very sloppy ? Where is the 
water to run to ? Could it not be made with a weight ? 
I do not understand exaotly where or how tbo spiral 
spring is to go. He also does not give the dimensions of 
wheels, length of pendulum, size of pallets, &o. The 
wheels are, perhaps, not so particular, except in having 
the right number of teeth ; but what length ought pen- 
dulum to be ? Is the escape-wheel right in having only 
30 teeth or pins : or does the pendulum beat back ward? 
and forwards ea/h time to one piu ? Could not the hour 
hand be made to go the right way. as it appears to me in 
the drawing that it must go backwards ? I should like 
to make a clock of this description if it can be done with 
a weight, but water, I think, will be rather a messy 
affair. Lf Mr. Fcnnessy will answer these few questions 
I shall be obliged, as I nave some old clock wheels by me, 
and will set aboftt making one in a few days, when I have 
a little more time.— Clock. 

[25509.] — Prurigo. — I was under the treatment of a 
physician some three months for an eruption. After 
several consultations it was pronounced to be prurigo 
simplex, and treatment commenced accordingly. I was 
well dosed with bichloride of mercury, liquor arsenic, and 
so on ; finally polished off with sulphur and mercury 
ointment. I was then pronounced cured. Having passed 
the winter tolerably free from the eruption, I now find it 
is gradually coming on again. Would some correspondent 
kindly say what I had better do now, as I do not want to 
go under such treatment again if I can help it ? Having 
only a weak constitution the ointment, fee., nearly killed 
me at the time, as I was much salivated with it unex- 
pectedly.— Noswa D. 

[25510.1— Pitching Wheel Models.— Would say 
reader inform me how to pitch a small wheel model whose 




DIAZ 



diameter is 2} ^in. P The drawing is full size, tooth and 
space the exact shape.— Hufham. 

[25511.1— To " Sigma."— In the example given by 
you. illustrating electrical resistance (Vol XIII., p. 450, 
of the English Mscbahic), you state the internal 
resistance of the 3 Daniell's batteries employed as follows : 
'390, '64, 1*9 ; but in Jenkin's " Electricity and Mag- 
netism," p. 223, it is stated—" The resistance of the cell 
(Daniell's) described above, with very porous Wedgwood 
pots, perhaps does not exceed 4 ohms— 6 or 10 ohms is a 
much more common resistance." In another part of the 
same volume, when speaking of the charge of a bichromate 
cell, Jenkins, quoting Latimer Clark, gives the following 
proportions :— 2os. bichromate, 20oz. of water, and lOoz. 
sulphuric acid on the carbon side ; and saturated solution 
of common salt on the sine side. The proportion of sul- 
phuric acid is so much above that recommended by your- 
self and others, that I think there must be some mistake. 
Will you kindly endeavour to enlighten me in respect to 
the above two questions P — 8. P. 

[25512.]— German Plaster Cast Competition. 
— Can any one say if the German prize for a preparation 
for preserving plaster oasts has been awarded, or when it 
will be?— A Cokpstttob. 

[25513.] — Boring Cylinders.— Will some corre- 
spondent kindly inform me how to bore small cylinders 
from lin. diameter and upwards— how tho cylinder is to 
be fixed in the lathe, and what kind of cutter to use ? — 
F. C. Putlbt. 

[25514.]— Camera Stand.— Win Mr. Lancaster, or 
some other correspondent, kindly tell me the best way to 
make a portable stand for a tourist's camera ?— J. Pocock. 

[25515.]— Magic-Lantern.— I have a quarter plate 
photographic lens which I wish to use as a lantern. Will 
some one give me the information how to proceed, and 
the kind of lamp that would be best with little trouble, 
as I cannot go to the expense of gas-bags, Ac. ? I have 
nothing but the lens, and a few slides, and no knowledge 
of the matter ?— Bxuxca. 

[25516.]— Micro Photos.— Will any reader pleaso 
say what collodion is best for the above ? I have tried 
Mawson's and Hnggon's, and the film is coarse. Also say 
what developer and fixing is best ? — Old Photograph kr. 

[25517.]-Colouring Matter.— Will any of the 
chemical correspondents of the English Mcchakic 
inform me of something which would communicate a 
claret colour to water, and that would not render the 
water poisonous ?— Leigh. 

[25518.] -Preserving Fruit.— I should feel ex- 
tremely obliged to any of your numerous subscribers if 



they conld give me particulars of the best mode of » 
seiving fruit by steam ? Also the process and probable 
cost of fitting up small steam apparatus for boilhw. ur 
from 601b. to lOOlb. at a time P— H. P. " 

[25519.]— Whiskey.— Will you permit me to think 
" Scotch Distiller" (24758) for replying to my qntrt. 
May I now ask " Mechanical Spirit to be so good u to 
favonr us with his formula for purifying whiskey of hud 
oil, seeing that he so distinctly disapproves that which 
" Scotch Distiller " has stated P-Coosac. 

[25520.]— Building Society tiuery.-I had t mo- 
siderable number of £10 shares in a building society, a 
few years ago it got into difficulties. I withdrew 47 ia 
each share on the understanding that the remaiainz £3 
should be paid shortly. I can now get neither the £3 per 
share nor any interest, although the society is tuU 
carrying on business, has funds in the bank, and is psyins 
good interest to the ordinary new shareholders. Otm aaj 
of your numerous readers kindly advise me what to do?- 
Pbbscot. 

[25521.]— Artichoke.— Is it possible to use the bark 
of the Jerusalem artichoke plant as a paper paste fluff? 
Has any one tried it, and was the result satisfactory ?— 
Oehbvb. 

[25522.1— Borax.— Are the fumes of a borax refinery 
injurious to certain vegetables and flowers P A neighbour 
favours mo often with such soapsad smell that I would 
like to know if it has a consequence on some of my g&rden'i 
crops, which appear strange ?— Gj sieve. 

[25523.1— Oxyhydrogen.— Can any onesay what hit 
become of that wonderful light that was to send the gas, 
lime, and all other lights in the dark for brilliancy, poner, 
and cheapness P I heard a good deal of it some yean 140, 
and would like to know how it is tliat queries and aoiwen 
in this paper on illuminating matters never refer to it?— 
Geneve. 

[25524.]— Cverhead Motion.— How would it do to 
fix the main shaft and fly-wheel overhead, and drive it 
with cranks at the ends outside the hearings ? A second 
shaft might be added whore groat speed is wanted, or to 
allow of adjustment so as to enable tho same band to b» 
used for change pulley*. For the latter purpose ths 
intermediate shaft would not be wanted if some tolerably 
good "take up" appliance could be added, and thus 
direct action would be secured. This is merelv a crab 
idea, but possibly something might bo done with it. Tat 
length of the " pitmen " or connecting rods of light iron 
would not be a serious objection, and the fly-wheel over- 
bead would certainly be out of the way, unless it ouoe 
oat of the bearings and descended on the operator, to 
punish him for slovenly work in putting it up.— H. B. 

[25525.]— Contents of Tanks.— Conld any of yosr 
contributors supply me with a ready formula for oalculs- 
ting the number of gallons of liquid in horizontal boilen 
used as stock tanks, when not completely filled. I ban 
them 25ft . long, and 6ft. diameter, with flat ends, and 18ft. 
long by 4ft. in diameter, with egg ends, and cannot easily 
tall the number of gallons in them unless when fall or 
half full.-H. B. F. 

[25526.1— Bed Varnish.— Can any reader informs* 
how to colour a varnish made with fused amber, dryin| 
linseed oil, and oil of turpentine, a transparent red colour, 
without the introduction of any pigment ?— A Leaxuk. 

[25527.]-Bisulphide of Carbon.-I wi into 
rested in the remarks lately given in your journal 00 
bisulphide of carbon. Could any one give particulari « 
apparatus and process by which grease, 4c., is ertrsctw 
from refuse by this important chemical P Can Uswpkw 
of carbon be got cheap, what docs it cost, Ac. * abj 
information will oblige — Refuse. 

[25528. l-Oreasy Silk.— Can any one tell nievrW 
to do with a thick blaok silk that is wearing perfertil 
greasy, although almost now? Is there anything wm 
which to sponge it without taking to pieces P— Jesst. 

[25529.]— Barometer.— I have pnrchased a 8 wis 
timepiece with barometer attached. During this «torrnj 
weather the arrow points at "fair," and never vans, 
more than a lin., and that towards " change, u » 
barometer in proper working order? Should no 
arrow point more towards " rain " or " stormy < 
do the letters "L.T." mean on the barometer msij 
Please give general information for reading the dial «is»" 
— prrvniER. 

[25530.1-Peroxide of Manganese. -I ■ 
method for testing peroxide of manganese wits o»» 
sold and potassium permanganate.— W. J. 0. 

[25531.],- Assaying Iron Ore.-How can I make 1 
complete assay of iron ore ?— W. J. 0. , 

[25532. 1-Hardening a Coffee-Mill Flag -, 
have a coffee-mill which u worn out. The plug w of am 
iron, 3in. long and 4in. in diameter, which IhavsiOH^ 
and filed up ; but I don't know how to harden it ««■ 
Will any of your readers kindly inform me how to do n 
and help— One ih a Fix ? 

[25533.]— Algebra.— Required the value of * to* 
equation *» + 4* - 3** + 6** - ** + 10x» - * = I00, 

WILLIAM B.KID. 

[25534.]-Plax, Jute, and B.emp-1* there « 
decisive method of determining tho difforrope o«">^ 
fibres of flax, jute, and hemp, by chemical or microscope 
analysis P I fail to discern the spiral markiogson » l 
treated with nitric acid as described in a ^J **?*™ 
dictionary. I have heard that somo process of dyeing 
effectual.— Abcarum. „ 

[255S5.]-Coil.-Will «' 8igma," " Indnctoriam. ( ° 
any of your readers kindly inform me how to m 
induction coil to give J" spark when worked by a wi- 
of Daniell's cells P — Zxbo. ^ 

[255S6.]-Extra Quick Aoting LeM^i^S 
to Mr. Lancaster for advice on tho above. * l " , thJ 
since, being determined to have the best Jvjf-^eri 
money could bujr. I obtained from one of toe oe» » ^ 
in London an advertised " Extra-rapid" C'^'Vi. ' am 
meter 3tin.. focus 6in., at a oost of £35- I °L t e*< 
suring carefully (sun focus) tho focus to be Jt ^ 
of 6in. Now, the optical work boing of •g/jgaj hj 



be very glad if it could bo done, because ino i «• ^ 
great difference to me, it being impossible to »°« L-ojjer'i 
studio to suit the lens. As heretofore, Mr. a*» 
advice will be thankfully received by— Or 7 * 11 *' 



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'• 2 f^-' — f l0 £ 0mt>t 'Y?? ,— J^ 14 jP r °P° rtion should ! insulated from the primary coil by a thin wooden tube. 

' When I work Die contact-bieaker by hand I can get a 
small spark from the platinum on the contact-breaker, 
and also a shock ; bnt the contact-breaker will not work. 
Tho core does not get magnetised sufficiently to attract 
the armature, I think. I will take it as a groat farour if 
some correspondent will tell me how to remody tho defect. 
— W. Roberts. 



i tractive force per pound of effective steam pressure 
bear to the adhesive weight of a locomotive to give the 
bat results ? What is the difference in steadiness and 
ease of running, nnd in wear and tear between engines 
with inside and outsiie frames and hearings, and engines 
with inside frames only? What is the best form and 
position of the sand-boxes ? — Mew. 

iiSVW ;— Repairing Clinical Thr-rraometer.— 
Can any correspondent tell me if it is possible to repair a 
clinical thermometer in which tho mercurial index has 
been shaken down into the bulb from too rough usage ? 
If possible, eon anybody tell mo how it is to be manaaed ? 
lata told the opticians can do it, but will not, a* they 
prefer to sell a fresh instrument,— Clinical Thermo- 
nra. 

1S5.T9.] — Photometer — W.mM ^„,o„n i kindly gira 
me a description of this instrument, its use, and the 
motbod of using it t— Cycloid. 

[J5510.]— Supporting Mirrors.— Unving with much 
interest read your late account of Mr. Ln«eU'8 method of 
piraboli,ing specula. I should h> d u\ if ; lM v < .f •• ,iui -i " 
could inform me of the means used by Mr. L. for support- 
in? both the l'iin.aud 24in. mirrors, as it Is quite as need- 
ful to retain a perfect figuro ns to ohtutn it. I bore I 
shall not be considered obtrusive by reminding Rev. II. C. 
Key of his kind promise a few mouths a«-o to give us some 
aceouit of his experience in thn above branch of optical 
work. I um sure it would be most gladly received by 
many of our friends.— J. Cobiistt. 

[35441.] -Object-Glass by Tulley.-I have one in 
my possession 4in. diameter, focus 8(t., rather greenish in 
colour. It is very good for the moon, shows Jupiter's 
belts, but indifferently, stars with a wing not well defined 
and round, therefore useless for donhlo »tnrs. Can any 
one inform_ me if its definition could bo improved bv 
reminding it, nnd what wouhl he tho iirobaMe expense ? 
So objection to having thorcby its focal length lessened.— 
Walk am Grove. 

[25M2.]— Dork Boom — Many able replies to my last 
query have induced me to ask advice again. How can I 
loppM a small window so as to mako a good dnrk room ? 
I have tried covering with yellow paper, but. would like 
something more stable. — Jamks Tclloch. 

[SSM3.1 — Preserving Tennis Net.— Will any 
reader inform me the beat way to preserve a net made of 
ordinary string to be used for lawn tennis P — F. R. 

[36541.]— Cream-Coloured Glazo.— Will some of 
your readers kindly tell me of a good cream-coloured glare 
tor common pottery articles ?— Kaolin. 

[25515.]— Organ Btops.— Would "Uranium," or 
some correspondent, tell me the difference between the 
German gamba and viol di gam ha, and which of the 
canitus is most suited to a hall organ ? I think of build- 
me a hall organ soon, and should be very glad if some 
"M would give uic advice as to what stops to get. I can 
giro £12 or £15 for stops, and only h ive room for 8ft. 
pipes. What sized bellows should I require 9 Also what 
are these stops like, and what are their equivalents in 
Kngluh— Prestaut 4ft., naznrd, doublette, octavin 3ft., 
pkui tenor 2ft., clarionette a pardon 8ft. ?— CoBNOPEAjf . 

[8S5«.]— Double Pramod Lathe.— Would anyone 
give a working drawing of woodou double-framed lathe 

bcri, such as adopted by best makers for 5in. lathe ? 

asUTxea. 

[S5547.]— Leclanche Battery.— Of what is the var- 
nun made which is used for sealing the poroiu pots, ic , 
of the above cells) ? Which is the best varnish for coating 
the sine connections ?— 0. V. 8. 

[BM8.]-Cleaning 8ilk Hats.-Can any of your 
waders tell me the process of cleaning and restoring silk 
hats in a few hours ?— A Hatter. 

|23549.]-Plaater of Paris-Can any one tell mo 
of anything by which I can dolay the hardening of plaster 
Of Paris ? I find that before it can bo moulded to the 
»h»pe desired it becomes hard, anil in con«o im-inv uii'.it 
for use.— Artisak. 

[25550. 1-Water-Colour Painting. — My moist 
colour* became hard some time back. I added a little gly- 
cerine to them. When I now use them on a white earthen 
Pallet it seems ae if the pallet was greasy, which is not so. 
It rtpels the colours. The colours work very well on the 
J**™* paper. I now use an earthenware tile with the 
glow ground off, which very soon takes the point nwny 
iron the sable brash. Can any of "ours" tell mo how 
to prevent this greasiness, and also if it is possible to 
repoint the sable brushes ?— J. W. E. 

[25551.]— Harmonium Questions.— To " Saul 
nrxti" ahii Othkkb. — I have bought (second hand) 
an harmonium by H. Cliristophe and Etienne, 
rans. It Is in oak case, has four rows of vibrators, thir- 
~" »'«!'«. and grand jeu on kuee. Is the above firm 
fnown, as I have not seen tho name before ? Also is the 
likely to be a good one t Can I soften or 
muOe the found of instrument in any way without detri- 
JM»t ; to tone, as it is almost too powerful for my room ? 
j*B I add the voix celeste stop ? If so. how ? Also the 
SJ***7 Jo add another row of keys r I |mm<css some 
"Jtwmeohanical ability, and think I shall be able to add 
Wt Move myself.— II AEMOJiiuw. 

.jl^'S ]— Watch.— In winding my watch tho hook to 
the Qia.n-spring or chain came untastened— I don't know 
**;' u . I have taken the barrel out and found the niain- 
»pnng intact, but the hook on the pivot was unfastened. 

' * P* 1 in its place. What I wish to know is how to 
™» the chain from the fusee. Can it be taken out with- 

S^TTr 1 * the P 1 * 1 * off ' ** 1 fear thore mi " ht besomedif- 
oeaity w again placing the pivots iu their proper posi- 
Ttorsii a ratchet whicli I cannot discover, which, 
w\ ii*""* P 1 *™ 1 *" »*• unwinding, and also another ratchet 
oecl at the bottom or base of the fusee, which I should 
UM explained, being an amateur much interested in 
"Jw work. In fact I shonld be plad to know the sim- 
w!r.. W * y ,-r Puling » now main-spring in a lever.— 

''ILLIA» FKXKHAX. 

lyW-]— Steam Pressure.— Will any reader inform 
Sri l 'l Tn * t I irwure of steam a good cast-iron box is cil- 
, r "" 1 without danger of bursting, '.>.„ Imi - 
ww», 9m. doep, and |in. thick ?-!>ArxTT. 

jJS*y.~D efeotivo Coil.— I hove an induction coil 

rs to bo in 
These are 



jBAwiU not work propcrTy. The fault appears'to'bo 
we, which is composed of iron vt.rm. 



1.25555.]— A Cheap and Simple Clock.— Wonld 
E. B. Fennesjy (letter 10573) state tho objections, if any. 
to using a weight as motive power, instead of water, to 
drive the escape wheel of his clock ? Should also be glad 
to know his other plnn whereby the hour and minute 
hands have a common centre ? — W. B. 

[25550.]— Protection from Fire.— Will any reader 
offer suggestions for tho safest lights for use among 
servants, assistants. &c. ?— No Gas. 

[25557.]— Curing Butter.— Will any one give advice 
as to the best method of curing butter so that it will keep 
sweet aud good ?— Locisa Moobx. 

[25558.]— Table Beer.— Can nny of your country 
correspondents inform me how to make a cheap table 
beer ?— Mabv Asx. 

[25559.]— Velvet.— If any of your readers will inform 
mo of the b-.-t and readiest method of cleaning black 
velvet which ha* gone brown with dost, I shall feel gmitlv 
obliged.— Maudr Mlli-kb. 

[25560.] — Valve for Engine.— Can nnv of your 
reader* give mo any information of any sort of valve for 
Large direct noting engine, or, say , mariue engine, but to 
rvh.'vo the engine .,f tin- direct lu.ul of the vidvo ; or any 
method to work tho valve horizontal, aud at the same 
speed as if direct ? Au answer, wich a sketch, will much 
oblige— Sck DttUVP, 

[25561.]— Organ Pedal Board — I understand that 
a few organs in Germany are supplied with two pedal 
boards, iiwtead of one as is usual in Kn-.'land. Will any 
reader of the Ekolish Mechanic duwibo their position 
with regard to each otMr. and the advantages and dis- 
advantage* of the system ? A skotch would oblige if 
difficult to describe iu words. — Axatecu Obuanist. 

[255fi2.]— Steam Pleasure Paddle or Screw- 
Boat.— lor some lime past I have been on the look-out 
for some information on stexni pleasure boats. However. 

1 do not find what suits ; therefore I shall feel much 
obliged if some reader, who has had practical experience, 
will answer the following .—1. Is it possible to have a 
steamboat of from 12ft. to 16ft. to make 10 or 12 knots 
per hour ? If so, what about tho cost of boat, boiler, and 
engines ? 2. What sixo boiler would be required to suit 

2 cylinders. Sin. by lOin. Btroke, to make the 10 knots per 
hour ? 3. Would a copper boiler do ; or would iron be 
better ? 4. Would it be cheaper to get the patterns made 
and from them got the castings cast, and afterwards 
finished, or to buy cylinders ready made? I shall feel 
much obliged for such information as will guide me in the 
construction. Drawings would also prove most acceptable, 
and with the Editor's permission I am snre would b.> 
useful, as well as pleasing, to a number of " ours." 
I should not like a rigger boat, as I only want it for two 
persons. — Axon. 

[255C3.]— Large Harmonium.— I should liko to 
make an harmonium with about ten or twelve rows of 
reeds, similar to one given in our Mechanic by " J D " 
p. ISO. No. 3l»6, Vol. XVI. If " Saul Rymea " or " J. I)." 
will give me a description of how many stops to have, 
how the paus arc made, tho size of channels for 16ft. and 
32ft., and how many pedals are wanted— as it appears to 
me tho feeders are in the way of pedals— I should feel 
obliged.— Momb. 

[25564.]— Harmonium Stops.— Will "Saul Rymea" 
kindly give me information ns to tho construction of tho 
fi-emolo and expression stops, as I have no idea how to do 
them ? What size holes must I put in the valve board ?— 
Hammj: it smith. 



CHESS. 



All communications intended for this department to be 
addressed to J. W. Abbott, 81, Loughborough-road, 
Brixton, 8.W. 



PROBLEM CCCIV.— Bx W. T. Pierce. 
[From "English Chess Problems."] 














es | 
















* i J 



White to play and mate in three mover. 



CoKBFcr Solctiohs of Problem CCCII. from Athos, 
Eothcn, W. Edwards, J. Uo^, II. 11. 6. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

%* All eommuntivitums should bs oddressod to th» Editor 
of th* Exolish Mkchaxic. 31, Tavutock-ttrft, Coon* 
Garden, W.C. 

HINTS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 
1. Write on one side of the paper only, and pnt draw- 
ings for illustration on separate pieces of paper. 2. Put 
titles to queries, and when answering queries put the 
numbers as well as the titles of the queries to which the 
replies refer. 3. No charge is made for inserting letters, 
queries, or replies. 4. Commercial letters, or queries, or 
replies aro not inserted. 5. No question asking for educa- 
tional or scientific information is answered through tho 
post. 6. Letters sent to correspondents, under cover to 
the Editor, are not forwarded ; and the names of oorre- 
•pondonts are not giren to inquirers. 

The following are the initials, Ae., of letters to hand np 
to TuesMlny evening, March 21, and unacknowledged 
elsewhere : — 

Thomas Cole.— W. F. Carey.-P. E. Cleasby.-Indoetus. 
— Nealo Gorse.— n. B. Willoek. — J. Richardson.— 
William Johnson.— Herbert A. Uribble.— H. Paget.— 
W. Or. Smith.— I.ivesti-rattir.— Edwin Blaker and Co.— 
Major Ind.— Tom Chrk. — George Knott. — Andrew 
Sautter.— Wells and Co.— Robert Ross.— Rev. William 
Davenport.— -Ohsrlw Harris and Co.— A. Luck. — J. M 
Cartraell.— Major (Jcneml Nnthall.— Alfred Holt.— J. 
G. Roberts.— John llampden.— J. Penn. — Alexander 
Smith.— Henry Watson.— -M. M.— H. J, Coatei.— W. T. 
—A Reader.— .1. Robinson. — A. R. T.— Manns.— Fern 
Case.— H. B. Rostron.— One in a difficulty.— Kino.— C. 
Kent on.— J. Turner.— C. V. 8.— Churchwarden.— Step- 
ladder.— A. H.— U. (J. F — Gunpowder.— Arago.— W. 
Walker. — T. B — Hookey Walker.— Birmingham. — R. 
W. F. — Onvrier.— Rusticiu. — B. P. A. — Proof. — D. 

1'razer. — Thomas Fletcher. — E. H. Jones.— Nluess. 

Occasional Photo. —J. H. Kirhv. — W. Fletcher! 

Surveyor No. 2.— Embryo.— X. Y. Z.— James Dickson.— 
Audrew Dewar.— Amateur Tnrner.— G. A. Andsley. — 
Thomas Mitchinsou — J. U. Wenham. — A Nou-Unionist. 
—Ariel.— Semper Pnrarn".— Thomas Egenton.— Little 
Tommie — D. H. M.— Pathfinder.— E. T. II.— Quick- 
silver.— Pro Bono.— Saul Rymcn.— James Kilden.— W. 
W. W. — Flavins.— Tin. — J. A. Akerman.— F. J. N.— No 
Paper.— Vonn? Astronomer.— W. R. Bird. — R. H. 
Yank.— Apprentice.— Don Juan — W. R.— A. S. Moffat. 
— Momc.— Cuidndo<o. — F. F. C— Cots wold. — J. K. 
Simpson.— J. C. M.—Vectends.— Forward.— Glen.— T. 
J. B.— Sub.— Ierne. — Engineer. — C. G.— J. E. Floyd.— 
A. B. C. — Hudson Wilson. — Harry Lee. — 8. W. 
Burnham.— Impe-UDions.— Thomas Hayuc— H. King. 
—A Young Be.'inner. — D. D. Redmond.— D. H. M. M. 

— R. C. — Ventilator. — Notsew. — London. — J. C. 

Maker.— Leonard Hughes.— Electrician.— H. B. T. J. — 
W. C. C.-A. W. C.-F. H. Tarrant.-C. W. Crossley.— 
C. W. H.-B. P. A.-O. P.. S.-Englwh Mechanic,— 
Bromo Iodine Spa.— Philo. — A Tea Drinker.— Hydon.— 
Thermo Electricity —J. Locke.— O. P. Q.— Dan" Rosen. 
— E. Verte.— G. 8. M. — Amateur. — Rev. J. Coatcs.— J. 
R. Walker. Jnn. — R. T. W. —Valentine. — 8nmuel 
Smith. — M. Parsenl. — Knowledge. — B. BombaL — 
William Anderson.— Violinist.— 0. Vere.— F. Dennett. 
— Micro.— H. S. E.— Petrifaction.— William Edwards.— 
J. W. Fennell.— John Lange.— W. M. Graham. 
C. V.. James Poole, Small Tradesman, D. Foster. Cobbler, 
C. G. G.. Telegraph. J. J. S„ Dick, A Cnbiuet Maker, 
Jack o' Lantern. Broken Saw, A. W. O., Phthisis, 
Pussy.— 8eo indices to back vols. 
J. H. M.. Charles E. Key, J. A.— Your queries are adver- 
tisements. 

F. M. E. B., n. T., and others have replied to queries 

already similarly answered. 
H. D. (You evidently cannot tune properly, or else your 
pins aro wora ami slip in the holes. Better employ a 
tuner.)— Coil. (No. Yea. J. and W. Rickard, of 
Derby j see advertisement page«.)— Dilemma. (You 
are bend to tike tho work if supplied. It is a di*. 
creditable practice, and it is to be regretted that high, 
class publishing flrmi stoop to »uch a method of pushing 
their work«.)— T. Mac. I Please yourself. T'-e adver- 
tisements are not usually bound. Wo do not know 
whether tho " Notices " aro supplied to tho public. 
Write the assistant-secretary.)— W. A. U. (We can find 
neither space nor leisure for tu:h a fool, and are sur- 
prised that the editor of any journal should have 
admitted his letter.)— A Boiler Makeii. (Your letter 
does not answer Mr. Nioholl's remarks, and yon wauder 
considerably from the point at issue We see no use ia 
prolonging the controversy, wbicli is mainly a personal 
one.)— Bis pat qui cIto hat. (Inquire at the Patent 
Office. Besides the cost of patent, each bottle will have 
to bear the Government stamp. As to chance* of 
success, we think they are small without a very large 
outlay in advertisements. I— Las dsexd. (See recent 
articles in tho BiiiMiug Sew*, i— Momks. (Kidney 
disease is too serious a matter to take amateur advice 
upon.)— A. T. F. (Applications for appointment •. ij,, 
can only be made as advertisements iu tho addrc.s 
column..!— J. H. F. (Inquire of any chemist. i— J. 
Wtm>. (You base your statements on the good eit* ltd 
by vivisection on an assumption. You are proline of 
words, but barren of facts. The onus re<* on vivise - 
tionists to prove the great utility, and it mint be vastly 
useful indeed to mankind to justify it in auv shape or 
form. Public opinion, iu all probability, will soon be 
too strong for the vivisectionists.) 
Skvf.ral Letters, including a long one on Aquaria, are 
in type. 



CO NCRETE VILLAS. 

Kair.berless hsve been tho Inquiries tlmnu-h the HxoLimt 
Mi;i in mi for cheap urul li.itulv meth-Kts of buli.'.lnir small Cm. 
crot« Houses. Tho UUILDINO NEWS roeenT.lv ofrerod friso ■ 
frar the thrao best plan* of a concrete villa, and having awarded 
tho «mo, Is now lllustrs'lrig the premuu d designs. Tho Ut 
prlio plan sppsarsd In the number tnr Maruli 17, tugcficr with 
olhor lllu.lmUorm of tho new Solonev Keh'xiN, South K.n-tn7U«i 
Schools at Tyler*. Oroen. CongrvfM'Jamtl ChlllCh -.1 imeruuv, and 
MiBWotlons in Floral Occlgn ; sl~. A'llcle. on ArtUllo versus 
E iglnrerlng Constnirllon. Al t TeifhlTii; In A-nvrte-i. SliUwnth 
(.untnry <-othio Architecture. ,n1 othor mi'.n. .,f lntere-t •■> 
nil Art »nd Science Students. Price 4d.; v t-f. »e. ( Annual 

Subscription £l, post-frM.)-Offlcr, SI. KvlaWeJ^SttwefL Lovont 



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52 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE : No. 574. March 24, 1876. 



THE UTVT2NTOB. 



APPLICATIONS FOB LaTTERS PATENT. 
MARCH 7. WTO, 

»«. X. Sml'h Halifax, forlmproverrci'i !n horse shoes. 

MM. II. Wntnni, Birmingham, fur ar>.\*i Improvement* In 
wooden structures, and In the utlUid . j ut wa^to malarial em- 
ployed thers-for. 

8*7. A. Elliott anil C. Burnett, Dur'Min, for lmproveirent* In 
actuating regulating valve* fur (taMiu, water, ^u, and other 
purpo*«"»i. 

M». C. B inks. Birmingham, for an Improved tap Tor water and 

other liquid*. 

819. W. E. Oedge, Strand, for an linprorcd lock. A communi- 
cation. 

KW. O. Chapman, London, for Improvements In roller skates 

A communication. 

851. J. Colfl, Hen., and J. Cole, Jan., Coventry, for Improrcmsn'j 
In roller or rink skutee. 

fCS. 8. J. ThomuK, L indfln. for Improvement* In apparatus for 
desulphurising, mwi lug . and drying; nn-< A communication. 

8V1. B. Tydemin, B"«r. for Improvement* 1 1 -oiler skstes. 

KM. 8. J. Thomas. London, for Improve uinta In machinery 
lor roasting and amalgamating metallic or.-. A communication. 

8&>. J. T. Walton. Leeds, for improvement* In machinery for 
drilling fishbolt hi.W In steol and other r-i!l«. 

8S>;. C. C. 8!ierry. London, for an lmprov, d :nethod of securing 
wooden lathe* to metal bands In the manufacture of revolving or 
rolling shutters, and for other like purr..«es. A communication. 

«S7. W. R. Lake, Southampton -bull.! I u.-». for Improvement* In 
apparatus for registering the fare* paid bv passengers In tram- 
way cam and other vehicles. A commnnlc.iU .n. 

8.V4. M. H. Strong. Brooklyn, for lmproicincnts In the manu- 
facture of mw for Illuminating and oth-r purposes. . 

KS9. L. Griffiths, Swansea, for Improvements in machinery for 
cleaning and nlckiln« metal plates. 

8M. H. H. Murdoch, Middlesex, for Improvement* In means or 
apparatus for effo 'ting the combustion of Inlmnmablo pulveru- 
lent solids, and of Inflammable gases and liquids. A communica- 
tion. 

881. M. Watson, Sheffield, for Improved apparatus for lubri- 
cating the axles and bearing* of wag iron* known and distinguished 
by oilier* and miners as r ' corves" or "fibs." the said appa- 
ratus helng also applicable for lubricating the axles and bearings 
sjf rolling stock In ireneral. 

813. F. 8. Barff, Kllburn. for Improvements in tho protection 
of Iron surfaces, snd In oleanlng the same. 

8H3. C. E. Rogers, Massachusetts, for certain new and useful 
improvements In pianofortes. 

8o«. A. M. (.Turk, Chancery-lane, for Improvements in heat 
radiators. A communication. 

861. n. J. Hu<lilan, Htrand, for Improvements in the manufac- 
ture of pap*r boxes. A communication. 

M8. A. W. R slger, Ayr, for Improvements In the manufacture 
of Scotch bonnets, and in the machlner> or apparatus employed 
therefor. 

8S7. H- B. Goodyear , Part*, for Improvements In boots and 
shoes. 

hjju. C. K. Dalllonx, Paris, for Improvements tn machinery for 
tuning boot and shoe heels. 

67». 8. Hallsworth and It. Ballcs. Leeds, for Improvements in 
purirylnn Illuminating coal gas, and lu the preparation of the 
menus employed therefor. 

870. W. Ho wilt, Essex, for Improvements In roller skates. 

871. B. Browne, Brixton, for Improvements In roller skntes. 
873. J. Levy, Southampton-buildings, for Imyuovcment* In tho 

manufacture of umbrellas, parasols, and sunshades, and 
xnnculnnry for that purpose. 

873. C. E. Stirling. Westminster, for improvements in roller 
skates. 

874. T. Kordenfelt, London, for Improve nienta in gun carriages. 

A communication. 

875. T. Nordenfelt, London, for Improvement* in sewing 
machine shuttles. A communication. 

870. R. J. Blewltt, Surrey, for Improvement* In the method of 
obtaining gas for Illuminating purposes and of obtaining and 
applying tho producu of cool by distillation of the sain*. 

877. J. Br r re, Paris for an Improved fredlng-botUe. 

87*. D. Nlcotl, London, for improvements lu the manufacture 
of gc'utlno capsules or cases for contilT.lu< and preserving food, 
medicine, and vsxi us substances, solid and liquid. 

877. A. U. Clark, Chancery-lane, for Improvement* In life rafts. 
A communication. 

8*. J. Davie*. Lancaster, for improvement* In and tn connec- 
tion With ste. 1 1 ig apparatus. 

881. W. R. I. ;<e, London, for improvements In machine gnus. 
A aommunlcatior. 

SC. E. 11. «ld* n I, 8nrrry, for improvements In the construction 
of wheel* fi rb cycles, velocipede*, and other carriages or vehicles. 

88J. W. R. Like. Loudon, for Improvement, in machinery for 
rosnufactutlag bricks. A coromunteaU'-n. 

Ml. R. Sfivt 1 '. Winchester, for Improvements In roller skates. 

M- J. F. Phillips, Islington, for improvements In the manu- 
facture of Anger* for rosplug and mowing machines, and in 
uta'uplnir a .'1 f .-ging these and other articles of iron or steel. 

8*1. R. 11 iil'e'ld. London, for Improvements in safes. 

8-47. W. Conlsbee, Surrey, for Improvement* in printing 
nriuhlnerv. 

8*i. A. Sowerbutt*, Bamet, for Improvements in tho procoss 
of manufacturing iterated liquids, and tn nppc-ntus therefor. 

88U. O. Stev-nson, Alrdrle, forlmprormn.-iit* in motive-power, 
alr-oomprextlng, ruck-borlnc. and other anparitu* to be used in 
qinrrying and mining, and also In part applicable for other 
purposes. 

809. R Had field. London, for improvement* In automatic 
lubricator*, sue.h improved lubricators being particularly 
Applicable to colliery corves, mine waggons, and other similar 
TcMtoIes. 

891. W. Whittle, Stafford, and J. Newman. Birmingham, for 
Improvement* In coating with metals light ar'Jole* composed of 
metal, such as n.ils, screws, tacks, and other similar small 
wares, as well as the light parts of muchlnea, as alno in the 
machinery, apparatus, or appliances for effecting the same. 

TO. E. L. Mayer* Glasgow, for improvement* In tho treatment 
of cupreous ores heir waste liquors, for tho recovery of cobalt 
and nickel. 

tit). W. Morgan-Brown, London, for Improvements In lamp 
burners. A communication. 

svl. W. Sumner, Preston, for imprrwrments in machinery need 
for preparing, spinning, doubling, twlnln.-, and winding cotton, 
wool, flu. silk, or other fibrous materials or substanoes. 

fc«. J. J. F. Btevrns, Surrey, for lmp.oremcnto In tho means 
or apparatus for compenrst ng for the contraction and expansion 
of railway -Ignal or point wires. 

b» i. J. N. Hawkins. Middle sex. for Improvement* In mean* for 
heating water, food, and other substances. 

8 17. C. MorlU, Baltimore, for Improvements in the menu- 
fao' ure of portable and condensed food. 

i»'s. T. Turner. Blrm ngham, for Improvement* In rifles, 
c.M /lil;«-, and projectile*. 

no. W. II and ley, and M. Draper. Birmingham, for Improve- 
i In fastenings (or boots and shoes, gloves, belts, purses, and 



Oth- 



rude 



isjj. O. N. Shore. Ilmlnstor, and O. H. Chubb, London, for im- 
provements in steam boiler and o:hor (urnac.-*. 

0)1. C. H. 0111, Middlesex, for Impru'iincuu in the manufac- 
ture of beer. A communication. 

Wi. D. Grelg and M. Kyth, Leeds, for Improvement! in 
machinery for mowing land. Part communication. 

»«. J- dm muck and A. Walker. Laneast.r, for improvements 
In the manufacture of sulphates of soda and potu-sh, and in the 
■pn iratu* employed in snoh minnfsctnre. 

!S»I. C. Liuge, Holborn, for l:npruri-<nentl In fasteners for 
ba.-s. porttiiants-aus, boxes, and other artloles. 

J. Bolt, and J. Weeder. Uallfox, for improvement* in 
stojpersfor bottles for aerated und other eYervescunt Uqulis. 

Ou-I. I. Swindells and R. Lancaster, Lanca-hire, f.ir Unprove- 
m ut* In and apparatus for removing liicru- t.itlon from »t. a:u- 
b-ulers, salt pant, and other similar Bppuiatus, and presenting 
ae ll-nent adhering thereto. 

!*)7. E. O'Callaghan, Surrey, for improvements In building 
houses, wall*, and other structures. 

WS. J. M. Macintosh. Finsbury. and W. B»»eet, Chc'.sea, for 
li>ipp>vi-menU in making certain air-proof articles from a single 
ci oth coated with IndiArubber. 

3'j. T. 8. Cocking. Slttlngbourne, for lmprovenisut* in appa- 
rat i* for the manufacture of pills. 

910. J. N. Sawklns, Middlesex, for Improvements In hut and 
el tiujJ peg* or hooks, and otlier suppor:- : or various articles. 



911. B. J. B. Mills. MWM!e«ex. for lrar>r.Tvetr.a- ts in anperatns 

to be emplored when castiug moULs or alloTS u.id -r pressure. A 
eomma'ile ttlon. 

91*. J. Harrington. Surrey, for Improvement, In b ttleondjar 
stands. 

ma. J. Cowan, Oars ton, for Improvement* In the he sUng of 
stea-n boilers. 

'■•14. J. Edward*. Middlesex, for improvements in safety -Ixnal 
apparatus for railways. 

ill 3. F. Chamberlain, Barnsloy, for Improvement* In the manu. 
facture of bricks, tiles, and similar articles, and in UiemaohU 
nerv or apparatus emoloyed therein. 

dl l. T. O. Oreen, Derby, for improvement* In straining an . 
slfdng appara'us. 

917. M. P. Jono*. Middlesex, for improvement* In sk»te*. 

018. O. Stlerlln, Swltterland, for a spring for closing doors. 

019. O. Sllerlin, Swltiorland. f >r n double-ac'.iui spring door 
hlng* to open a door l«th wsv>, the hinge to bo «xud lu tho top 
of the door Instead of the bottom, as other hlngoti ut present in 
use are. 

020. W. R. Lake, for Improved maohlncry for Inserting screws 
from screw threaded wire In the process o' uniting the upper* to 
the soles of boots and shoes, and in uniting h' si a- tube seams, 
belting, and all leather lappings. A commnn'catlon. 

921. W. 8. Bstley, Leeds., for Improvements In maahlnery and 
mlung cliy for the purpose of making bricks, tiles, or other 
similar artloles. 

022. O. J. Goodwin, Westminster, for improvement* in neoktlo* 
and fasteners. 

921. A. Bakewell, Middlesex, for Improvements In armour for 
plstlng shins, fort*. Ac, which oonalst in the use or water or any 
liquid or fluid as a packing for armour plites of steel. Iron, or 
both, or other metal or metals, or materials. 

921. J. T Sloan. Lin -lade, and W. C. Frost. Lelghton Baxxord. 
for impr >v> uirnts In window fasteners. 

9iS. R. R II sirper. Strand, for Improvements In roller skates. 

921. T. Howitt, Derby, for coupling and uncouollng railway 
go-els waggon* on the rails without Urn alteration of the 
ooiinlircs. 

V~. J. C07glns, O. Baxter, and T. W. Oreaves. Birmingham. 

for lmprovein.-nt* In single or compound telet>coplo crotchet 
crook* and handles, and which "aid Invention 1* olio app.lcablo 
to tooth picks, pipe probes, and otlier like artloles. 
03s. j. r.cwu and H. Jones, Liverpool, for improvement* In 

roller s'sates. 

929. O. Clark, Middlesex, f * Improvements in roller skates. 

iixl T. C. March, London, for Improvements tn applying glass 
to ribbons of tax. Ills or elastic fabrics for articles of dress. 

II J. Hume, N*w Tort, for Improvements In apparatus 
applicable tn the tubes and lines of locomotive and other steam- 
boiler*. A communication. 

art J. K. Chamber*. Birmingham, for Improvements In 
tnaehlnes or apf aia' for oleanlng knives. 

031 C. F. Wood, Birinin -nam, for Improvement* In roller 
assies. 

934. H. Wheeler. Birmingham, and J. Pearson, Stafford, for 
improvcm-' ta In direct acting steam pumps. 

935. A. Guthrie, Horselydown, lor Improvements In steam and 
other like motive power engines. 

918. J. Sample. J. Grantham, and M. Wsddle, Northumber- 
land, for an Improved wooden key for fastening rolls in railway- 
chairs. 

037. C. Clam ond. Tarls, for Improvements in skating rinks. 
93*. C. H Meyer, Hamburg, for Improvements In lamps for 
shlpilghts. 

1139. W. £. Vavasour, Yorkshire, for the appl'catlon to machi- 
nery of the force which is generated by the action of gravity on 

w<i.-ht* suspended at caeh end of lover; the v oight wb'ch 1* the 
further distance from the fulcrum being capable of exerting a 
grcn'cr power than tho other, according to tho length of such 
distance. 

910. O. Bray, Leeds, for Improvement* In gas burners. 

941. W. Kay«, Huddcrsfleld, for Improvement* in steam 
en Tinea. 

942. O. Eldrldge, Islington, for Improvements In roller skates. 
0*3. J. Ducoro-t, Parle, for Improvement* In machinery for 

expressing the juice from sugar cone and bast root, and for other 
like purposes. A communication. 



Inventors before Patenting should read the 

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street, Liverpool IIS stamps). "Tho pitfalls into whloh the 
uneary inventor will run a risk of stumbling are pointed out . . . 
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F 



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STOCK 



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Maech 31, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 575, 



53 



%%t 0nglisl) J&M&anit 



AMD 



'WORLD OP SCIENCE AND ART. 



FRIDAY, MARCH 81, 1876. 



ARTICLES. 



HALL-MARKS FOR JEWELLERY. 
fFHE system of hall-marks for jewellery 
is just now exciting some little atten- 
tion amongst the trade, and also amongst 
those who are perhaps more interested— 
the public. The system is one that calls 
for reform at any rate, although some would 
go bo f ar as to abolish it altogether. The 
question was recently the subject of a dis- 
cussion at the Society of Arts, following 
the reading of a paper by Mr. A. Lut- 
schsonig, and, as large numbers of the public 
purchase at one time or another articles of 
gold, and are mostly ignorant of the real 
value attaching to the hall-mark, a brief 
notice of the discussion may be found 
interesting. The charge is often freely made 
against our great City companies that they 
do not pay a due regard to their duties — nay 
that sometimes they neglect them altogether ; 
and of these companies there is, it seems, no 
greater sinner in this respect than the 
Goldsmiths'. According to the charter of 
this society they were empowered to send 
wardens from shop to shop to assay if the 
gold was of the touch specified in the 
statute; but we need scarcely say that 
the Company very rarely exerts its power, 
and scarcely if ever prosecutes. And yet 
its members must know that an enormous 
quantity of adulterated jewellery is sold 
and exposed for sale within a very short 
radius of their hall. This fact justifies 
Mr. Lutschaunig in saying that there must 
be an instinctive fear of touching the 
question, for if once fully started the Com 
pany could not face the astonished and 
indignant public. There are ten assay 
towns in the United Kingdom, and three 
or four of them may be said to monopolise 
the marking of the jewellery manufactured 
in this country. If so, it is obvious that a 
proper examination of the various articles 
bearing the hall-mark cannot be made, and 
it follows that some simpler system must 
be adopted. The present system holds out 
a great temptation to fraud!, and it is said 
that fraud is carried on to such an extent 
that the hall-mark is really no guarantee of 
the quality of the article at all. When the 
marks themselves are not forged, the part on 
which they are struck may undoubtedly be 
taken as of the quality indicated, but there 
is no security whatever that the other parts 
are of the same standard, for the piece of 
metal immediately adjoining the piece 
marked may be of a different quality 
altogether. For instance, in a gold chain, a 
few links may be of the specified quality, 
but the others may be of a very much 
inferior alloy. Of course, it is practically 
impossible to assay and stamp each link of 
a chain, especially when we remember that 
another complaint of the jewellers is that 
the punahes used are too clumsy, and spoil 
the work; but the fact remains that one 
link of a chain may be of 18-carat gold 
and bear the hall-mark, and the next may 
be of only € carat. 

The 6 standards of gold recognised by 
the Goldsmiths' Company divide into three 
lower and three higher standards, viz. : — 
9 carat = 
12 

= -625 or 62* 
= -750 or 75 
= -833 or 83, 
22 „ = -917 or 91* 
VOL. XXIU-Vo. 575. 



16 
18 
20 



375 or 37i per cent, of gold 
500 or 50 



It will be Been that these figures can be 
readily converted into fractional parts — 
viz., 3, 4, and 5- eighths gold for the lower 
standards, and 9, 10, and lloz. to the 
pound troy for the higher standards. 22 
carat is the quality employed for the coin 
of the realm, and for wedding rings, but 18 
carat is the most suitable for -the manu- 
facture of jewellery generally — watch-cases, 
chains, lockets, engraved work, &c, Sec, 
while 12 carat should be the lowest per- 
mitted to be described as gold, for being 
half alloy it might as well be termed brass. 

Some two or three years ago a well- 
known jeweller collected together and ex- 
hibited a number of articles bearing the 
hall-mark, but which, on being tested, were 
found to be frauds, made of alloys con- 
taining less, and much less, gold than 
the portion bearing the hall-mark. But, 
although this exhibition warned. the public 
of the risk they ran of being cheated, it 
must be confessed that the only practical 
good it did was not to introduce an im- 
proved system, but to simply advertise the 
enterprising tradesman who started the hue 
and cry. Bearing these facts in mind, and 
knowing that an immense quantity of so- 
called gold jewellery is in the market, and 
is worn as personal adornment by the 
public, the question naturally arises whether 
it is not best to abolish hall-marks alto- 
gether, and so, leaving the purchaser with* 
out any reliable guide, induce him to go to 
a respectable house. The great difficulty, 
however, in adopting this favourite method 
of settling the difficulty is that the pur- 
chaser does not know which firms are 
respectable ; and, as a matter of fact, it is 
against the national bent of mind to imagine 
that every tradesman is a cheat, though 
how long that will continue it is difficult 
to estimate. Besides, if the public are to 
deal only with goldsmiths of " known re- 
spectability," it will be practically impos- 
sible for any new comers to set up in the 
business. In cases decided in the courts it 
has been laid down that the plaintiff pur- 
chaser cannot recover against the seller, but 
must bring his action against the Gold- 
smiths' Company, who put on the goods 
stamps defining weight and value which 
are wrong. The question has never, how- 
ever, been settled in the higher courts ; for, 
if they had decided that an action would 
lie against the Company, the latter would 
have quickly put matters on a better 
footing, and not contented themselves with 
regulations " rendered necessary," as they 
mildly put it, " on account of the discovery 
that extensive frauds were being com- 
mitted." The Company have been granted 
several charters, all with the view of 
strengthening their hands; but Mr. Lut- 
schaunig regards these as evidences of the 
power lessness of the Company to deal with 
the evils complained of. He regards it, as 
he says, as " an obsolete institution — one of 
those remnants of the Dark Ages incom- 
petent to cope with the present state of 
things." Frauds, however, were known to 
be practised by gold and silvermiths before 
the Company had a charter, and as early as 
1238 the "natural tendency" to mix too 
much alloy had attracted the attention of 
the lawgivers. The "great mischief" of 
the present day, however, began with the 
Act allowing articles made of "gold" of 
the three lower standards to be stamped, 
which was passed in 1854. From the date 
of the passing of the Act the Goldsmiths' 
Company have lost nearly all control over 
the jewellery trade ; and " forgeries, trans- 
posit ions, additions, loading, filling, and all 
the clever swindling- that clever craftsmen 
can devise, have been adopted with im- 
punity." It is obvious, too, if we could 
devise a method of preventing a man from 
taking the hall-marked link from an 
18-carat and putting it on a 6-carat chain, 
we have no power to prevent the forging 



of English hall-marks in Switzerland and 
America on watch-cases, which are after- 
wards sold in India, the colonies, and other 
parts of the world. 

The difficulty is not easily overcome. 
" Nothing short of a clearly-defined and a 
clearly-expressed personal guarantee of a 
jeweller of established reputation will meet 
the evil" So says Mr. Lutschaunig ; but the 
jeweller who is compelled to give a gua- 
rantee might also ask for protection him- 
self. What is to prevent an enterprising 
purchaser adopting the tricks now prac- 
tised by the makers, and sueing the seller 
for the difference between 6 and 18-carat 
gold on the strength of his guarantee P An 
Act of Parliament would probably work 
better than the antiquated charter of the 
Company, and the duty of carrying out its 
provisions would devolve on the Mint, 
while a tax of £10 per cent, would bring in 
an appreciable return to the revenue, and 
would be appropriately levied on luxuries. 
The remedy proposed by Mr. Lutschaunig 
is the abolition of " gold " of less than 12 
carats (articles to melt down to 11 carats), 
and the recognition of only three standards 
— 12, 18, and 22 carat; Government in- 
spectors to be appointed with requisite 
powers; "plated" articles to have that 
word on them ; its absence to constitute a 
misdemeanour on the part of the maker; 
every jeweller to be licensed, and to give a 
" written guarantee." The tax would pro- 
bably yield a mi ll ion and a half annually to 
the Treasury; but, of course, it would be 
a tax upon a trade, though, when a tax 
upon a " knife-boy " is tolerated, it is diffi- 
cult to see how any tax can be objected to. 

Mr. Watherston, who is a member of 
the Goldsmiths' Company, objected to the 
proposed remedy in toto, as he is convinced 
that the time is come when hall-marks 
should be abolished, and the trade made 
perfectly free, leaving the public to deal 
with houses of known respectability as 
their only security. His notion, however, 
that the whole of Scotland-yard would be 
required to look after the goldsmiths is 
rather beyond the mark — a very few in- 
spectors dropping in unexpectedly and 
examining the goods offered by the trades- 
men would answer all purposes, if severe 
penalties were imposed upon the proof of 
fraud. Mr. Watherston, nowever, would 
make it incumbent on every tradesman 
selling gold and silver articles to give a 
guarantee of the quality, and fine him by 
the criminal law if he cheated ! Mr. 
Streeter asked how a man could give a 
guarantee of, say, a " locket," the " box " 
of which is sometimes (often P) made of 
copper. Mr. Webber said that copper 
boxes were rare. He objected to the duty, 
as he did to hall-marks. Mr. Lutschaunig, 
in answer to a question, said he had per- 
sonally taken to pieces a lady's bracelet, 
composed of a very thin band of gold to 
which was soldered a very thin band of 
silver, thus forming a kind of tube, the 
interior of which he found filled with red 
lead putty. The value of the gold was 
about 16s., whereas the bracelet appeared 
worth £9 or £10. The general feeling at 
the discussion appeared to be that some 
protection was necessary, and nothing more 
feasible than Mr. Lutschaunig's proposal 
was mooted — viz., that the manufacturer 
should produce all goods to the inspector, 
and if the latter found on assaying one taken 
at random, that it was defective in quality, he 
should be empowered to break up the whole. 
The majority of the higher class jewellers 
would, we oelieve, prefer that the term " gold" 
Bhould be restricted to articles not lees than 
18 carats fine ; and that while hall-marks 
Bhould be abolished, they would compel the 
seller to state the quality on the invoice, 
and subject him to heavy penalties if the 
articles did not answer the description. It 
will be seen that the subject is one of no 



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54 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE: No. 575. March 31, 1876. 



little importance, for many persons relying 
on the hall-mark purchase jewellery in the 
belief that when worn out it is still worth 
its weight as old gold of its quality. The 
instance of the bracelet above mentioned 
would show how liable they are to be 
deceived. 



ON ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OP 
TROMBES. 

A GOOD deal of attention has of late 
been given by meteorologist* to the 
whirling atmospheric movements denomi- 
nated trombcs. That these trombes are of 
electrical origin has been suspected from the 
very beginning of electrical science, and in 
last century experiments were made by way 
of imitating them on a small scale. Between 
two metallic plates, the upper of which was 
electrified, while the lower was connected to 
earth, various easily movable' substances 
were brought. Water was raised in form 
of a cone ; bran was lifted so as to form a 
pillar, then scattered in a whirl. In such 
experiments, however, the phenomenon can 
only be observed momentarily ; the cone or 
column, if, indeed, produced, immediately 
disappears through the scattering of its 
component particles. 

In a recent communication to the Berlin 
Academy M Holts has described an appa- 
ratus by which this interesting phenomenon 
can be produced with greater certainty, and 
observed any length of time. The arrange- 
ment consists of a cylindrical glass vessel 
about 220mm. high, 160mm. wide, and 
2 — 4mm. thickness of side. It has a per- 
foration in the middle of the bottom ; this is 
filled with tinfoil, and closed on both sides 
(above and below) with two large plates of 
tinfoiL In the middle of the glass vessel 
hangs a hollow flat-pressed metallic ball, 
30mm. in thickness and 100mm. in diameter. 
The suspending piece consists of two me- 
tallic tubes, one moveable in the other ; the 
upper one is connected with the conductor 
of an electric machine. 

If now various easily moveable sub- 
stances, pulverulent, and not very good 
conductors, be introduced into the vessel — 
so much of them as will be sufficient to 
cover the inner plate of tinfoil 3mm. to 
5mm/ — then, as soon as the machine is put 
into action, and the second conductor con- 
nected to earth, the substances are thrown 
into violent motion between the two oppo- 
site electric surfaces. With sand, however, 
or similar materials, no determinate cone or 
column formation is distinguishable. But 
with substances of better conduction and 
coarser structure, such as bran or sawdust, 
there are formed, through the deposition, 
constantly, of new portions, large cones and 
perfect columns, from which, however, the 
stormy, whirling, and progressive motion 
is absent. 

M. Holtz obtained a phenomenon much 
more similar to the natural trombes when 
he used a liquid instead of powder — espe- 
cially turpentine or olive oil — and gave the 
lower electrode a pointed form by adding a 
column of wood — this substance being taken 
to avoid the passing of sparks. The vessel 
was tilied with liquid up to 20mm. above 
the point, and the interval between the 
metallic disc and the liquid was regulated 
according to the tension of the electricity. 

"If we now bring the machine into 
action," says M. Holtz, " we observe, first, at 
the surface of the liquid a slight curling, 
and presently it tends to rise up the sides 
of the vessel in a peculiar vibratory motion. 
Very soon there is a stronger undulation, 
and a middle cone is formed, which gra- 
dually increases, and so long as it does not 
reach tlu- metallic body it flit* off around in 
minute dancing droplets. If, on the other 
hand, the cone has become a column, the 
liquid moves from the middle of the metallic 



at several parts in the form of thinner 
columns, which, differently from the middle 
one, have their large base above. Often, too, 
the rising stream parts into several of 
similar form, each of which follows its own 
path towards the middle part of the disc, 
and thence towards the edge, where, again, 
it branches into several descending streams. 
The liquid also frequently arises simulta- 
neously at various parts, so that, sometimes, 
reckoning the downward streams, one may 
count more than twenty distinct columns ; 
and all these columns ase in constant pro- 
gressive and whirling motion." 

M. Holtz calls attention to the circum- 
stance that in the formation in question no 
difference was observable between negative 
and positive electricity; only the motion 
was more violent when the metallic disc 
was negatively electrified. 

That the agreement between the artificial 
and the natural trombe is not absolute is, of 
course, evident from the circumstance that 
in the one case we have a closed space, with 
walls probablv not without electric tension, 
as against unbounded space in nature ; and 
the formation occurs in nature between 
moveable surfaces, whereas, in the experi- 
ment, it is between fisted surfaces. 



THE MANCHESTER STEAM-TJSER8' 
ASSOCIATION AND THEIR EXPERI- 
MENTAL BOILER. 

rPHE annual meeting of the Manchester 
Steam-users' Association, held last 
week, was a very satisfactory one, so far as 
the Association is concerned. The society 
already occupies a high position, and is 
yearly gathering strength. During the past 
year it has made an enormous number of 
examinations of boilers, equivalent to an 
entire examination of every boiler enrolled 
on the society's books, and again the report 
appears without an explosion in any of the 
boilers under the guarantee of the society. 
With a steady persistence, which must ulti- 
mately triumph, the Association again urges 
the necessity of a compulsory inspection of 
all steam-boilers, and urges it with renewed 
force because the explosions for 1875 are in 
excess of the average for the past ten years. 
Whatever may be said by dilettanti about 
the causes of boiler explosions it begins to 
be recognised by common- sense individuals 
that the phenomena are by no means so 
recondite as the former would wish us to 
believe. There never was a boiler explosion 
but what could be attributed as fairly to 
very plain and sufficient causes as to any of 
the suggested causes put forward by those 
who regard explosions as mysterious. The 
electrical and chemical hypotheses have been 
worked to death, and they themselves have 
been exploded, so far as practical men are 
concerned, — and in the matter of boilers 
practical men are undoubtedly the safest 
guides. In the past year 45 explosions 
occurred, resulting in the death of 67 human 
beings, and in more or less serious injuries 
to 97 others — no fewer than 25 of the explo- 
sions, or more than 50 per cent., requiring 
the assistance of coroners' juries, which, as 
usual, in the majority of cases, returned 
verdicts of " accidental death," sometimes 
accompanied by a " censure" which showed 
the absurdity of the verdict "accidental" 
death. The income of the society is now 
some £6,000 per annum, and their reports 
show that they are making good use of it. 
The society have no means of compelling the 
owners of the boilers they examine to carry 
out the repairs and alterations recommended 
by their inspectors, but it certainly speaks 
volumes in favour of the simple system of 
inspection enforced by the society that 
boilers under their guarantee rarely, if ever, 
explode, although the society cannot prevent 



coroner's jury, and is summed up in the 
verdict of " shortness of water." The excuse 
is a very simple one, and is too readily put 
forward as the cause of explosions un- 
doubtedly due to the radical unfitness of 
the boilers for the work assigned to them. 
The talk about "mysterious" causes is 
practically only talk, for all experience 
shows that _ boilers do not explode except 
from recognised and preventable causes. Mr. 
Ramsbottom showed — and his evidence 
can be borne out by others similarly situ- 
ated — that, when properly constructed and 
properly tended, steam-boilers do not ex- 
plode, and the fact that they do explode 
and often result in the death or serious 
injury of those who have nothing to do 
with them, and certainly no control over 
their management, is sufficient ground for 
legislative interference. What shape that 
interference is to take is a matter* for con- 
sideration ; but that eonie thing ought to be 
done is evident. 

Besides the ordinary work of the Associa- 
tion some very practical and useful experi- 
ments have been carried out under their 
directions — experiments which only a public 
body with surplus funds could be expected 
to undertake. Up to the present these 
experiments have resulted in an accumula- 
tion of facts which must be of value to 
every honest boiler-maker in the kingdom, 
and beyond. We have before mentioned 
the experimental boiler of the Association, 
a double-fined Lancashire, constructed in 
the beet possible manner, and at consider- 
able expense. This boiler has been sub- 
jected to rather severe treatment, and the 
results are undoubtedly of great import- 
tance. It is 21ft. long, 7ft. in diameter, 
with plates 7-16in. thick, the end ones 
being £in. The flue-tubes are of |m. 
plates, with welded rings, flanged and 
jointed in the most approved style. The 
last series of experiments took place at the 
beginning of March, the shell being en- 
tirely reconstructed for the purpose. All 
the plates were of "best best" Snedshill 
iron, and the experiments consisted in 
testing the boiler to bursting hydraulic 
pressure, altering various parte in order to 
ascertain the real strength of many of the 
devices at present in practice amongst 
boiler-smiths. The main results shbw that 
double-riveted seams are not so strong as 
the " formulas " make them ; in this 
instance they gave way with a pressure of 
3001b. on the square inch. Single-riveted 
seams, however, gave way at about the cal- 
culated pressure. A manhole of the usual 
size, and unstrengthened by any special 
appliance, gave way at 2001b., as did a 
similar manhole when strengthened by the 
addition of a cast-iron ring. A steam 
junction pipe of cast iron, 6in. in diameter, 
gave way, the plate rending and splitting 
the cast-iron pipe, at a pressure of 2751b. A 
cast-iron nozzle for a blow-off was split in 
the same way at 2951b. Many other facts 
of more or less importance were clearly 
established, which must in certain cases 
modify present practice in boiler-making. 
We shall probably give a detailed report of 
the experiments shortly, but meantime 
boiler-makers and steam - users have to 
thank the Manchester Association for the 
valuable information thus placed before 
them. 



or control the carelessness of the attendant, 
surface to the border, and there falls down I which is often too readily assumed by a 



REVIEWS. 

A ClassbooJc of Chemistry, on the Baste of the 
New System. By Edward L. TouUAifs, 
M.D. Rewritten and revised. London : 
Henry S. King and Co. 
| T is a bold thing on the part of Messrs. 
-*~ King to introduce into the already long 
list of textbooks and "clasebooks"_ of 
chemistry, another, and that by an American 
author, of whom it is no disparagement to 
say that he is not quite the equal of several 



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Mabch 81, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 575. 



55 



British professors of the science. That his 
work is based on the " new chemistry " of 
Prof. J. P. Cooke mar he a recommendation 
in a certain sense and to a certain class, we 
do not intend to dispute ; and we are quite 
■ore that, if he has drawn his "latest 
information" from "Watts' Dictionary" 
his work is apsides with the progress of the 
science so far as is necessary for a popular 
treatise on the subject. Dr. Toumans' 
method will be recognised in the following 
passage from the preface : — " We are not to 
regard past theories as mere exploded errors, 
nor present theories as final The living 
and growing body of truth has only moulted 
its old integuments in the progress to a 
higher and more vigorous state.' ' The book 
is not intended as a manual for the use of 
chemical students, but it aims rather to 
meet the want of those who " want to 
know" something of the science; and as 
such we need scarcely say it fairly meets 
the want. There is much more in the volume 
than properly belongs to "chemistry," 
though necessary for a thorough conception 
of the meaning of the phenomena of that 
branch of science ; but, as the work was 
not intended for the " student " of chemistry, 
we think that much of the chapter on 
theoretical chemistry might have been 
omitted or modified. Dr. You mans is not 
always elegant in style, and sometimes 
scarcely accurate. For instance, to British 
readers it sounds strange, after learning 
that camphor is distilled from the wood of 
a tree by collecting the vapours in a vessel 
containing rice- straw, to go on — " It con- 
denses in the straw and is again sublimed, 
after which it is thrown into commerce." 
It is scarcely accurate to say that "the 
metal [calcium] itself is rare." The book 
ia clearly printed, though the engravings 
might have been larger with advantage. 
Judging by the enormous number of divided 
■words the type has been set up in America, 
for no English printer would permit so 
many divisions at the end of the line, 
especially in cases where one has to turn a 
leaf to find the remainder of the word. 

Report of Hut Smithsonian Institution for 
1874 Washington: Government Printing 
Office. * 
The valuable report of the Smithsonian 
Institution, though late, is always welcome. 
Tie present issue, besides an account of 
the "proceedings," contains several interest- 
ing papers, mainly derived from foreign 
sources, and a few original articles of con- 
siderable value to the scientific student of 
America. We have here Arago's " Eulogy 
on Laplace," Maily's " Eulogy on Quetelet, 
Dumae's " Eulogy on De La Rive ;" a 
paper by Prof. Hilyard on " Tides and 
Tidal Action in Harbours," one by Prof. 
Lemstrdm on " The Electricity of the 
Atmosphere and the Aurora Borealis;" De 
OandoUe'e famous chapter on a " Dominant 
Language for Science ;" a paper by Charles 
A Schott on " Underground Temperature ;" 
another by Prof. Warren du Pre on " Earth- 
quakes in North Carolina;" General Morin's 
monograph on "Warming and Ventilating," 
and sundry short papers on the Ethnology 
of the States — the whole forming, as we 
said, a valuable volume, showing that the 
Board of Regents is alive to the wants of 
the time*, and is carrying out in an appre- 
ciative spirit the trust committed to their 
care. 

British Manufacturing Industries. Edited 
by G. Phillips Bevan, F.G.S. London : 
Stanford. 

This is another volume of the series at 
present being issued by Mr. Stanford, the 
two previous volumes of which we have 
already noticed. The complaint we made 
then we make now. The matter is usually 
•o good that there is not enough of it. 
For instance. Mr. W. M. Williams writes the 
paper on "Explosive Compounds," which 



occupies 56 pages, but might easily and with 
advantage have occupied all the book. The 
papers are mainly descriptive essays, giving 
a popular account of the various industries 
described, but scarcely of any practical 
value from the technical point of view. 
The first is an essay on " Metallic Mining," 
from the pen of W. W. Smyth,' M.A., 
F.R.S., which will be interesting to the 
general reader who appreciates the part 
played by our mines in our history ; and 
the second i? on " Coal," by Mr. A. Galletly, 
an essay which gives a popular account of 
coal ana coal-mines in the different countries 
of the coal-bearing world. This is followed 
by another essay by Mr. W. W. Smyth on 
"The Working of Collieries." Prof. Hull 
contributes a paper on " Quarries and Build- 
ing Stones." The paper on "Explosive 
Compounds," by Mr. Williams, is the most 
interesting on account of the comparative 
newness of the, subject. It gives a description 
of gunpowder, gun-cotton, nitro-glycerine, 
dynamite, lithofracteur, and the various 
fuhnnmtes and rarer explosives of the 
chemist's laboratory. In some parts Mr. 
Williams might write with more care. For 
instance, he says that " one or two grains " 
of chlorate of potash rubbed with an equal 
quantity of sulphur in a mortar will pro- 
duce a "violent" explosion. The term 
violent is apt to mislead the amateur ex- 
perimenter, especially as it is not stated 
whether "grains " means the weight, or 
simply a " fragment " or two of the chlorate. 
In speaking of dynamite, Kieslguhr ia 
stated to be the mineral with which nitro- 
glycerine is mixed — the word being Kiesel- 
guhr, better expressed in German perhaps 
by Kieselsinter. For the first time Mr. 
Williams makes public his connection with 
the Oram' affair. Felice Orsini, a " highly 
educated, refined, and courteous Italian 
gentleman," explained to Mr. Williams that 
he had invented a new kind of stellar gas- 
burner which could easily be converted into 
a bomb, by filling it with an explosive com- 
pound, and, as arms could not be imported 
into Italy, appeared to be the only method 
of arming the populace for the proposed 
rising against the Austriana and the French. 
As gunpowder, from the smallness of the 
bomb, would be practically of little effect, 
Mr. Williams suggested the fulminate of 
mercury, and taught Orsini and Pieri how 
to make it. Mr. Williams still believes 
that at first Orsini really intended to use 
the bombs for the purpose he named to 
him, and that the idea of killing the 
Emperor was an afterthought of his own, 
or a suggestion of Pieri's — a " crafty, 
sinister man, likely to choose a crooked 
course of action." Mr. Williams urges 
great caution on the part of those who 
make fulminates, and points out what is 
undoubtedly the fact, that this caution is 
most necessary on the part of those who 
have grown familiar with the explosives, 
and, as it seems, consequently treat them 
with contempt. 

The Tear-book of Facts in Science and the 
Arts for 1875. Edited by C. W. Vincent. 
London : Ward, Lock, and Tyler. 

We congratulate Mr. Vincent on the im- 
provement he has already made in the 
" Year-book," but still hope for more— and 
there is yet plenty of room. We do not 
believe that Mr. Vincent, or indeed any one 
man, can properly edit a work which is 
supposed to be a record of the progress of 
all branches of science. The authorities 
for the statements are given in the majority 
of cases, which is an improvement, but we 
think that longer descriptions of more im- 
portant "facts" might appropriately re- 
place mere extracts from popular lectures. 
Nothing is said about Mr. Crookes' radio- 
meter or his experiments with it, the only 
reference to it being contained in a para- . 
graph abstract of what Prof. Reynolds said 



concerning the theory of the principle of the 
radiometer at the British Association 
meeting. On the contrary, the discovery of 
Gallium is called the "chief scientific 
event of 1875," a bold prediction, which 
seems to have been the product of an after- 
thought, as two pages of large type have 
been specially printed and pasted into the 
book at the commencement, apparently 
after it was bound. The astronomical 
"facts" are rather few, and appear to want 
revising. Mr. F. E. Lott is quoted as 
stating that, in the Eclipse Expedition, 
" the image of the corona, which appeared 
very distinct and bright on the slit-plate, 
although exposed during the whole of 
totality, gave no visible results on the 
photographic plate," and yet in the next 
column it is stated that " Dr. Schuster took 
photographs of the corona with exposures 
of one, two, four, and eight seconds" — state- 
ments which, wanting an editorial note, are 
puzzling to the general reader. Taken 
altogether, however, the " Tear-book " for 
1875 is more worthy of a place on our book- 
shelves than its predecessors for many years 
past 

The Garden Oracle and Illustrated Flori- 
cultural Year-book for 1876. By Shiblet 
Hibbbbd. London : " Gardener's Maga- 
zine" Office. 
This is another year-book, which, however, 
deals only with one branch of "science," 
and so might be expected to be fairly 
without fault. But as a matter of fact 
there are, perhaps, not half a dozen practical 
gardeners who could quite agree with* it. 
Turning to the calendar of garden opera- 
tions, which, we presume, appears year after 
year, we find under " March — " It is not safe 
to manure for potatoes." No explanation is 
given of the term " manure," but Mr. Hib- 
berd has used the verb, and that means " to 
work with the hand, to till," &c. What- 
ever meaning he attaches to it, however, 
agriculturists and gardeners will not agree 
with him. Passing over the " calendar we 
come to a chapter on the " Amateur's Water 
Garden," which is suggestive, and then we 
have the usual " selections " of the " best " 
seeds and plants— that is " best " from the 
point of view of the writer; but those who 
have had any experience of the question 
of " best " seeds know that if they place 
the names of the sorts in a hat and draw 
one or two out at random they are just as 
likely to get the " best " as they are by fol- 
lowing the advice of those who make 
" selections " for their guidance. The next 
article is the " last straw." : two pages 
are occupied in a long rigmarole on " How 
to Cut a Cabbage," the wonderful secret 
being that as many leaves as possible 
should be left on the stump! And yet 
amid all that verbiage there was no room 
for advising the amateur to cut the stump 
so that it would not be split by the action 
of frost. As a rule we find the most valu- 
able portions of these books are the 
almanac and the "useful tables." The 
illustrations of new and rare plants might, 
however, be increased in number with 
advantage. 

We have also received: — Exercises in 
Electrical and Magnetic Measurements, by 
R. E. Day (Longmans), a useful work for 
students of electricity and sciences con- 
nected with it. The nomenclature and 
system of units of the British Association 
are used almost exclusively, and Mr. Day 
has supplied answers to the questions — 
most of which, we may mention, were per- 
formed experimentally at King's College 
laboratory under Professor Adams, to whom 
Mr. Day acknowledges his indebtedness for 
"much Bound instruction" in phy>is.— 
Problems and Examples in Physics, by Prof. 
E. Atkinson (Longmans), is an appendix to 
Ganot's " Physics," being a series of quea- 



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56 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE : No. 575. March 31, 1876. 



tions and answers for the use of teachers 
and others who use that well-known work 
as a textbook. — Tables, Nautical and Mathe- 
matical, for the Use of Seamen, Students, 
Mathematicians, Ac, by H. Evers, LL.D. 
( London : Collins, Son, and Co.), is an endea- 
vour to arrange a new set of handy, clear, and 
correct mathematical and nautical tables ; 
and we presume the endeavour has not been 
made without some idea that such tables are 
wanted. The tables are very useful; but 
we think the publishers will find that they 
are not considered " clear," the majority of 
those who habitually use logarithms and 
similar tables objecting to the use of ordi- 
nary figures, ;:s confusing from their uni- 
formity of size, and preferring those known 
as table " figures, which are not so likely 
to be mistaken. — Proceedings of the Society 
of Public Analysts, Vol. I. (London), is the 
first volume of the transactions of the new 
society, containing papers read by the mem- 
bers, original articles, correspondence, and 
reports of meetings. This first volume is a 
rather heterogeneous mixture, and wo are 
constantly in doubt as to whether what is 
written is put forward by the society or 
not. Such articles as those on pp. 126 and 
129 rarely, if ever, appear in the " pro- 
ceedings of scientific societies, and readers 
of this volume will be at a loss to know who 
and what the " we " which occurs in them 
is. The volume seems to have been made 
up, without revision, from the pages of a 
serial publication, for on p. 129. "our 
readers " occurs, in connection with a 
promise to present them with a copy of the 
" Sale of Food and Drugs Bill." Could 
the publishers of this book be called upon 
to present its readers with a copy of that 
bill on application ? The society should see 
that its " Proceedings " do not misrepresent 
it. — The Architect's Almanac (Wyuiau and 
Sous) is an office almanac, with useful 
tables printed on the back. — The Shilling 
Peerage, House of Commons, Baronetage ami 
Knightage (Hardwioke and Bogue). Useful 
little volumes, which, however, do not appear 
to have been so carefully edited as usual — 
Eastwell Park, for instance, appearing as 
the residence of the Earl of Winchilsea. — 
Lockwoodand Co.' s Builders' and Contractors' 
Price Book for 1876, tho usual annual issue 
of a well-known work. 

On our table, but demanding more space 
than we can give them at present, we 
have : — Business, by James Piatt (Simpkin, 
Marshall, and Co.) ; The Construction of the 
Power Loom and the Art of Weaving, by 
Alex. Brown (Simpkin, Marshall, and 
Co.); Railway Appliances, by J. W. Barry. 
M.I.C.E. (Longmans) ; a Treatise on Food 
and Dietetic*, by F. W. Pavy, M.D. (J. and 
A. Churchill); Lectures on Some Recent 
Advances in Physical Science, by P. G. 
Tait (Macmillan). — An Encyclopaedia of 
Architecture, by Joseph Gwilt and Wyatt 
Pap worth (Longmans). 



THE MECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF 
LIGHT. 

A SERIES of lectures was recently delivered 
by Dr. George F. Barker at the Stevens 
Institute. Hoboken, New Jersey, on the pro- 
duction of light from mechanical force, and 
the following abstract of the introductory 
elementary lecture will be found interesting as 
descriptive of the mode of experimenting. 
The a iuie magnet is derived from the name of 
the ancient town Magnesia, where two impor- 
tant minerals were found — ono, white, which is 
employed in medicine, and the other the black 
magnetic oxide of iron. This latter has the 
remarkable property of attracting iron ; re- 
markable because it is not confined to the ore 
itself, but cmanate3 from it in all directions, 
thus enveloping it as it were with an atmo- 
sphere of force. This was illustrated by the 
familiar experiment of magnetising a bar of 
soft iron by bringing tho loadstone near it 
without touching. Upon removing the load- 



stone, the bar no longer attracted iron. It 
had lost its magnetism ; a steel bar would have 
retained it permanently. It is of the utmost 
consequence to understand the manner in 
which the force emanates from a magnet, and 
it has been found that it obeys tho same law 
as the force of gravitation — namely, that it 
diminishes precisely as the square of the dia- 
tance from the source. If wo measure this 
force at a certain distance from the magnet 
in one direction, and then find points in other 
directions where the force is exactly the same, 
we obtain what is called an equipotential 
surface; and by repeating this process at 
various distances, we map out what physicists 
have named the magnetic field. The direction 
of the lines" of force was beauti fully shown by 
means of an experiment of Prof. Mayer's. 
Iron filings were sprinkled upon a glass plate, 
and this was placed upon a little bar magnet 
in Dr. Barker's vertical attachment to tho 
magic-lantern (illustrated oap. 628, Vol. XXI.), 
in which the light passing through a glass 
plate is reflected on the screen by a mirror. 
On slightly tapping the glass plate to give the 
particles of iron an opportunity of falling back 
upon the plate in obedience to the attraction 
of the magnet, they arranged themselves in 
symmetrical curves about the poles, forming 
an appearance designated as the magnetic 
spectrum. The particles in arranging them- 
selves move at right angles to the lines of 
force. (This was shown by means of a small 
needle suspended by a fine thread and intro- 
duced in the lantern. On gradually moving 
it around the magnet, it constantly changed 
its inclination so as always to preserve a posi- 
tion perpendicular to the lines of iron filings 
which represented the lines of attraction of 
tho magnet.) 




As the earth itself is a great magnet* linos of 
force are passing out from it in every direction, 
and we have the means of recognising them. 
A piece of soft iron held at a certain inclina- 
tion, called the magnetic dip, becomes a 
magnet. This dip is inclined about 73° to the 
vertical. By placing a magnetic needle in the 
lantern, it was shown that a bar of soft iron, 
which before had no magnetic effect on the 
needle, began to attract it when held near it at 
the requisite inclination. On holding the 
other end of the bar up, its polarity was re- 
versed, as its opposite effect on the needle 
proved. 

The similarity of the action of electricity to 
that of magnetism was long known, without 
suggesting the identity of tho two forces to 
physicists. It was reserved for Prof. Oersted 
to discover, by accident, that a wire, in which 
an electrical current passed, attracted the 
magnetic needle. Such accidents are possible 
only to men of profound insight, whose powers 
of observation have been trained by long 
habits of study. It required a Newton to per- 
ceive anything extraordinary in the fall of an 
apple. Prof. Oersted's experiment was shown 
by placing a magnetic needle in the lantern, 
surrounding it by a coil of wire, and passing a 
current of electricity through the latter ; the 
needle immediately began to move. On re- 
versing the current, the needle began to swing 



in the opposite direction. To answer the ques- 
tion whether it was really magnetism which 
caused the deflection of the needle, and not 
some other force — in other words, whether the 
wire carrying the current had become a real 
magnet — the experiment with the iron filings 
was repeated, substituting a wire, through 
which a current paased, for the small bar 
magnet of the first experiment. The reflection 
of this wire on the Bcreen was vertical; and 
when the plate was tapped, the iron filings 
arranged themselves in horizontal lines. As in 
the case of the magnet, therefore, they were 
perpendicular to the lines of force, and it was 
evident that the copper wire had become a 
magnet, having its poles along its sides. By 
making a coil of tho wire, we multiply the 
effect, because we multiply the lines of force. 
A bar of iron thrust into 6uch a coil will occupy 
a position perpendicular to all the lines of 
force in it, and therefore be capable of yield- 
ing the maximum effect. A diminutive piece 
of iron in horseshoe form, surrounded by wire, 
was then introduced in the lantern, and it 
attracted its armature every time a current was 
sent through the wire. In the next experi- 
ment the same little magnet was used with iron 
filings to show that the magnetic spectrum of 
these electro-nmgneta is similar to that of 
ordinary magnets. 

Great as was the discovery that electricity 
can be converted into magnetism, it must yield 
in importance to the one that magnetism can 
be converted into electricity. Arago was the 
first to observe that, when a copper disc is 
rapidly rotated undor a magnetic needle, from 
which it is separated by a glass plate, the 
needle gradually begins to swing with it, fol- 
lowing its rotation. It was left to other 
physiciste, and especially to Faraday, to explain 
the phenomenon. Their conclusions may be 
briefly summed up in the statement that, when- 
ever any substance capable of conducting 
electricity is moved across a magnetic field, a 
current of electricity is generated in that sub- 
stance ; and this current is the more powerful, 
the more nearly the motion is perpendicular to 
the lines of magnetic force. To show this 
fact, the large electro-magnet of the Institute 
was used. A wire connected with a galvano- 
meter in the lantern was moved up and down 
in front of one of the poles of tho magnet, so 
as to cut some of the lines of force proceeding 
from it in every direction. The effect was that 
every such motion caused a deflection of the 
needle, showing that an electrical current was 
generated. 

An interesting experiment to illustrate the 
same principle was made with the apparatus 
represented in the engraving, which consists 
essentially of a copper disc rotated between the 
poles of an electro-magnet, and therefore ful- 
filling the conditions of maximum effect by 
cutting the lines of force perpendicularly. 
This apparatus turned very easily by means of 
the crank as long as the current did not pass ; 
but the moment the connection was made it 
required all the strength of the assisteint to 
manage it. This is explained by the fact that 
the copper disc is magnetised, and there is a 
tendency of the unlike poles of the disc and the 
magnet to attract each other, and hence to 
offer resistance to further rotation. The 
magnetisation of the disc was shown by con- 
necting it with tho needle in the lantern by 
means of copper wires. If the further rotation 
of the disc is persisted in. it becomes hot. as 
wa3 shown by connecting it with a thermo- 
electric pile and the galvanometer in the lan- 
tern. The resistance experienced by the copper 
disc was excellently shown by means of another 
experiment of Prof. Maver's, in which a large 
thin copper disc was made to swing to and fro, 
like a pendulum, between the two poles of the 
large eleetro-magnot. The moment the current 
passed around the coils of the magnet, the 
motion of the copper disc was arrested between 
the poles. 

If, then, we are able to obtain an electrical 
current by cutting the field of a magnet, we 
ought to bo able to do the same by cutting the 
lines of force of the earth. This the lecturer 
accomplished by moving a coil of wire, of large 
diameter, across tho line of dip, and showing 
the effect on a galvanometer needle connected 
with the coil : every time the ©oil moved, an 
oscillation was imparted to tho needle, which 

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Mabch 81, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 575. 



57 



wu distinctly visible upon the screen. The 
utilisation of this force of the earth, like that 
of the sunlight for mechanical work, belongs 
to the future. 

The conversion of the muscular power of the 
arm into heat and magnetism has been shown 
in the experiment above illustrated, and also 
the equivalence of magnetism and electricity. 
There remains the problem to turn these forces 
into the incomparably more subtle one of light. 
In the production of light the great difficulty 
is to utilise our force. Even in the steam 
engine only about ten per oent. of the fuel is 
utfliaed as mechanics 1 force; but when we 
come to light, that most imponderable of all 
the forces, we can scarcely utilise two per cent. 
When a powerful current of electricity is passed 
through an adequate conductor, it flows along 
peaceably and without unusual manifestations ; 
but if the wire is too thin, and the current is 
obliged, as it were, to crowd and elbow its way 
through it, it becomes red in the face, and we 
have the phenomenon of red heat ; interrupt 
the conductor altogether, and make the current 
leap over an empty space, and the conductor 
becomes white in the face, emitting a brilliant 
light. The latter is the case in the electric 
lamp. One of these lamps was placed upon 
the stage in connection with the Gramme 
magneto-electric machine, in which a powerful 
current of electricity is generated by causing 
the rapid revolution of one electro-magnet be- 
tween the poles of several larger ones, by 
means of steam power. The light obtained 
na equal to about 1,600 candles. 



ON PHENOMENA OF MOVEMENT 
DURING PROCESS OP SOLUTION. 

A T a recent meeting of the Swiss Society of 
Naturalists, M. Secretan read a paper 
"On the Movements which occur when one 
Body is Dissolved in Another." He observes 
that all bodies which dissolve under determi- 
nate conditions show movements of rotation, 
such as have hitherto been demonstrated in the 
case of camphor, and of salts of valerianic and 
butyric acids. The production, duration, and 
integrity of these movements depend on three 
factors, which replace or supplement each 
other— viz., 1, the degree of solubility of the 
body in the particular liquid ; 2, the relative 
density; 8, the capability of the body for 
being more or less moistened by the liquid. 

Among the movements themselves he dis- 
tinguishes three categories : 

A. Movements of a solid body in a liquid. 
For example, in water may be observed rota- 
tory movements in camphor, coffein, Valeria te, 
and butyrate. In a mixture of 60 parts water 
with 10 parts alcohol, rotatory movements are 
obtained with chlorides of sodium, barium, and 
strontium, with chromate of potash, hyposul- 
phate of soda, and many other substances. If 
alcohol be added to the liquid the solution 
power is lessened for these substances. The 
■mall fragments on the surface produce a 
hollow which maintains them on the liquid ; 
they are dissolved less quickly, and show 
movements of rotation. In sulphide of carbon 
these movements are shown by paraffin, 
camphor, colophonium; and several bodies 
show them in chloroform and bromide of 
ethylene. Porous substances saturated with a 
soluble liquid behave lik« solid substances — 

pumice saturated with alcohol, in water. 

B. Movements of one liquid in a second 
liquid. Distinguish here : 1. The movements 
of a denser liquid in a less dense, which slowly 
dissolves it. If (to take one example out of 
many) we carefully pour alcohol on water it 
remains floating in balls, which at the surface 
of the water produce a hollow ; but in a mix- 
ture of 5 parts alcohol and 55 parts water 
these balls are dissolved, rotating; so also 
aniline. 2. Movements of a lighter liquid in 
• heavier — e.g., alcohol in water. • 

C Rotatory movements, which are produced 
through solution between two liquids, and that 
sometimes in the upper, sometimes in the 
oader layer — eg., colophonium and soap be- 
tween ether and water, camphor between ben. 
une and water, Ac. 

These movements depend on the fact that 
oo body, be it amorphous or crystalline, Is 
homogeneous, and regularly soluble in all its 
Parts. It is the unequal affinity of the solvent 



liquid for the different parts of the dissolved 
body which produces the solution movements. 
In aniline balls — e.g., there is an expulsion at 
the part where they dissolve with greatest 
intensity, while at the same time they move 
away from this point. 

Under the conditions described the body 
removes from the point where it is most 
strongly dissolved. These examples might be 
greatly multiplied, for the movements have 
been observed in hundreds of bodies. They 
appear also under the microscope. 

The conclusion is: Bodies which are dis- 
solved always show movements if the cause of 
these movements is capable of overcoming the 
resistances opposed to their production. 



that in practice this valve has been found 
exceedingly sensitive — commencing to blow at 
the given pressure, blowing freely at 21b. 
above, and closing at half a pound below. 



A SAFE SAFETY-VALVE. 

THE safety-valve shown in section in the 
annexed engraving is known as Walker's 
" non-tamperable " valve, and is so designed 
that while it is impossible to load it beyond 
the maximum pressure for which it is set, it is 
very sensitive and accurate. The valve- 
chamber ^ias an annular seat upon which rests 
the accurately ground face of the valve. The 
latter is attached to a stem which passes 
through a long stuffing-box and carries on its 




upper end a disc, D, placed in a small circular 
chamber as shown. A rubber diaphragm is 
fixed just above the disc, D, and the cover of 
the chamber screwed down. Attached. to the 
cover, and of a length determined by the 
pressure the valve is desired to resist, is an 
iron tube, T, which carries at its upper end a 
receiver, E. This tube is filled with mercury. 
Around the tube, T, though not shown in the 
engraving, is a perforated sleeve and overflow 
pipe, so that if more mercury is added, with 
xhe view of keeping the valve down, the 
mercury will overflow, and pass out to a recep- 
tacle provided for it. The " weight " on the 
valve is regulated by the area of the rubber 
diaphragm and the height of the column of 
mercury. The two thumb-screws enable the 
valve to be tested at any time, and facilitate 
the driving out of a portion of the mercury 
should it be desired at any time to set the 
valve for blowing off at a lower pressure than 
that for which it was designed. It is stated 



CORE: ITS GROWTH AND 
MANUFACTURE. 

HPHE cork-tree (the " Quercus suber" of the 
X botanist) yields a large quantity of cork, 
which is the unusually developed bark, the 
wood itself being oak. It grows principally in 
Spain — it abounds in various parts of Algeria, 
particularly in the province of Constantino, 
and in Kabylia. The Government of Algiers 
has made special concessions of land to en- 
courage the cultivation of cork-trees. It is 
occasionally planted in the south of England, 
but the climate is not sufficiently warm. It is 
planted principally for the sake of its bark. It 
is not a very large tree ; it grows from about 20ft. 
to 40ft. in height ; it is thickly foliated, and the 
leaves are of an ovate oblong appearance, 
sometimes entire, and sometimes sharply 
serrated. The younger trees are of little or 
no use, as the quality of the cork is very in- 
ferior. The older trees are of great com- 
mercial value, for they yield an amount of cork 
which well repays the proprietor of the same. 
In these trees the bark acquires a fungus ap- 
pearance ; new layers of cellular tissue being 
formed, the outer parts crack from distension, 
and finally fall off in large flakes, when a new 
formation of the same nature takes place. 
Cork intended for the market is stripped off a 
year or two before it would naturally come 
away. They begin to bark it when it is about 
26 or SO years old, and repeat the operation 
once every eight or ten years. It is only 
after the third peeling that good cork is pro- 
duced, and the older the tree gets, the quality 
of the cork is increased in the same propor- 
tion. In stripping the trees they do not take 
off the whole bark, but only the external layers 
of spongy cellular tissue, all or the greater 
part of which has ceased to ha ve any true 
vitality, and has become an incumbrance to 
the tree. In performing this stripping opera- 
tion longitudinal and transverse incisions are 
made to the proper depth, and each piece is 
brought Off with a large curved knife with two 
handles. In this condition it is generally 
called " cork-wood." So fax is this stripping 
from being injurious to the tree, that when it 
is done with proper care it rather promotes its 
healthy growth, and enables it to continue 
yielding cork for about 160 years. The trees 
are generally stripped in the months of July 
and August, end the cork is then soaked in 
water and put under pressure to flatten it, and 
dried ; the pieces are then selected and assorted 
according to their seeming value; the finer 
and closer grained woods bringing the larger 
prices. Out of a single sheet of cork you will 
get a variety of qualities of corks ; and, so well 
do the Spaniards know that, that they make the 
merchants pay often more than they would be 
inclined to pay if they saw it before it was 
dressed up. You will often see sheets of cork 
with the edges all out out and in, and on the 
whole showing up a pretty good quality ; but 
in many cases it is only skin deep, as cork- 
cutters too well know. When the pieces are 
all selected they are put up into bales weighing 
about 1 cwt., and sent into the market at 
prices varying from aboat JB18 to .£100 per ton, 
and upwards. The British import duty on un- 
manufactured cork was abolished in 1845, and 
in the year 1860 the duties on corks ready 
made and cork squared for roundings — which 
had been fixed in 1858 at 6d. per lb., and 8s. 
per cwt respectively— were repealed. The 
policy of the abolition of these duties was 
questioned, as export duties were levied on 
cork in 8pain and Portugal — the producing 
countries. The result, as was anticipated, has 
been that the trade in the manufactured 
article has very materially increased, whilst 
the imports of the raw material ha»e remained 
comparatively stationary. In the manufac- 
turing of corks the sheets are cut up into 
strips, the breadth of these determining the 
length of the cork required. They are then 
cut into squares (quarters as they are termed), 
and they are then rounded. The cork is held 
in the left hand and rested against a pin of 
wood or metal, and the knife pushed steadily 



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ENGLISH MECHANIC ANT) WORLD OF SCIENCE: No. 575. March 31, 1876. 



forward ; at the Banie time its edge is made to 
describe a circular curve by a skilful turn of 
the wrist. The workman has u piece of oiled 
wood in front of him on which he whets his 
knife ufter every cut he makes. Although cork 
is so soft and elastic, yet it blunts tho knife 
almost immediately it is applied: a cork-cutter 
requires to sharpen his knife every time, while 
the tool that is used for planing, turning, or 
boring steel will work for hours without 
sharpening. After a bale has been cut up and 
rounded the corks are then given into the 
hands of the sorters who classify them ac- 
cording to their respective values, and they are 
then ready to be sent out for use. Large quan- 
tities of foreign-made corks are imported into 
this country and command a ready sale (espe- 
cially the finer qualities). Catalonia produces 
immense quantities of the finest cork-wood 
known, and by the laws oi the province no 
cork is allowed to be exported unless manu- 
factured before shipment. Entire families 
raiko cerk-cutting their daily work, and they 
are trained to it from their early youth ; they 
again sell their products to the large merchants, 
who export them wholesale. In Catalonia the 
annual manufacture of corks varies from 
20,000 to 25,000 bales of from 25,000 to 30,000 
corks each. They have a different modo of 
cutting corks from that employed here. In 
Catalonia they have their knife fixed in a slot 
in their bench, and the other end they lean 
against their breast; then they take the 
"quarter" in their two hands and give it a 
spiral motion along the knife downwards, and 
in this way they cut their corks— and I must 
say, so far as workmanship is concerned, they 
beat our workmen here. The foreigners put a 
** skin " on the oork, and altogether make a 
cleaner cut than we can do here, and in this 
way we can easily tell a foreign from a home- 
manufactured cork. It always strikes one, on 
entering a cork-cutter's establishment for the 
first time, that there must be an enormous 
amount of waste, judging from the great heap 
of cuttings generally seen there ; but this is 
not waste, for it is all sold for various purposes. 
Some are converted into lamp or Spanish black 
by calcining in close vessels, and large quanti- 
ties are sent to London, where it is cut up into 
very fine particles and mixed with elastic 
material, and converted into floor cloth, which 
is very durable and comfortable. In Spain 
they utilise their cuttings by making them into 
packing material for their grapes, which they 
export in very large quantities, in casks, to this 
country. There are numerous purposes to 
which cork can be applied, some of wnich are 
of very ancient date, having been known to 
Pliny, and taken notice of by him in his works, 
but the general employment of corks as 
stoppers for glass bottles appears to date only 
from the fifteenth century. Cork is a very 
slow conductor of heat, and on this account 
inner soles of shoes are made of it, which are 
found to be a great comfort to the wearer. 
Owing to its lightness and durability gentle- 
men's hate are made from cork, and they make 
very comfortable summer hats indeed. Very 
pretty and neat models of churches and cathe- 
drals and other buildings are made out of cork, 
which often show a great amount of architec- 
tural and inventive ingenuity. It is easily 
wrought, it does not split, and it is always 
clean to work with, and for these reasons I 
believe it is much preferred to every other 
material. Life jackets, and swimming belts, 
boat fenders, and a host of other things are [ 
made of cork. There is a quantity of very 
coarse cork often sent here which is unfit to be 
niode into bottle corks, and this cork is burnt 
in an open kiln, then token out and plunged 
into cold water \ by this means the grain of the 
cork is drawn cloaer together, and it is then 
cut into floats for fishing nets, and large quan- 
tities are annually uold at the different fishing 
stations. The burning makes it more im- 
permeable to water. 

The first cork that comes off the tree is what 
is termed " virgin cork ;" it is too coarse for 
cutting purposes, and it is Bold in its rude state 
for nrtUTBlf fancy rockeries, grottoes, and all 
sorts of garden ornaments. Its value is about 
12s. per ewt. Many attempts have been made 
to cut corks by machinery, and some of them 
turn out pretty good work occasionally, but the 
knives are continually going out of order, 



which becomes a source of annoyance and 
expense. I cannot imagine any more tedious 
employment than that of cutting corks ; men 
have to sit from morning till night in the same 
posture, and must work very hard all the time 
if they want to earn a respectable livelihood. 
For every gross (14-* corks) they cut they 
receive tho sum of 5Jd- sterling, unless they 
are cutting the finer qualities, when they may 
get as high as fid. or fijd. per gross. Boys have 
to serve a seven years' apprenticeship, and to 
be doing nothing else than cutting corks all 
their lives. I wonder they have the perse- 
verance to continue in the same tedious profes- 
sion. If we could find out a proper temper for 
the knives, which would resist the action of 
the cork, machiuery might soon supersede 
hand cutting. We can only hope that the day 
is not far distant when we shall have all corks 
cut by machinery, and that the people who would 
otherwise be plying their heavy though busy 
knives will have other employment of a more 
genial nature, beneficial to the mind and 
healthful to the constitution. J. C. It. L. 



PNEUMATIC STEERING GEAR. 

ON p. 551 of our last volume we gave a brief ac- 
count of the pneumatic steering apparatus 
devised by Passed Assistant Engineer Q. W. 
Baird, U.S. Navy, for the fast cruising sloops 
of the Mohican class. The following explana- 
tory description will render the construction 
and arrangement of the apparatus clear. In 




order to economise labour hi the steering of 
vessels, several power gears have been pro- 
posed, prominent amongst them being the 
hydraulic and screw gears, which, however, find 
little favour on account of their rigidity. 
When the rudder receives a blow from a surg- 
ing wave it must yield a little, or it will soon 
break, and for this purpose positive cushioning 
must be provided. To meet the requirements 
of this special case a pneumatic arrangement 
has been designed in the Bureau of Steam 
Engineering, which has received general appro- 
bation. It should be mentioned that the ships 
of the U.S. Navy, when i)roceeding under sail, 
unconple the line shaft from the main engine, 
and permit the screw to revolve freely by the 
pressure of the water upon the blades, and 
with it, of course, that section of the line shaft 
aft of the coupling revolves. 

Upon this line shaft is keyed an eccentric, 
C, which works an air-pump, and the air, 
forced by the pump, is stored up in a reservoir, 
R, to 55 pounds pressure above the atmosphere. 
Upon the receiving pipe of the air-pump is a 



cock, T, which is opened or closed by the inter- 
vention of levers actuated by a rod and a 
sui > 11 piston within a cylinder attached to the 
reservoir, which is counterbalanced by weights 
on the rod. This arrangement is automatic, 
and regulates the supply of air to the pump, 
and the pressure in the reservoir. If the pres- 
sure should still increase (by leak of receiving 
valvo) the piston rises still higher, and lete the 
air escape, as in the ordinary safety-valve. 

Upon the deck of the vessel is situated the old- 
fashioned hand steering gear, except that it has 
upon its drum a large fnction-wheel, P (36in. 
diameter), shown half in section in the engrav- 
ing, and under the system a grooved pinion, 
geared into the large wheel, which pinion is 
upon the shaft of, and is driven by, a pair of 
oscillating engines, E E, 4in. diameter of 
cylinder, and 5in. stroke of piston. These 
little engines are driven by the compressed air 
from the reservoir referred to above. They 
are reversed by a two-way cock, which changes 
the steam port into the exhaust, and vice versa, 
and which is actuated by a lever which is 
placed vertically in front of the system. The 
motions of the cylinders open and close their 
ports (proper) in the ordinary manner. 

The drum, upon which the tiller ropes are 
coiled, moves upon an iron axis, which passes 
thiough, and has upon its ends eccentrics. By 
turning this axial shaft, it is made to riBe or 
lower, and thus the power gear is thrown in or 
out of contact. When out of gear it is worked 
in the ordinary manner. When the main 
engines are at work tho air-pump is moved by 
the shaft, and the steering gear is worked by 
that source ; but when the main engines are 
not at work, the propeller is uncoupled, and 
the line shaft is revolved by its propeller, 
which is in turn revolved by the pressure of 
the water upon the blades when the ship is 
under sail and making headway. It is found 
that screws revolve freely when the vessel is 
moving at three knots per hour; but if the 
vessel moves at a lower rate of speed, the 
weather is then fine, and one man may steer 
with ease. 

In addition to the advantages already noticed, 
this gear is very elastic, as a blow upon the 
rudder would move the system backward, and 
compress the air upon the piston, offering a 
uniformly increased resistance. But when the 
resistance of the engines equals the pressure 
on the rudder, and the strain is still consider- 
able, the friction gear will slide over rather 
than break. 



ASTRONOMICAL NOTES FOR 
APRIL, 1876. 

The Sun. 



Souths. 



h. m. s. 
1 3 47 63pm 
6j 218 87 „ 
11 55 19,, 
161159 3918am 
21 1158 32 92 „ 
26115738 02 „ 



At Greenwich Mean Noon. 



2^ » 



Decli- 
nation 
North. 



h. m. a. 

44 32' 4 47 26 

1 2 46 6 41 10 
1 21 5 8 33 2 
1 39 32 10 20 52 

1 58 912 4 29 

2 16 5713 43 11 



Sidereal 
Time. 



h. m. s. 

40 44 67 

1 27 44 
1 20 1021 
1 39 52-99 

1 59 35-76 

2 19 18-54 



The remarks we made last month with refer- 
ence to sunspots apply equally to this, although 
the very considerable intervals elapsing 
between their appearance indicate a further 
extension of the already most abnormally 
protracted period of minima. The Zodiacal 
light may still be looked for after sunset. 

The Moon 

Enters her First Quarter at 4h. 11 -8m. in the 
afternoon of the 1st, is Full at 7h. 38 - 7in. p.m. 
on the 8th ; enters her Last Quarter at 
8h. 87'4m. in the evening of the 16th ; will be 
New at 7h. 3 3m. a.m. on the 2 ith ; and will 
enter her First Quarter for the Becond time 
this month at lOh. 26'9m. at night on the 30th. 



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March 31, 1876. ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 576. 



59 



Day of 
Month. 


Moon's Age 
at Noon. 


Souths. 




Days. 


h. m. 


1 


67 


6 19-4 p.m. 


6 


U-7 


10 39-4 „ 


11 


ie-7 


1 375 a.m. 


16 


217 


5 50 „ 


21 


26-7 


9 40 2 „ 


26 


22 


2 1*7 p.m. 



At 2 p.m., on April 7th, Libcation will bring 
additional surface into view in the N.W. 
quadrant of the Moon's disc. ; and at 9 p.m, on 
the 20th more of her N-E. quadrant will be 
rendered visible by the operation of the same 
cause. 8he will be in conjunction with Jupiter 
at 6 a.m. on the 12th ; with Saturn at 11 p.m. on 
the 19th ; with Mercury at 1 p.m. on the 24th ; 
with Mars at 7 p.m. on the 26th ; and lastly 
with Venus at 2 p.m. on the 27th. 



raojj 

0|9ny 



11 



•xeva A 
uiojj 

_e^ny_ 



raoaj 



ojnw «hh MAN 



43 4=-«43 u 



a :sssss a s 

assies *-SS«s 

A! 



CO tH 00 



a . . . . . .s .a 

. o, =8 2. 



i -* :a ; a 



tpuoji 



Merpury 

Is a Morning Star up to the 22nd at 1 o'clock 
in the afternoon, at which date he comes into 
superior conjunction with the Sun. After this, 
of course, the planet passes to the east of the 
Son, and rising, southing, and setting after 
him, becomes, in that sense, an Evening Star. 
He is badly placed (and an uninteresting 
object, to boot) for the observer during the 
vhole of April. 



n 


Bight 
Ascension. 


Declination. 


Souths. 




h. m. 


/ 


h. m. 


i 


23 86 6 


6 8 8 8. 


10 56 a.m. 


6 


78 


1 37 „ 


11 75 „ 


11 


40-9 


2 201 N. 


11 208 „ 


16 


1 16 3 


6 37*7 „ 


11 86 5 „ 


21 


1 64 ; 4 


11 62 „ 


11 548 „ 


26 


2 34-8 


15 28 6 „ 


16 5 p.m. 



A path traversing a considerable portion of 
Pisces, and extending right across Aries into 
the confines of Taurus. 



Jupiter 

Is still a Morning Star, as far as his Southing 
is concerned; but he rises a little before 11 
p.m. at the beginning of April, and between 
8 and 9 at the end of it: his unfortunately 
great South declination, however, renders his 
present apparition a very unfavourable one 
for the observer. 





Bight 


Declination 


Souths. 


M 


Ascension. 


South. 






h. m. 


19 27'6 


h. m. 


i 


15 59-2 


3 19-8 a.m. 


6 


15 581 


19 211 


2 59 1 „ 


11 


15 56 8 


19 198 


2 381 „ 


16 


15 551 


19 14-7 


2 16 9 „ 


21 


15 58'3 


19 89 


1 553 ,. 


26 


15 51-2 


19 2-4 


1 336 „ 


Hence it will be seen that Jupiter will traverse 


a short 


retrograde 


path from the confines of 


Scorpio into those 


of Libra. He will be in the 


same telescopic field (with a moderate power) 


as p 1 Scorpii from 


about the 3rd to the 6th of 


April, and will be in conjunction with that 


Star at 3 p.m. on the 5th. 






Jupiter's Satellites. 


Day of 
Month 


Satellite 


Phenomenon 










h. TH ■ B. 


1 


I 


Sh E 


1 15 Oam 


1 


I 


Tr E 


2 12 


1 


III 


8h B 


11 27 n m 


1 


I 


Oc R 


11 32 „ 


2 


III 


Tr I 


1 35 Oam 

A *•* *-* V •> • III ■ 


2 


III 


Tr E 


3 2 


3 


II 


Sh I 


1 12 


o 

3 


n 


Tr I 


3 5 ,, 


3 


n 


Sh E 


3 46 „ 


4 


ii 


Oc R 


11 45 r> m 


Mm 

7 


i 


Ec D 


3 50 1-3 a m 

*# W A v III 


Mm 

7 


i 


Sh I 


12 56 p.m. 


8 


i 


Tr I 


1 48 a.m. 


8 


i 


Sh E 


8 8 „ 


8 


i 


Tr E 


3 59 „ 


9 


i 


OcB 


1 18 „ 


9 


ni 


Sh I 


1 28 „ 


9 


in 


Sh E 


3 24 ,. 


9 


m 


Tr I 


5 5 ,, 


9 


i 


Tr E 


10 26 p.m. 


10 


h 


Shi 


3 47 a.m. 


12 


n 


OcB 


2 5 „ 


16 


i 


Shi 


2 50 „ 


15 


i 


Trl 


8 34 „ 


15 


i 


SJi E 


5 2 ,, 


15 


i 


Ec D 


12 12 1-5 p.m 


16 


i 


Oc B 


3 4 a.m. 


16 


i 


Tr I 


10 p.m. 


18 


i 


Sh E 


11 30 „ 


16 


i 


Tr E 


12 11 „ 


18 


n 


Ec D 


12 34 31-8 ,. 


19 


ii 


Oc R 


4 23 a.m. 


19 


m 


OcD 


10 26 p.m. 


19 


in 


Oc B 


11 51 „ 


20 


ii 


Bh E 


10 14 „ 


20 


n 


Tr E 


11 26 „ 


22 


i 


Sa I 


4 43 a.m. 


23 


i 


Ec D 


2 5 44 „ 


23 


i 


Sh I 


11 12 Op m. 


23 


i 


Tr I 


11 45 „ 


24 


i 


Sh E 


1 21 a.m. 


24 


i 


Tr E 


1 56 „ 


24 


i 


Oc B 


11 16 p.m. 


26 


n 


Ec D 


3 8 5 1-4 a.m 


26 


iii 


Ec D 


11 42 3-6 p.m 


27 


in 


Ec B 


1 23 45-9 a.m 


27 


in 


Oc D 


1 48 „ 


27 


in 


OcB 


3 13 „ 


27 


n 


Shi 


10 14 p.m. 


27 


n 


Trl 


11 12 „ 


27 


ii 


Sh E 


12 49 „ 


28 


n 


Tr E • 


1 43 a.m. 


30 


i 


Ec D 


3 59 31-4 „ 



Ec. Eclipse. Oc. Occultation. Tr. Transit 
of Satellite. Sh. Tranfit of Shadow. D. Dis- 
appearance. B. Reappearance. I. Ingress. 
E. Egresa. The printing of a phenomenon in 



italics indicates that its visibility is rendered 
doubtful, either by the brightness of the 
twilight or by Jupiter's proximity to the 
horizon. The student should, if possible, 
watch the transit of Satellite III on the early 
morning of the 2nd, as it may possibly be seen 
to traverse the planet's face as a dark spot. 

Venus 

Is an Evening Star during the whole of April, 
and is admirably placed for the observer. 8he 
is, moreover, a brilliant and conspicuous object 
in the evening sky, and does not set for four 
hours after the Sun. Her apparent diameter 
continues to increase. 



> Day of 
Month. 


Bight 
Ascension. 


Declination 
North. 


Souths. 




h. m. 




h. m. 


1 


3 281 


20 51-9 


2 46 9 p.m. 


6 


3 51-2 


22 25-8 


2 60-3 „ 


11 


4 14-5 


23 46-2 


2 53-8 „ 


16 


4 37 8 


24 52-4 


2 67-4 „ 


21 


5 0-9 


25 43 6 


8 09 „ 


26 


5 23 9 


26 19-7 


3 40 „ 



Although Venus will thus travel during the 
month across the widest part of the constella- 
tion Taurus, she will not approach any con- 
spicuous stars in it. She will be some little 
distance South of the Pleiades on the 4th, and 
on the 25th rather more than 2° South of 
Tauri. 

Mars 

Still remains invisible. 

Saturn 

Is still invisible. 

Uranus 

Although he crosses the meridian just after 
dark at the beginning of April, and in bright 
daylight at the end of it, may still, owing to 
his considerable North declination, be very 
fairly observed during the earlier part of the 
night. 



Day of 
Month. 


Bight 
Ascension. 


Declination 
North. 


Souths. 




h. m. 


16 43-4 


h. m. 


1 


9 151 


8 32 9 p.m 


6 


9 14-8 


16 44-7 


8 12 9 „ 


11 


9 14-5 


16 45-6 


7 53 „ 


16 


9 14-4 


16 461 


7 33-2 „ 


21 


9 14-3 


16 46 3 


7 13 5 ,. 


26 


9 14-3 


16 46 


6 53-9 „ 



So that he remains sensibly stationary at a 
point to the E. by N. of the 6th magnitude 
Star ir* Cancri, in an otherwise blank region of 
the heavens. 

Neptune 

Comes into conjunction with Sun at 2 o'clock 
in the afternoon of the 22nd. 

Shooting Stars 
Appear more frequently in April than in the 
three preceding months. It has been thought 
that there were indications of a periodical 
shower between the 4th and the llth, and the 
epoch of a well-detejnnmed one has been fixed 
by Professor A. Herschel between the 19tli and 
21st. Watch should then be kept on all three 
of these nights, and notably on that of the 
20th, which will, fortunately for the observer, 
be a moonless one. 

Greenwioh Mean Time of Southing of Ten 
of the Principal Fixed Stars on tho Night of 
April 1, 1876. 
Star. 

« Ursa Majoris 
o Hydros 
Begulus 
a Ursce Majoris 
J Cratcris 
ft Loonis 
t) Virginia 
:/3Corvi 

! o Canum Vemiticorum 
| Sploa Virginia 



Digitized by 



Souths, 
h. m. s. 
... 8 8 28-77 p.m. 

... 8 39 2102 „ 

... 9 19 31-28 „ 

... 10 13 4265 „ 

... 10 30 42 01 „ 

... 11 1306 „ 

... 11 30 57-50 ,, 

... 11 45 1378 „ 

... 11 7 32 11 „ 
... 12 35 52-77 

Google 



60 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF S< 



No. 575. March 31, 1876. 



To find the Local mean time of Transit of any 
of the abovo stars, we must take 9 8565 seconds 
fron: the time given above for every hour of 
Longitude (and proportional parts for minutes 
and seconds) where the station is to the West 
of Greenwich, and add the same quantity 
where it is to the East of our Standard Meridian. 
For example : what will be the Oxford mean 
time of Tranait of /3 Leonis on the night of 
April 1 ? Oxford is 5 05m. West of Greenwich. 
Then we cay, (50m. : 5 05m. :: 9 8565s. : 
which we shall find to be practically 83s. 
Subtracdng this, according to our precept (the 
Longitude being West), from the time given 
above, we get llh. 0m. 12 23s. as the Oxford 
mean time of Southing of /? Leonis on the 
night in question. Had our supposed station 
been 5 05m. East of Greenwich, the 83s. must 
have been added. 

The method of ascertaining the mean time 
of Southing of either of the stars in the above 
list for any other night in April will bo found 
on page 393 of Vol. XXII. 



thickness of the crown brass (when new) from its 
joint faoe to its bedding crown. We then, with a 
square and scriber, carry the line, B, over to the 
centre line of the edges of the strap (C, in Fig. 223), 
and the junction of the two is the centre of the oil 
hole. In centre-punching the centre for the oil hole 
to be drilled, mako a deep centre-punch mark to pre- 
vent the drill from running to one side and thus 
deceiving the machinist (who may have to lino up 
the brasses when they become worn) as to thickness 
of the liner to be placed behind the back brass to 
keep the rod to its original length. 

The marking of tho keyway in the butt or stub 
end of the rod is performed in the same manner M 
that of the keyway in the strap, care being taken to 
make the edge of the keyway nearest to the end of 
the rod at the exact proper distance from that end : 
otherwise the amount of space left, when the strap 
is in it - place, between tho end of the rod and the 



PRACTICAL MECHANISM •-XLII. 

Marking Out a Connecting Bod. 

OUR next operation is to mark out the keyway, 
which is performed after tho butt end of the 
rod and the inside and outside of the strap have been 
planed. We first, with a pair of compass callipers, 
which are bettor for the purpose than compasses, 
mark the centre of the strap edgeways, and then, 
la.ving it with its broad surface ou the marking-off 
plate, we mark off the keyway as follows : In Fig. 
223, A represents tho table, and B the connecting 
rod strap. C is the centre line of the strap, and 
therefore of the keyway ; the end, B, of the keyway 
should bo drawn tho necessary distance from the 
inside crown of the strap, as denoted by the dotted 
line, because it is that distance upon which the 
thickness of the brasses depends. Hence the lino, 
E, is the first one to be drawn ; then, from the line, 
E, wo mark the length of the keyway, and strike the 
line, F ; the breadth of tho keyway we mark by setting 
the compasses to the radius of a circle whose diameter 
will be equal to the required breadth of keyway. 
Then using the centre line as a centre, we mark the 
circle, O, and (parallel with its diameter, the centre 
line) the lines, H and I, thus completing the mark- 
ing of the keyway on tho strap. Our next operation 
is to mark the oil hole of the strap which should be 
placed exactly in its proper position, for the follow- 
ing reasons : — 

A connecting rod whose orossbead end has a strap 
with a gib and key (or, what is better, two gibs and 
a key to hold it, the orank pin end having its eud 
held by bolts, and the key between the bolts and tho 
brass) would maintain its original length, provided 
tho wear on the crosshcad brasses were as great as is 
the wear on the crank pin brasses; bat since thnt 
on the latter is the greatest, the rod wears longer to 
half the amount of the difference of the wear between 
tho crosshcad and crank pin journals. If both tho 
•traps of a rod are held by bolts, the key of one end 
being between the brasses and the main body of tho 
rod, and the key of the other end between the brasses 
and the crown of the strap, it would maintain its 
original length if the wear on both ends was equal ; 
but this not being so, it wears longer, as above stated. 
The oil hole of a strap, for either a connecting or 
side rod, should therofore be in the exact centre of 
the space intended to be filled by the brasses. It will 
thus be central with the joint of the bras os, and 
from centre to centre of the oil holes, and will, 
therefore, represent the proper length of the rod. 
When, therefore, the brasses of a rod end, whose 
strap is held by a gib and key, have worn so that the 
key is let down, the brasses must be lined up to 
bring the key back to its original position, the back 
brass being lined up so that its joint face comes 
even to the centre of the oil hole, and the other brass 
being lined up sufficiently to bring the key back to 
its original position ; then the rod is sure to be of 
the proper length. But if the strap is held by the 
bolts (in which case it does not move when the 
brasses are let together and the key further through), 
lining the back brass up to the centre of the oil hole 
at ouce insures the rod being of it* correct length, 
without any reference as to what tnlokoeu of liner 
in put on the other brass, or how far the key may 
come, or how far tho key may como through. In 
either case it will bo observed that tho centre of the 
oil hole, when placed as described, forms a gauge to 
keep the rod its proper length. 

To mark off tie oil hole, we lay the strap on lip 
side face, a* shown in Fig. 221, and, placing a 
straight edge along the inside crown face of the 
strap, wo mark a line even with it and across the 
jaw of the strap, as shown at A. in Fig. 224, and 
from that we mark with the compasses tho Hue, B. 
the distance between the two being half the total 
depth of the brasses, or, what is the same thing, tho 




By Mr. Joshua Bosk in the Scientific Amerioan. 



crown of tho strap (which regulates the thickness of 
tho brasses), will not be correct, and the oil hole will 
not stand in its correct position on the strap, unless 
the key and gib are made to suit the inaccuracy of 
the position of the keyway in the rod end. For 
example : Suppose the keyway of tho rod to approach 
too near tho rod end, then the strap will, if the gib 
and key are made of the proper width (when placed 
together, as shown in Fig- 225) across, as at A, not 
pass sufficiently aloDg the block eud, and there will 
l>e too much spaco allowed for tho brasses, and the 
oil hole will stand too near tho crown of the strap. 
The only method of correcting this defect i< to make 
the width of the key and gib. at A, Fig. 225, wider 
to the necessary amount, and to cut the keyway*, 
both in the strap and |he rod end, wider, by cutting 
out the metal on the edge of tho keyway furthest 
, from the roil end, and the metal on the edge of the 
i keyway in the strap at tho end nearest to the crown 



of the strap. If the keyway of the block end em in 
the opposite direction, the key ways must of course 
be made wider, the metal being out out in the exact 
opposite to the above direction By marking out the 
two keyways as above described, we have no occasion 
to take any account of the draw, since that will come 
■•:_••;» of itself when the brasses are put in their places 
in the strap, and the strap is put in its plaoe »q 
the rod end. In marking off the rod end from key- 
ways already cut in the strap, the following plan 
must be adopted : Place the strap upon the rod end, 
leaving the space between the row cud and the cowu 
of the strap uarrower than b required to receive the 
brasses (when the latter are new) by an amount equal 
to the amount of taper there is in the full length of 
the key, and mark the keyway in the rod end even 
with the strap, taking no account of tVe draw 
required on the keyway, which is provided for in the 
position in which the strap is placed on the rod end, 
as will be perceived when we consider that the length 
of a keyway is always the width of the key and 
gib, at A, when placed together, as shown in Fig. 
226. Hence, by marking off the keyway in the rod 
end with the keyway in the strap, the latter is in the 
position in whioh it will stand when the key and gib 
are in the position shown in Fig. 226. Supposing 
then the gib and key to be in their places in the rod 
and strap, and iu the position shown in Fig. 226, 
and that we then lift the key up so that it will stand 
in the position shown in Fig. 225, and that we then 
pull the Mtrap as far off the block end of the rod as 
it will come, the key will then stand in its correct 
position, and there will be the proper amount of draw 
in the keyway, both in tho strap and on the rod end, 
and the space between the end of the rod and tho 
crown of the strap will also be correct. To mark off 
the key and gib, we proceed as follows : After the 
keyways are filed ont, we take a piece of thin sheet 
iron and fit it to a tight fit in the breadth or thick- 
ness of the keyway, and have the thickness of the 
key and gib planed, using the piece of sheet iron as a 
gauge ; we then mark off the key on both edges to 
the proper width at top and bottom, and hence give 
it the correct amount of taper. We also have the 
plain or straight edge (that is. tho edge opposite to 
the jaws) of the gib planed straight ; we then place 
the gib and key in the position shown in Fig. 227, 
and mark off (from the edge face, B, of the key) the 
line. A, on the gib, using the compass callipers set 
to tne full width of tho keyway in the strap or rod 
end, taking no account of the draw. Hence the key 
and gib will, when in the position shown, just fill the 
keyway. The width between the jaws of the gib, as 
denoted by C, should be marked a trifle less than is 
the extreme outside width of the jaws of the strap, 
so as to allow for the metal taken off in filing up the 
outsides of the jaws of the strap and off the inside of 
the jaws of the gib. 

When the rod is fitted np and ready to mark off 
the brasses to bore them out by, we proceed as 
follows : We take the top brass and mark on it* ont- 
sidc face two lines level with the faces which fit 
against the inside jaws of the strap, as shown in Fig. 
228, A and B being the lines referred to. We then 
key up the brasses in their places in the rod and 
fasten a centrepiece in the brasses at each end of the 
rod. Upon these centrepieces we first mark a line 
parallel with and central between the lines, A B, and 
then a line across the joint of the brasses if the joint 
faces meet, and in the centre of the space between 
them if they do not meet, and in either case to the 
centre of the oil hole, if the rods have been correctly 
made ; and the distance between the junction of the 
lines so obtained will, from one to the other, be the 
length of the rod. The rod should, however, always 
he tested with a pair of trammels set to the necessary 
distance between the brasses from centre to centre 
of their bores, care being taken to stand the rod, 
while trying the trammels, in tho position in whieh 
it works, for all rods deflect by their weight, the 
amount of such deflection depending upon tho posi- 
tion in which the rod is suspended. The trammels 
also deflect, it i» true, but their deflection is allowed 
for in setting them, whereas tho deflection of the rod 
will not be accounted for unless it is trammeled when 
standing or lying in th ■ position in which it works. 

We now come to ascertaining what thickness of 
liuer it is necessary to insert on the back of, each 
brass, when such is necessary on account of the wear 
of the brasses and on account of the key having 
passed through the keyway so that its head is level 
with the top of the gib, and hence requires to be Bet 
back. Beginning with the back or bot'om brass, 
which beds against the crown of tho strap, we find 
that tho brass at each end of the rod furthest from 
its key will, no matter what the construction ef the 
rod may be, require lining up «o that the centre of 
its bore is even with the centre of the oil hole in the 
strap— that is, providing the oil hole has been marked 
off as directed. The thickness of liner necessary to 
place behind the brass nearest to the key should be 
a»certnined a* follows : The bra« furthest from the 
key having been lined up, wo put the rod end, 
together with the brasses and keys, in position, and 
key the rod up properly, when, as shown in Fig. 299, 
the key will pass too far through tho rod eud. Then 
we mark across the face of the key a line, A, evein 
with the edge face of the, strap ; wo then put the ke] 

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' 62 



ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP SCIENCE : No. 575. March 81, 1876. ~ 



It thus appears that burners are in use in New- 
castle which give a light equal to only 3$ candles, 
when burning the same quantity and quality of gas 
as, when burnt in a good argand, will giro a light 
equal to 17f candles, or, if burnt in a good burner 
of its own class, will giro a light equal to 12} 
candles, and such burners are very extensively 
used in Newcastle. Is it, then, a matter of wonder 
that we occasionally hear complaints of the bad 
quality of Newcastle gas P By the substitution of 
good burners for these wretched ones, from three 
to five times the amount of light will be produced 
from the same amount of gas ; or, if the light of 
the present burners is sufficient, the same amount 
of light can be obtained from one-third or one- 
fifth the amount of gas. In the latter case, besides 
the saving in cost of gas, there is _ also the 
additional advantage of having the vitiation of the 
air in the room by sulphur compounds and carbonic 
acid from the burning gas reduced to the same 
extent. , 

It is in the hope that public attention will be called 
to this matter, and the wasteful misuse of gas pre- 
vented, that these results are now published. 



RAILWAY SIGNALS. 

SU XESSFUL trials have been made in France 
of a self-acting whistle, invented by Messrs. 
Lnrsirue, Forest, and Digney, for giving warning 
belore'iand to the driver of a locomotive when the 
da i ger signal is up. The apparatus is placed on 
the loco motive, moves of itself independently of the 
driver, and gives signals in fog or snow, or when an 
accident has put oat the lamp. To obtain these 
results, it was necessary (says Les Mondes), on the 
one hand, to place on the locomotive a whistle, 
which acted only when an electric current had 
passed through the motor of the apparatus, and a 
spring, balanced by a Hughes's electro-magnet, ful- 
filled these conditions. On the other hand, it was 
necessary to make the current, brought into play by 
the action of the pointsman, pass to the locomotive 
and into the apparatus. This has been accomplished 
by placing on the line a fixed copper plate, forming 
part of the circuit, and put about four inches above 
the rails. The locomotive is furnished with an iron- 
wire brush about eight inches long, which, as it 
passes, establishes perfect contact between the 
locomotive and the copper plate. It is therefore 
certain that when the circuit is closed the brush 
diverts it towards the locometive, and makes it pass 
into the bobbins which terminate the horseshoe of 
Hughes's electro-magnet. The magnetic force of 
this magnet is annulled, and the spring being set at 
liberty opens the whistle. The noise it makes con- 
tinues indefinitely till the driver has closed the 
whistle and restored the equilibrium between the 

Sring and the magnet, which will continue, because, 
e locomotive having cleared the apparatus on 
the ground, the electric current ceases to act. In 
consequence of the great success attending the 
trials that have been made since 1872 on several 
French lines, the Minister of Public Works has 
issued a circular recommending the invention for 
general adoption. 



ECONOMY OP ELECTRICITY. 

AT the first meeting of the session of the Man- 
chester Scientific Students' Association Mr. J. 
Faulkner delivered a lecture on " The Economy of 
Electricity," illustrated by a number of very beauti- 
ful diagrams and experiments. He said that some 
twelve months ago his attention was drawn to a 
phenomenon that had troubled him very much, and 
that was that the apparatus he had made in certain 
circumstances did not always give him the same 
results, and, having found that, be was " bothered," 
to use a Lancashire phrase. However, he observed 
carefully, and at last it brought him to a class of 

Shenomena that startled him to such a degree that 
e was unable to sleep for weeks until he had un- 
ravelled the matter. That matter was what he had 
called the A hands system, or the system of raising. 
He illustrated this system by taking a bar of iron 
possessing no magnetism, and a bobbin filled 
with wire. Immediately upon his sending an 
electric current round the wire magnetism was 
set up. He encircled the electro-magnet with 
a piece of common sheet iron, and by that 
means the coil adhered and was lifted, the power 
being raised from about three to seventy. On en- 
circling the electro- magnet with a larger covering 
the power was raised three hundredfold. This was 
done with the same battery and the same ooil, with- 
out altering any of the conditions, but he had 
surrounded it with iron. Continuing, Mr. Faulkner 
said that having got this great power, the next 
inquiry was, how does it happen that by simply 
surrounding it with iron, which possessed no 
mairuetism, the power of the magnet was so much 
exhausted ? Mr. Faulkner proceeded to answer 
thi- qi<~ttion by sprinkling some iron filings upon a 
pa-.« r placed over the magnet, by the attraction of 
wuieh the iron was gathered into the centre of the 
paper in exactly the same shape as the metal below, 



but a portion of the iron scattered over the face of 
the paper showed that there was still a waste of 
power. The magnet was then placed successively 
m a number of tubes, each of which decreased the 
quantity of waste, until at length the whole of the 
iron was collected in the centre of the paper and 
there.no longer remained any waste. He also ex- 
hibited a number of diagrams showing the peculiar 
rays formed by the waste power and its gradual 
attraction to the centre. He had, he said, 
determined to try the result of raising the residuum 
of magnetism that remained in the magnet ; that 
was, when you took hold of a piece of iron accord- 
ing to its quality, it would retain or give up its 
magnetism. By that means tbey were enabled to 
tell whether iron was good or imperfect or mixed. 
He performed the experiment of raising the residuum 
by simply surrounding the magnet with sheet iron, 
showing that be could economise not only the 
great qualities of magnetism and electricity but 
could also economise the most feeble qualities. Not 
being content, however, he determined try the 
experiment without the magnet which had been 
magnetised ; he therefore took a bar of iron which 
had never had magnetism in it, and placed it in 
such a position that it would take np only from the 
earth that magnetism it is proper to give, and he 
produced the results seen in the three diagrams he 
exhibited, simply by the earth's magnetism. He 
exhibited a number of diagrams showing the action 
of waste, including one on two sides of which 
the waste was economised while it was bursting 
from the ends ; and from this, said the lecturer, I 
anticipate perhaps some of the greatest results that 
would arise from this Altandm system. They had 
there a very ready method of placing their power 
wherever it was required. Having got the power, 
the first object was to apply it. and the first object 
to which he applied it was the common electric 
bell ; and the result had been that he had been able 
to revolutionise the form of the common electric 
bell. Again he made nse of it as an indicator, and 
utilised it for cotton factories for stopping the 
machines when the threads got broken, thus pre- 
venting an imperfect manufacture. Next for 
electric sounders. The telegraph operators on the 
Morse instrument could sit with their back to the 
instrument and write down what it said. Here, 
said Mr. Fanlkner, showing a telegraph battery, I 
have a moveable cylinder, and by means of a screw I 
can either increase or decrease the quantity of 
covering, and thus regulate the power. By his 
system he gathered together the waste forces, and 
he felt ashamed to confess that he had for nearly 
thirty years wasted his electric forces ; but he felt 
thankful that there was now no further exonse for 
his doing so. 



USEPTJL AND SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 

Silvering of Iron Wire. — Dr. Heeren recom- 
mends the plan following for giving to iron wire a 
silvery appearance. The wire is prepared by immer- 
sion in sulphuric acid, in which a piece of sine is 
suspended. The wire is then placed in contact with 
a plate of sine in a solution of two parts tartaric 
acid in 100 water, to which three parts chloride of 
tin and three parts soda are added. The wire 
remains a couple of hours in the bath, and surfaced 
by polishing or passing through a draw-plate. Spiral 
wire, or any fashioned iron, can be surfaced accord- 
ing to this plan. 

Phosphide of Copper. — What has been intro- 
duced with some icUU as an alloy of copper and 
phosphorus proves not to be an alloy, but a true 
chemical combination of copper with phosphorus, 
or a phosphide of copper in definite proportions. 
The union of the two may be through the hot or 
cold process, the cold sufficing for certain applica- 
tion-, being preferable indoed to combinations pro- 
dnoed by heal. By the hot process the introduction 
of simple bodies other than the metals or metalloids 
is prevented. The copper used in the process must 
be commercially pure. Of the three kinds of 
phosphorus the operator may take his choice ; the 
ordinary, the amorphous, and the earthy bi-phos- 
pbatcs. The amorphous is the most expensive, and 
u also the best. According to Delatot, the per- 
centage of phosphorus varies from 2 to 4, between 
which there may bv an infinity of degrees, although 
for industrial purposes five varieties meet all the 
requirements. These are formed with 2 percent, 
of phosphorus, 2J per cent., 3. 3}, and 4 per cent. 
Above 4 phosphor bronze is useless, but between 3 
and 4 per cent, the material is claimed to be superior 
to any other metal or alloy. 

Brussels International Exhibition, 1876.— 
Each exhibitor is to receive a commemorative 
medal and diploma irrespective of those to be 
awarded by the international juries; applicants for 
space should therefore bear in mind that the rule 
umler which only articles displaying merit or 
superiority of some kind are to be admitted will be 
enforced. The London School Board has prepared 
a suitable collection of objects for transmission to 
the Exhibition. The Exhibition building will be 
ready for the reception of exhibits at the time 
specified. 



Mind the Gauge —A enrious accident recently 
occurred en the New York and New England Bail- 
road. An engine bepan to blow off steam at the 
safety-valve. The watchman looked at the gauge 
and found it indicated, bnt 801b. He then went for 
one of the shop hands to come and see what the 
matter was. On his arrival this shop hand imme- 
diately began screwing down the pop-valves. Rich- 
ardson 's, and continued doing so until he had 
screwed the nuts Jin. from their former position. 
At this point an explosion took place, and the engine 
started backwards out of the rear of the shop, 
making a hole over 12f t. square. The tender was 
run out its whole length into the yard, dropping 
about 18in. as it left the house. When the fog 
caused by the escaping steam had cleared away, 
and the engine cooled down, it was discovered that 
four stay bolts had given way, allowing the front 
tube plate' to bulge out perhaps jin. ; this bulging 
opened the throttle, and, as the reversing lever was 
in back gear, the engine started backwards. The 
valves were set to blow at 130 or 135, and had not 
been altered since they were set. When the engine 
came in the siphon to the gauge was leaking badly, 
and the driver reported it for repairs. It was taken 
off, repaired and put back, and rubbing gaskets 
were used in the joints. One of these gaskets 
swelled so as to completely fill the pipe, and, of 
course, no steam could reach the gauge. 

Piecework.— At a recent meeting convened bv 
the Social Science Association there was a discus- 
sion on piecework as compared with timework. Mr. 
L. H. Courtney occupied the chair, and Mr. F. Hill, 
late of the I'ost-otlice, read his paper on the subject 
above mentioned. From his statement it appeared 
th.it Mr. Hill was in favour of piecework, and 
stilted that tho opponents of payment by piece, 
instead of by time, seemed to found their opposition 
in a great measure ou a belief that this system 
tended to reduce the number of persons employed, 
and, as regarded a large portion even of those who 
did find employment, to keep down the wages. He 
held this belief to be without foundation, and the 
fallacy appeared to be based on the assumption that 
the quantity of work to be executed in every kind 
of manufacture was fixed, as also the ram of money 
to be divided among the workpeople. Bat expe- 
perienoe showed that this was so far from being the 
case that both the quantity of work and the pay- 
ment for it were capable of vast and indefinite ex- 
tension. Mr. Mnndella said that the question was 
whether piecework was desirable or not. It had 
been assumed that it was desirable and good for 
the operative consumer, but that the trade unions 
and working classes generally were opposed to it. 
This assumption was as wide of the mark as could 
be any misrepresentation made as to the working 
classes, who were being constantly misrepresented. 
He was an advocate of piecework. Of the 
.£240,000,000 of exports from this country fully *> 
per cent, was the result of piecework. Our textile 
fabrics, iron and steel manufactures, haberdashery, 
and cutlery, were all produced by piecework. More 
piecework was done in England than in any other 
country, and this had been the main cause of her 
marked prosperity. The further it was carried the 
better it would be for every one concerned- All that 
was needed was an amicable arrangement between 
employers and working men. Piecework could not 
be always resorted to, and time work should in such 
cases be adopted. In conclusion, he must protest 
against the injustice done to working men by the 
statement that they protested against piecework. 

Paraffin.— Professor Odling. FJt.8., lectured at 
the Boyal Institution recently on " Paraffins and 
their Alcohols." He first referred to the large 
group of hydrocarbons generally, pointing out that 
chemists are now acquainted with many hundreds 
of compounds of hydrogen and carbon, while still 
there are but two compounds known of hydrogen 
and oxygen and two of carbon with oxygen. While 
most of them readily enter into combination to 
form further compounds, there is one easily re- 
cognisable group that does not, and the members of 
this grop from their slight affinity for combining 
are called paraffins. The highest and most volatile 
vorieties of the liquid paraffins constitute bensoline, 
a liquid of many uses in the arts, but exceedingly 
dangerous for lamps. Some cannon-like explosions 
wore produced by igniting a little benxonne on 
cotton wool diffused in a jar of oxgen. The solid 
paraffins are largely used in the manufacture of 
candles. The paraffins are the most highly hydro- 

Knised of the hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbons not 
longing to the paraffin .class become converted 
into paraffins by their direct or indirect fixation of 
additional hydrogen. The study of the proportions 
in which the relative amount of hydrogen and 
carbon occurs has been of inestimable value in 
affording a key to the solution of many difficult 
problems in organic chemistry. In all the paraffins 
— gaseous, liquid or solid— it has been found that 
the number ot their proportions of hydrogen exceeds 
by two proportions twice the number of their pro- 
portions of carbon. Professor Odling spoke of the 
isomerism of the paraffins as making known one of 
the most remarkable phenomena, and offering one 
of the most suggestive problems of modern organic 
chemistry. The study of the conversion of paraffins 
into alohols is of great interest, and, as far as is 
known, there appear to be as many isomeric primary 
alcohols as there are isomeric paraffins, and the 
study of these, more than perhaps anything else, helps 
to increase our knowledge of organic chemistry. 



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63 



SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL 
ENGINEERS. 

AT the seventeenth ordinary meeting of the 
session, held on Tuesday evening, the 21st of 
March, Mr. Geo. Robert Stephenson, president, in 
the chair, Mr. Sidengbara Dner, B.Sc, Assoc. 
Inst. C.E., read a paper descriptive of 
The Hydraulic Canal* Lift at Anderton, on 
the River Weaver. 
The object of this lift was to transfer floating 
barges between the Trent and Mersey Canal and the 
river Weaver, and thus to afford an easy and 
expeditions means of eommnnication between them, 
without the expense and delay hitherto incurred In 
tr«os hipping goods. The idea of lifting the laden 
barges by hydraulic power originated with Mr. 
Edward Leader Williams, jan., M. Inst. C.E., at 
that time engineer to the trustees of the Weaver 
Navigation. He consulted Mr. Edwin Clark, M. 
Inst. C.E., on the subject, and after various designs 
hmA been considered, the arrangement of the details 
and (he superintendence of the construction were 
intrusted to the author. The canal and river were 
close together at Anderton, bnt the level of the 
water in the canal was 50 feet 4 inches above that 
in the river. 

The water of the canal was conducted by a 
wrought- iron aqneduet, 162 feet 6 inches long, 
across an arm of the river to the end of the lift 
This aqueduct was in three spans, of 80 feet, 75 feet, 
and 5? feet 6 inches. It was 84 feet 4 inches wide, 



and a central web divided it into two channels, each 
17 feet 2 inches wide. This central web and the 
tides of the aqueduct were 8 feet 6 inches deep, and 
formed continuous girders, which carried the 
aonedact and the water, 5 feet 8 inches deep, con- 
tained within it. The total weight of the aqueduct 
and* the water was 1,050 tens, or about 6} tons per 
1 meal foot. Excepting at the end, where it rested 
en the masonry of a banal ending iato the canal, 
the aqueduct was carried on cast-iron columns. 

The lift waa doable; each half consisted of a 
wrougbt-iron trough 75 feet long and 15 feet 6 
inches wide, capable of containing barges floating in 
water 5 feet deep. The sides of the trough were 9 
feet 6 inches deep at the centre, and 7 feet 6 inches 
deep at the ends, and formed girders to carry the 
weight of the trough, water, and barges, which 
ambontod to 240 tons. This weight was trans- 
mitted from the sides to the head of a central ram, 
3 fact in diameter, by cantilevers whioh radiated 
frost the ram to the sides of the trough. The trough 
wsj thus supported and moved ap and down by one 
central vertical rate, which worked in a press sunk 
wittn a cast-iron cylinder below the bed of the 
river. The p r enure on the ram amounted to about 
4} esrL per square inch. The trough had a lifting 
rate at each end, for the ingress and egress of 
hsrges, and there were corresponding gates in the 
aqueduct, so that boats could pass between the 
aqnsdoet and the trough according as they were 
to be lowered or bad been lifted. The press under 
ens trough was connected by a pipe, 5 inches in 
distueter, with that under the other trough, and 
tints water contained in one could pass freely into 
the ether, by an equilibrium valve in this pipe. 
There was also a small steam-engine continually 
pumping water into an accumulator, to assist in 
the working of the lift. Piping 4 inches in diameter 
jessed from the accumulator to each of the presses, 
sad the accumulator could be opened to either of the 
presses as required. All the valves for working 
wis ssnerStus were under the control of one man 
in a valve house on the top of the aqneduet. In 
working tads lift, when one trough containing barges 
sa3 water 5 feet deep was at the top ef the lift, the 
other containing barges and water 4 feet 6 inches 
deep was in the river below. As the upper trough 
«ss be* rier than the lower one, it followed that as 
soon as the valve on the 5-inch pipe was opened, the 
■Mr trough descended and lifted the lighter one 
est of the river, until, by becoming in its turn 
immersed in the river below, it lost part of its 
gravitation, and forced the lighter trough to within 
4 feet 6 inches of the top of the lift. The valve on 
the Wncb pipe was now closed, and the remaining 
wsesr in the press under the descending trough was 
Wowed to run to waste into the aqueduct. The 
trough consequently descended into the river, and 
us barges it contained had been lowered from the 
canal to the river. While this was going on the 
•ecBnnlator was opened to the press of the ascend- 
ing trough, and this trough and barges were raised 
to within 6 inches of the top of the lift. The bargee 
**• lifted the remaining 6 inches by letting this 
«f*h of water into the trough from the aqneduet. 
T«s a depth of 6 inches of water over the area of 
j » troug h taken from the apper level waa sufficient 
4 t*" one twngh from the canal to the river, and 
■Mat tame time, with a little assistance frem the 
*cmmulator, to lift the other from the river to the 
JMal. Automatic siphons insured a depth of 4 feet 
6 laches of water in an ascending trough. The 
«f» of the gates were kept water tight with india- 



rubber, and the same material was used for making 
a joint between the troughs and the end of the 
aqueduct. The time required to lower one trough 
and to lift the other was three minutes, and the 
whole operation of transferring barges from the 
canal to the river and others at the same time from 
the river to the canal was eight minutes. In a chain 
of locks at R u n com havin g the same fall a boat could 
only pass one way in an hour and a half. A very 
small staff was required to work the apparatus, and 
the total weekly expenses did not exceed J810. In 
addition to the time saved by tins lift, compared 
with a flight of looks having the same fall, it was 
stated that when the traffic was equal in each direc- 
tion only 6 inches of water over the area of the 
trough were used, instead of 50 feet required by the 
locks. 

The lift was publicly opened by the trustees in 
Jnly, 1875, and had given great satisfaction. The 
ironwork and machinery were constructed by 
Messrs. Emmeraon, Mnrgatroyd, ft Co., of Stock- 
port and Liverpool, and the foundations, masonry, 
basins, Ac., were carried ont by Mr. W, J. 
Sandeman, M. Inst. C.E., the present engineer to 
the Weaver Trustees. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 



PHYSICAL SOCIETY. 
Influence of Light and Heat on Selenium. 

AT a meeting of this society held on the 11th 
inst., Prof. G. C. Foster in the chair, Prof. 
W. G- Adams gave an account of some researches 
on which he has been engaged in connection with 
the influence of light and heat on the electric con- 
ductivity of selenium, and exhibited numerous ex- 

Krimente in illustration. The subject has also 
Bn studied by Lieutenant Sale and Dr. W. 
Siemens, of Berlin, and as a general result it is 
found that after selenium has been kept in the dark 
its resistance is diminished by exposure to light. 
The effect of heat and light differs if the selenium 
has been previously subjected to a high temperature. 
In studying the effect of light, the metal which had 
been kept at a temperature of 140° C. for a few 
hours, waa exposed to the light of one candle at dis- 
tances of 1, t, and i metre. The original resistance 
of the selenium being 115,500 ohms, the resistance 
at the three distances was found to be 112,000, 
108,700, and 101,500. Deducting each from the 
original resistance we get 3,500, 6,800, and 14,000 
ohms as the change of resistance due to the light at 
these distances. These considerations have led 
Prof. Adams to suggest the use of selenium as a 
means of comparing the illuminating powers of 
different sources of light. The action of Hght of 
different degrees of refrangibihty was then ex- 
hibited. The effect of violet light is least, and of 
red greatest. That the effect observed in the case 
of the least refrangible part of the spectrum is not 
due to the heat was proved by placing Buusen burner 
at about f metre from the plate «f selenium. A 
certain deflection was observed. The holes at the 
bottom of the Bunsen were then closed, the effect of 
which was to make it a huninons burner. The 
deflection was very much greater when only 
one-tenth of the current was passed through the 
galvanometer. 

Theory of the Badlcrmeter. 
Prof. Johnstone Stoney then explained the theory 
whioh he has suggested in explanation of the pheno- 
mena observed in the radiometers of Mr. Crookea, 
and which has been published in the Philosophical 
Magatine for the current month. The theory rests 
on the supposition that there is an extremely small 
trace of residual gas in the bulb in which the moving 
disc is inclosed. When the apparatus is exposed to 
heat the blackened side of the disc is slightly 
warmed, and thus warms a layer of air in contact 
with it- At the ordinary atmospheric pressure, 
Prof. Stoney assumes the layer so warmed to 
have the thickness of a sheet of paper when 
the temperature of the disc is 20° C. above the 
surrounding air, and on such a supposition we may 
calculate it for any other pressure or temperature. 
If the disc be raised 1-10 C. above the surround- 
ing atmosphere, and the exhaustion be carried to 
the 1-10000 of an atmosphere, the layer will 
have a _ thickness of more than a decimetre. 
There will then be set up a procession of warm 
molecules towards the glass, where they will be 
cooled down and form another procession of cold 
slow-moving molecules, which will go back to the 
disc and beyond it. As long as tbeee processions go 
en there will be motion due to the molecules being 
thrown off more vigorously from the front than the 
back of the disc, and this difference of pressure 
Prof. Stoney considers Mr. Crookea to have 
measured. Mr. Crookes considered that 1-10° C, 
the temperature assumed by Prof. Stoney, was 
far in excess of what is actually required to produce 
the observed effects, for the discs are strongly 
moved by cold light falling on them. With discs of 
platinum there is attraction throughout all the 
stages of exhaustion, and even when a fairly perfect 
vacuum is attained. If, however, the exhaustion is 
continued, a neutral pout is reached, beyond which 
there is strong repulsion, and this is strongest in the 
very best vacua, such as those in whioh the induced 
spark will not pass. 



THE Patents for Inventions Bill 
through Committee of the House of Lords 
on Tuesday last week, a few merely verbal 
amendments being carried in as the bill was 
read. It is evidence of the attention devoted 
to this important bill by our hereditary legis- 
lators that the whole sitting occupied about 
half an hour, and other business was trans- 
acted daring that time. 

The Factory and Workshops Acts Commis- 
sioners have appended certain recommenda- 
tions to their report which has been presented 
to Parliament. Workshops, they consider, 
should be made " factories for the purpose of 
the Act- The limits of labour should be 
twelve hours, from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m., 6.30 
a.m. to 6.30 p.m., or 7 aan. to 7 p.m., 
with two hours for meals in factories and U 
hour in workshops. Various relaxations of 
the law are recommended, the power of grant- 
ing them to be exercised by the Secretary of 
State. Children are not to be employed under 
certain ages, unless they have attended at 
school a specified number of times, and have 
passed a standard suitable to those ages. A 
certificate of birth is to be required in cases of 
first employment, such certificate to be' en- 
dorsed by the certifying surgeon. It will be 
a " condition " of the certificate that the child 
has been properly vaccinated. The Commis- 
sioners recommend that the employment of 
children and young persons should be for- 
bidden in occupations destructive to health, or 
tending to destroy it, such as white lead 
making, mercurial silvering of mirrors ; and 
sundry other restrictions are proposed, all 
more or leas obviously tending to benefit the 
"working" population* either physically or 
morally. 

Viscount Sandon, in answer to a question 
whether there was any objection to obliging 
all owners of quack medicines to declare the 
ingredients of which the doses are made, said 
that the subject had been brought under the 
notice of the Lord President of the Council, 
and was receiving attention. To be of any 
practical effect the ingredients should be 
printed on the Government stamp. 

Notwithstanding the assurance of the Home 
Secretary, the opinion gains ground that, so far 
as legislative action is concerned, the vivisec- 
tion question is to be shelved : at all evente it 
is for this session. A little honesty in the 
political world would just nowgo a great way. If 
the Government intend to let the matter drop 
they should say so; they cannot plead the 
want of time, for several bills are already in 
their hands, and they have nothing to debut 
to lend their support to one of them, which 
could be easily moulded in committee. 

A contemporary states that, contrary to 
statements which have been made, the "men 
of science" of this country are giving the 
greatest help in the organisation of the con- 
ferences ana conversazioni in connection with 
the Exhibition of Scientific Apparatus. There 
would seem to be some difference between the 
scientific men and the " men of science," but 
we shall soon see. We hope the exhibition 
will be worth the £20,000. 

Mr. P. Darwin showed, in a paper read 
recently at the Linnean Society, that the 
twisting of the awn in Stipa and other plants 
is a torsion of each separate cell on its own 
axis, and that the twisting is the result of the 
combined torsions of the cells. The effects of 
this twisting, which occurs when the seed is 
moistened, is to force it into the soil, and it is 
singular that the untwisting which occurs on 
drying, instead of withdrawing the seed tends 
to force it still further into the ground. Seeds 
thus buried, however, do not germinate so 
readily as those sown immediately beneath the 
surface, and Mr. Darwin suggests that twisting 
and its effects are intended as a protection 
against seed-eating birds. 

Death has been busy recently amongst 
notable men in certain walks of life. Dr. 
Parkes, the professor of hygiene at the Army 
Medical School, died on the 15th inst; Sir 
John Cordy Burrows, a distinguished medical 
man, and the genial mayor of Brighton during 



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ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OF SCIENCE : No. 575. March 31, 1876. 



the visit of the British Association, died on 
Saturday last; and on Sunday week Mr. 
Martin, the inventor of the well-known anchor, 
died at Brussels. 

The rumours concerning the management of 
the British Museum, and the discontent which 
undoubtedly prevails there, grow louder and 
more pronounced as time rolls on. At a time 
when Royal Commissions are much in favour 
perhaps a commission to inquire into the con. 
dition and prospects of the magnificent store- 
house in Bloomabury would not be objected to 
by the trustees. , 

The machinery for the Inflexible is on the 
point of completion by Messrs. Elder and Co. 
The vessel, it will be recollected, is a twin 
screw, and is to have two engines, giving an 
aggregate indicated power of 8,000 horses. 
The engines are compound, with two low 
pressure cylinders to the high pressure, which 
is 70in. in diameter, the others being 90 in. 
The slide-valves are cylindrical, 3ft. in dia- 
meter, with gridiron expansion valves. The 
surface condensers have a cooling surface of 
16,000 square feet, and are supplied with cold 
water by centrifugal pumps worked from sepa- 
rate engines. The propeller shaft is made of 
"Whit worth' 8 compressed steel, is 16in. in 
diameter, and hollow. A fine stationary 
engine for a cotton-mill at Bombay has been 
recently run under steam at the makers', 
Messrs. Douglas and Grant. It is a patent 
compound Corliss of 1,000 horse-power, capable 
of working to double. The diameter of the 
cylinders is 40in. and 66in., with a stroke of 6ft. 
A pair of beam Corliss engines are erecting in 
the Machinery Hall of the Philadelphia Exhi- 
bition. They are of 1,400 horse-power, 40in. 
in diameter, by 10ft. stroke. The power is 
transmitted by a mortise gear wheel of 30ft. 
diameter, 24in. breadth of face, engaging with 
a cast-iron pinion 10ft. in diameter. Mitre 
wheels and 6in. shafting convey the power to 
different parts of the building. To keep up the 
American style throughout the engines will be 
supplied with steam by 20 vertical tubular 
boilers, 4ft. lin. in diameter, and 14ft. high, 
set in brickwork. 

On the 1st of July an Exhibition of Art, 
Manufactures, Agriculture, &c., will be opened 
at Hehnngfors, and the Emperor of Russia will 
visit the capital of Finland in order to assist 
at the ceremony. On the 16th of July a com- 
petition of agricultural implements and ma- 
chinery will take place at Ghent. 

The number of candidates for the fellowship 
of the Royal Society this session is 62, so that 
there will be 37 disappointed applicants and 
envious savans. 

One of the American steam excavators has 
been doing navvy's work in a cutting near 
Glasgow. It consists of a crane carried on a 
carriage with four wheels, and holding sus- 
pended from its jib a strong and large iron 
bucket. Four teeth or claws attached to the 
machine are brought to the face of the cutting 
and tear the earth into the bucket. Three 
men are required to work the "navvy," a 
dri ver, fireman, and a crane-man. Four or five 
men are required to shift the waggons from 
the drop, and with their assistance the exca- 
vator performs the labour of sixty hands. 

However much Englishmen may boast of 
their engineers and engineering works, it so 
happens that the greatest things in this line 
have been done by foreigners. We did not cut 
the Suet Canal or tunnel the Alps, and we now 
hear that an equally great enterprise is to be 
commenced by the Dutch. At the Civil Engi- 
neers' dinner, on Saturday last, the Dutch 
Minister said: — "I expect, though I am not 
yet quite sure of it, that this great question 
will be decided in the present Bession of our 
Chambers; and, as far as I am acquainted 
with the particulars of this great scheme, the 
costs of which will amount to nearly sixteen 
millions sterling, it will give to my country, 
when accomplished, a new area of 750,000 
hectares of good cultiva table lmd, clay and 
sand ; and it is foreseen that this great work 
may be finished in less than sixteen years. 
This will be one of those peaceful annexations 
of which the topographical history of my 
country shows . already so many successful 



examples, while at the same time the enormous 
sum of money expended on the undertaking 
will give well-deserved earnings to all those 
concerned in the matter." 

The difference in the light-phonomena of 
the two electric poles may be explained, on 
assumption of only one electricity, by the 
different conditions encountered. In one case, 
the electricity passes from a rigid good con- 
ductor to a moveable bad one; in the other 
vice versa. By reversal of these conditions we 
should have a reversal of the phenomena. 
This, on several accounts, is more difficult 
than it might seem. M. Holtz has lately 
made an attempt towards realising it, by 
means of Geissler tubes, the electrodes of 
which consisted of materials which, in re- 
ference to conductivity, were on a level with, 
or below, rarefied air. Sulphide of antimony 
and wood were the substances he used (one 
difficulty of the experiment was, that the 
degree of rarefaction gradually alters so that 
a tube is available only for a few minutes 
after evacuation). The investigation did not 
yield quite decisive results; still some re- 
markable phenomena were obtained, which the 
author describes (Monatabericht des Berliner 
Akodemie). Thus, in the ordinary tubes he 
always obtained a stratification, but never the 
large dark space elsewhere than at the nega- 
tive electrode. With the sulphide of anti- 
mony electrodes he saw several dark spaces, 
quite distinguishable from the interval between 
the layers, and not only at the ends but in 
the middle of the tube. With the wooden 
electrodes there was no stratification. M. Holtz 
considers that, in order to exact results, the 
experiments should be made during the 
evacuation of the tubes ; and he invites others 
to make experiments of the kind, as he is at 
present precluded from doing so. 

A Belgian engineer, M. Librecht von Com- 
pliant, has invented a method of making 
coarse-grained or prismatic powder of much 
better quality than those hitherto manu- 
factured. The separate grains of these latter, 
by reason of the mode of pressing adopted, 
show in their cross section layers whose 
density varies from without to the middle; 
while, in the direction of length, the density 
is regular. The consequence of this is a 
somewhat unreliable, or irregular, combustion 
of the powder. Comphant's invention con- 
sists in the employment of elastic moulds, the 
advantage of which is, that the powder in- 
troduced and submitted to the press is pressed 
not only from above downwards, but also 
laterally, and that, further, as soon as the 
pressure ceases, the sides of the mould draw 
back from the pressed powder, and so render 
extraction more easy. 

A new blasting powder, named heraelin, in- 
vented by M. Dickerboff, is being tried in 
mines in France and Austria. According to 
the description given in the French patent it 
contains picric acid, nitrate of potash and of 
soda, sulphur, and sawdust. The gases of 
combustion are harmless, and it burns com- 
paratively slowly, so that it only fractures the 
mass, and does not throw the pieces about. 
The price is lfr. per kil. 

The changes of phase undergone by light 
in reflection nave been studied chiefly by two 
methods— the one consists in displacing (by 
introduction of the body to be examined), the 
bands obtained in an interference apparatus, 
and calculating the change of phase from the 
displacement ; the other method is that of New- 
ton's rings. But in such experiments it is 
always a drawback that the interference 
phenomena have to be studied successively, 
and not simultaneously. In a recent communi- 
cation to the Berlin Academy M. Wernicke 
describes researches made by a new method, 
in which this evil is remedied. From his ex- 
periments (on normal reflection from metallic 
un transparent substances) he deduces the fol- 
lowing laws :— 1. Absorption causes a retarda- 
tion of phase for all rays whose refractive 
indices in the absorbing medium are greater 
than in the limiting medium. 2. It causes 
acceleration of phase for all rays whose re- 
flective indices in the absorbing medium are 
leas than in the limiting medium. 3. It makes 
the sudden transition from the change of 



phase nil to the change of phase 180°, which 
we observe in a transparent medium, according 
as its' refraction ratio is, to a constant, greater 
or less than unity. 

M. Plants' is still prosecuting observations 
with his secondary batteries, and in last week's 
number of Comptea Bendua he describes some 
striking phenomena obtained on inserting the 
positive electrode, after the negative, in a 
vessel of salt water. Luminous and other 
effects are observed, which have a strong 
resemblance to those of auroras. The author 
broaches the theory that the imperfect vacuum 
of the upper regions, acting like a large con- 
ductor, plays the part of the negative electrode 
of his experiments, while the positive elec- 
tricity flows towards the planetary spaces, and 
not towards the ground, through the mists and. 
ice-clouds which float above the poles. 

At the same seance of the Academy two 
communications were made, on the means of 
applying sulphide of carbon in destruction of 
phylloxera. M. Allies applies it frequently 
and in small doses at a depth about 20cm. in 
the subsoil ; his apparatus consists of a reser- 
voir supported on an iron lyre, and having 
two successive stopcocks below, also a hollow 
stake for conducting the liquid into the sub- 
soil. The interval between the cocks measures 
the quantity to be applied. The operator 
seizes the lyre by its upper port, and thrusts 
the stake into the ground. Then, both cocks 
being closed, he opens the upper one, so as to 
fill the interval, then closes it and opens the 
lower one, and the liquid passes into the 
ground (there being special arrangements to 
prevent stoppage). The plan adopted by MM. 
Crolas and Jobart is to insert a hollow stake, 
perforated at its lower end, into the ground, 
sprinkle sulphide of carbon over the surface, 
and then draw the vapour through the ground 
towards the stake, by means of a pump con- 
nected with the latter. In this way the 
vapour is rapidly introduced and diffused, and 
it destroys the phylloxeras of all stages on the 
roots. The liquid does not hurt the vine when 
employed in a dose -of 30 to 40 grammes per 
square metre. The cost is 820 francs per 
hectare. 

Among new instruments described in Carl's 
Repertorivm fur Experimental Physik (6 and 1 
Heft), we note the following : — Theorem's type 

Srinting meteorograph (in this the data are 
irectly printed in numbers, whereas the ordi- 
nary registering instruments give curves, which 
have afterwards to be translated into num- 
bers) ; Paluj's school apparatus for determin- 
ing the mechanical equivalent of heat ; Wild's 
new siphon barometer ; Ettingshausen's appa- 
ratus for stroboscopic comparison of constancy 
of rotation ; Galleron's calorimetrio pyrometer, 
for determination of high temperatures ; Wag- 
ner's apparatus for determining the specific 
gravity of gases. 

The relative healthfulness of some of the 
great cities is shown in a table recently pub- 
lished in La Oaceta Industrial (a Madrid paper), 
which exhibits the annual mortality for each 
1,000 inhabitants. The numbers are these: 
Madrid, 65-0 ; Vienna, 327 ; Berlin, 30 6; Rome, 
29 3; New York, 27 9; Turin, 24 8; Brussels, 
24-8; Paris, 23 2; London, 22 2; Philadelphia, 
20 3. It will be observed that Madrid has an 
unenviable pre-eminence in this respect. 

According to Bat Ausland, a considerable 
number of Australian wines (200) were lately 
examined by Mr. Moody with reference to their 
proportions of alcohol. Among 88 samples 
from New South Wales there were only two 
which contained less than 26 per cent, of alco- 
hol. The lowest proportion was 23 6, and the 
highest 34*1. Among the 100 Murray wines, 
12 were under 26 per cent, of alcohol, the 
others over it. The lowest was 20*1, the high- 
est 32 2 per cent. The other 60 samples came 
from various districts of the colony of Victoria, 
and a considerable portion of them did not reach 
26 per cent. The lowest was a sample from 
Sunbury, 20 miles north-west from Melbourne, 
only 17 - 7 per cent. The wines from Lillydale, 
24 miles north-east of Melbourne, Sunbury, 
and Geelong, 30 samples in all, showed, with 
exception of 8, less that 26 per cent., while the 
Castlemaine wines had nearly equal strength 
with the Murray wines. 



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65 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[W# i» net told wmli ii i ft^wwgtotor the spsWeas e/ 



wImMhi shoald b* draw* tip w MsjIm esposeAUJ 

iU Oastr** end Foelq*os Orders to be Mdt (wyiNi to 
J. Psanvou Bowabm. 



I Bto—I 



%* fa erdar to JaoQitaU n f wm m , OorrmpondmUa. when 
LtH* y wfemto inatrtwL wtUoMiie by 



• v As Letter, et wB m As fags on 

■Me* a eepeevs. 

" I would bar* eraryone writ* what ha know*, and ai 
orach as be knowa, but no morei tad that not in thia 
only, bat in all othar subject* : For loch a person may 
lava some particular knowledge and e x perience of tha 
assure of anoh a paraon or anon a fountain, that aa to 
othar things, knowa no more than what everybody does, 
and yet, to keep a clatter with thia little pittance of his, 
will undertake to write the whole body of physicks ' •rioa 
from whanoe great inconveniences derive their original.'" 



SHOW TANKS FOB AQUARIA. 
p06m}— Your correspondent "H." (25009) in 
the Eholjbh Mbchanic, February 4th, 1876, naka 
for " information or a treatise na to the construo- 
tion nod supply of the tanks used at some of the 
beat aquaria. 

A concise standard treatise on all matters relating 
to aquaria is one of the crying wants of the present 
revival of aquaria. Few are qualified to write such ; 
aquarium science, yet in its infancy, has much to 
learn, is understood by but few, and requires a 
breadth of knowledge and power of reasoning, a 
hmgth of experience, associated with the capacity 
for taking infinite pains, that are not often eon- 
faioed in the same individual. 

The three best guides at present known to me are 
common sense, patience, and W. A. Lloyd. Host 
things that he says and does are likely to be helpful 
to any one who has the common sense (or rather 
what Prof. Huxley calls " uncommon sense ") to 
grasp the principles, and the patience to carry ont 
in practice, the unalterable laws enunciated by this 
sealous worker in aquaria of more than 20 years' 
standing. One periodical styles him " the King of 
Aquaria," but he has not yet ventured to publish 
an exhaustive " treatise " on construction, or guide- 
book aa to the whole duty of aquarium-keepers: 
nevertheless we are in possession of certain printed 
contributions, papers, pamphlets, hand-books, Ac., 
wbemn he gives us the benefit of his experiences. 
Defeat and victory, despair and triumph, are alike 
faithfully chronicled. Since " failure is the para- 
site of success " to those who turn all things to 
account, he is a safer guide than those who nave 
had fewer difficulties to contend with, and a narrower 
range of observation, experience, and opportunity. 
His publications, from the first, "A List, with 
Descriptions and Prices, of whatever Relate* to 
Aquaria," 1858, price Is. (long since out of print), 
ta the last, a description of the aquarium m the 
" Handbook of the Royal Aquarium and Summer 
and Winter Garden Society, "Westminster," Jan. 22, 
1876, Is.— show steady advance, and evince, not 
only a willingness to learn, but power to assimilate 
the knowledge of others ( and bring (everything to 
bear upon his one great aim of successful aquanum- 
keeping. We may learn muoh from his words, but 
more from his works. The "best aquaria" are 
those under his care, either directly, as e.g. at the 
Crystal Palace, or indirectly, as at the Zoological 
Station- at Naples. The C. P. Aquarium is small, 
but perfect of its kind. That at Westminster is six 
times aa large, and embodies still further improve- 
ments, but so necessarily slow in its development 
towards ultimate success as to cause its curator to 
be " the best abused man in Westminster." The 
public are naturally impatient at other attractions 
of the building being thrown open before the 
aquarium is ready, or any animals are in the 
tanks. To my thinking thia is rather a matter 
of congratulation than of regret. I prefer to 
consider this immature aquarium as a great 
public educator. Why not advertise when the 
water is clear, and when the first bubbles of oxygen 
arise? And let the people in, and teach them know- 
ledge, and show to them the way of understanding, 
and let them see and learn what pure water is, and 
how long it takes to become clear, and grow spon- 
taneous vegetation — both being essential to the well- 
being of the animals ; nor should these be introduced 
until the conditions of existence are up to this 
standard. Many delay the desired end, both in 
public and private aquaria, by iutroducing auimals 
too soon. Even after the water is clear it improves 
with keeping. I find this in my own experience, and 
it is said tnat many delicate - 
kept at the Crystal Palace Ai 
to live there years ago. 
power of conquering di 
a great price for some 
a thing taught neither at 
mentary schools. So few 
aa aquarium really is, or a 

[Supplement to tht J 



ae kin< 



in now bi 
"line* 
tlx 
>a 



mens* advantage to be allowed to watch the step- 
by- step process by which lasting good results are 
attained. 

A proper aquarium means an arrangement of the 
same animals in the same water, permanently main- 
tained in a healthy condition by the action of grow- 
ing vegetation, and aeration with or without circula- 
tion. An improper aquarium implies dirty water, 
dead or dying animals (or the substitution of those 
that breathe out of water), waste of water, time, 
and money— and Raskin would add, of " Htm and 
brains of men." Those who cannot sea this dis- 
tinction, and do not accept the definition, or some 
modification of it, cannot be considered as reliable 
authorities, judged by the highest standard. 

An equally good aquarium may be maintained in 
a quart-glass, where no movement exists, save sach 
as feeding causes, as in an enormous arrangement of 
tanks costing .£100,000, with elaborate circulating 
machinery. The grand fundamental principle is a 
certain balance between animal and vegetable life, 
each giving out gases required by the other. "But, 
as motion is natural, and air indispensable to 
animals breathing under water, it is better to obtain 
air in solution by surface aeration, circulation, or 
mechanical entanglement, and not depend entirely 
on oxygen produced by growing vegetation, which, 
however, cannot be dispensed with, being necessary 
to decompose the poisonous gases given off by the 
auimals. If growing plants are transplanted from 
seas or rivers for this purpose, the probability is 
that they soon die, because the conditions are 
altered, or the change too sudden. I am not with- 
out hope that eventually we may be able to cultivate 
the higher algss in aquaria, possibly by introducing 
the germs, or very young plants. Thus, when pre- 

King a glass for some expected corals, months 
ore they arrived, I introduced some stones from 
low-water mark, hoping to develop microscopical 
animal organisms, and also varieties of the necessary 
vegetation. Nor was I disappointed. One stone 
was soon covered with a soft red velvety coating, 
and this has peopled the glass with red sea-weeds, 
or rhodoepermee, instead of the usual srreen conferva, 
which some writers call " the pest of the aquarium," 
and which was a nest in mine until experience 
taught me how to check it. It grew spontaneously 
in one tank, and was introduced into another, in 
1861, in the manner mentioned in the Qardeten' 
Magarine of Jan. 22, p. 37. It became rampant 
in both, and I presume nothing short of boiling, 
baking, or the application of sulphuric acid, will 
exterminate it— even if I wished to, which I do not, 
preferring to preserve these tanks in their integrity, 
as types of the old style. But it is possible to regu- 
late it. I tried to utilise the services of plant-eating 
molluscs ; but they were unsatisfactory, difficult to 
manage, and upset the balance. I now manage to 
keep it in check by muoh shading, and in other 
aquaria endeavour to prevent its appearing, by 
shutting out s'till more light from the beginning— 
that is, to exclude the conditions favourable to its 
development, which are, light and heat. When once 
it is produced, it is perpetuated, and covers all else. 
Why is this? Why does rye grass prevent other 
sorts from growing, when once the application of 
sewage has caused it to spring up ? Is there no 
known way of extermination, or superinducing 
other and higher sea-weeds to follow after the 
appearance of conferva f In another coral glass- 
kept dark and cool since first started years ago — 
there is scarcely any perceptible vegetation ; yet 
there is enough to keep the water sparklingly clear . 
and beautiful, without artificial aeration ; the 
madrepores flourish — their coral cups remain olean, 
clear, and unencumbered with an unsightly parasitic 
growth of conferva. For many reasons, therefore, 
growing vegetation is better at a minimum than a 
maximum. Absolutely indispensable as it is to 
absorb the carbonic- acid gas evolved by the animals, 
enough is sure to come in a so-called spontaneous 
manner from germs ever present in the air or 
water, without being visibly introduced ; but time 
must be given. The higher the forms the more 
time appears to be required. A double or treble 
service of water, with a portion kept always in 
darkness, is good to check undue vegetation. When 
this cannot be nfforded I see no way but perpetual 
shading, not only of the rides but the surface, or the 
use of opaque vessels. Darkness is also desirable to 
retard the development of infusoria, that sometimes 
swarm, unbidden, in such myriads as to thicken 
the water. 

It should be explained that the term " spontaneous 
vegetation " is hero used, relatively, and implies the 
" svelopment of Buch forms of life as 
intentionally introduced, and are, 
■ mi'.' to the aquarium, in contradU- 
st are transplanted or purposely 
impossible to exclude such 
sub-tance coming in con- 
it i- present everywhere, 
affect its development, 
it apparently the same 
' a lirnal or vegetable 
larant surroundings, or 
an calls these variable 
*i»ys that bacteria 



impos 
i any -i 



under one set of conditions may give rise to plants 
whilst under different influence, which may to 
determined by the will of the experimenter, they 
are just as prone to give rise to animal forms. 

I would refer your readers to the report of Prof. 
Tyn doll's lecture on " The Atmosphere in Relation 
to the Phenomena of Putrefaction and Infection," in 
the English Mechanic, already cited (Feb. 4th, 
1876), wherein he demonstrates by his own exhaus- 
tive experiments, that the theory of "spontaneous 
generation" is not proven. He speaks of spores of 
animalcule, earned from one place to the other, and 
says, " there cannot be a doubt that the germs in 
the air differ widely among themselves as regards 
preparedness for development. Some are fresh, 
others old ; some dry, others moist. Infected by 
suoh germs, the same infusion would require 
different lengths of time to develop bacterial life. 
This remark explains the different degrees of rapidity 
with which epidemic disease acts upon different 
people. In seme, the hatching period, if it may be 
called suoh, is bag, in some snort, the differences 
depending upon the different degree of preparedness 
of the oontagium." 

Dirt diseases — as e.g., cholera in human beings, 
and the choleraic affection, known as the " white 
downy fungoid growth," that infests fresh-water 
fish in aquaria, when once it has been generated 
from impure water — can be quickly propagated on 
clean and healthy bangs, who would not otherwise 
have contracted or originated the disease, or created 
the conditions favourable to its development. It is 
singular and interesting to note how apparently the 
same disease, under different forms, affects different 
individuals with the same results. Dirt, disease, 
and death, is a natural sequence. In the aboro 
instance, of men and fishes — dirt, the cause— disease, 
the development— and death, the result— are alike, 
with this difference. In both, the cause and effect 
are the same, but the intermediate stages are dif- 
ferent. In the higher animal, man, the use of bad 
water produces an internal complaint, called cholera ; 
in the lower animals, condemned to live in water 
that is " frequently changed," and consequently (as 
a rule), impure, an external complaint is developed, 
known as the white fungus, covering the whole body, 
and spoken of as " the pest of the aquarium, thongh 
the water is regularly changed." Probably this 
very change of water is the cause of disease. Abso- 
lutely pure water is rarely to be had, neither from 
seas nor rivers. The importation of new water im- 
plies often a new supply of dirt and disease. It is 
a well-known fact that water, sometimes provided 
by companies for human beings to drink, is not good 
enough to keep aquarium animals in health and 
beauty ; whereas the same water, if allowed to 
remain, and become dear and pure by subsidence, 
aeration, and the action ef growing vegetation, can 
be made to support delicate aquatic animals perma- 
nently, in good ease. 

Just as Dr. Tyndall oauld purify his air in closed 
vessels, by subsidence, so aquarium water can bo 
first purified by known means ; and maintained in a 
healthy condition by preventing the accumulation 
ef organic poieont. Oxygen and cleanliness are 
natural enemies to cholera and choleraic fungus ; 
but when the evil is once fully developed, one 
diseased subject is enough to contaminate the whole 
population, whether inside or outside the tanks. 

Just as the poor, the weak, the grovelling, the 
intemperate and vicious, in the bad air of a degraded 
district, are the first to fall victims to the one ; so, 
in the foul water of an ill-regulated aquarium, tbo 
poor half-starved, ill-used dumb animals are the first 
to succumb to the other, and then infect the rest. 
Neither dies alone in his misery, but spreads an evil 
thing by disobedience to Nature's laws. Is there 
any mysterious connection between these two 
developments P Will the cure of one help to find a 
cure for the other P I wish the prevention of the 
greater evil were as easy as the lesser appears to be. 
The question is an important one, not only in its 
bearings on aquarium science, and the saving of 
needless suffering to animals and their masters, bnt 
in the broader one of preserving lives of men. If, 
by obedience to known sanitary and moral laws, it 
is possible to stamp out diseases and prevent their 
recurrence, is it not also possible by obedience to 
other laws to stamp out conferva from aquaria, when 
ouce it has appeared ? Can the parasitic fungus be 
exterminated? Experience has taught us how to 
prevent it occurring. Will no one teach the peoplo 
how to bring Dr. Tyndall's experiments practically 
to bear upon the prevention of human diseases P 

As water is indestructible, and can be purified from 
organic matter by oxygenation, it never need be 
changed. The experiment of keeping fluviatile 
animals in unchanged fresh water, in the same 
manner that marine animals are kept in unchanged 
sea-water, is about to be tried for the first time on 
a large scale at the Westminster Aquarium. 

The first law as to construction, to help your 
correspondent, is, Redgrave's famous " Obedience 
to the Laws of Service. It is self-evident that an 
aquarium is a place for animals living under water, 
and not out of water. The health and happiness of 
these animals is, therefore, of the first importance, 
on com mere a , zoological, aadhuma itarian grounds. 



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ENGLISH MECHANIC AND WORLD OP S0D3NCB: y . 575. March 81, 1876. 



All elm should be made subservient to this. The ser- 
vices of a competent naturalist are indispensable to 
furubh plans of arrangement and cons traction, to be 
carried ont by architects, builders, and others, who 
cannot reasonably be expected to understand natnra] 
history, especially the unusnal difficulties connected 
with aquarium - keeping. Pew even professed 
naturalists areas yet educated up to the mark, be- 
cause we are unfamiliar with the conditions of exist- 
ence of animals liring in a different element to our 
own. The number and kinds of animals should be 
made subservient with the space and quantity of water 
that can be afforded. It is better to wait than to 
go wrong : now that aquaria are springing up 
in hot haste all over the world, there is gnat danger 
of going too fast. The thing is worth doing well. 
Let each one think ont the matter for himself. Eren 
if they never want to promote an aquarium, or to 
keep one individually, a knowledge of the governing 
principles will the better enable them to appreciate 
a good one. "A wise man will bear, and will 
increase learning." Fortunately enough informa- 
tion is to be had to prevent people sinning in light. 
" To see correctly is itself a science." But, just as 
there are some who cannot see why it is correct to 
cover a slate mantel-pieoe with black enamel or any 
other self colour, as a surface enrichment or protec- 
tion ; and contrary to accepted art principles to 
make the same look like marble, or any thing else 
that it is not : so there are others who cannot be 
made to understand why it is lawful to limit 
aquarium animals to those ranging from sponges 
to fishes ; and unlawful to admit any above them. 
In other words, why is it right to keep animals that 
breathe by gills, and wrong to introduce those that 
breathe by lungs, or why an aquarium is a place for 
the former and not for the latter P It is not the 
place to enter on all these reasons here. I take it 
for granted that lung breathers are excluded, and 
that such animals as seals, turtles, Ac, require dif- 
ferent or less expensive accommodation, from 
aquarium a nim a ls proper. The former only require 
water to swim or wash in, the utter to live and 
breathe in ; just as bears and birds have different 
buildings dedicated to them in Zoological Gardens, 
so ought these. People are apt to forget that it is 
cruel not to keep animals under our care, in the best 
known way. Many correspondents in the English 
Mechanic " Science Gossip," and elsewhere, are 
earnestly struggling for light in this moat drJBcult 
matter of aquarium management, and yet faith- 
fully teach error with the beat possible intentions, 
because they know no better. Like the blind 
leading the blind, both fall into despair, and 

Bvil is wrought 

By want at thought 

as well as wast of heart. 
In this same Mechanic, p. 508, is figured an 
aquarium siphon ; and in 10405, " J. J. M." gives 
particulars of a " pretty floating floral appendage to 
an aquarium," formed of Virginia cork, and with 
bulbs planted in it, under the shade of which the 
fish find "additional pleasure." No doubt both think 
they have done a fine thing for aquaria, and so 
they have in their way. But probably it has never 
occurred to the former that, a well-regulated tank 
requires seldom (if ever) to be emptied ; or, to the 
latter, that it is unkind to keep shade- loving animals 
without shade. Bock-work in a tank should be 
pre-ordained for the comfort of the inhabitants in- 
tended to live there, and so arranged that they may 
find shelter and yet he seen by the spectators. Fish 
like crannies and ledges whereon to bask, or under 
which to hide. Lobsters prefer eaves, wherein in 
live and erect fortifications of sand, to protect 
themselves and their soft bodies, after easting their 
shells; a most interesting performance. Sea 
anemones should have holes or uneven surfaces 
where their columns may find safe attachment, and 
thin discs expand upwards, for convenience in feed- 
ing. In all things utility, and never sacrifice truth 
by covering rock-work with cement to make it 
look like stratifications, ruins, or anything that it 
is not. Use honest stone of any sort (so long as it 
is clean), only let it look like what it is. Make 
things first serviceable and then beautiful. Port- 
land cement is good for joining rookwork. Im- 
perrious asphalts is now used for linin g reservoirs 
and large tanks made of masonry. Slate is the 
best thing for small tanks ; base and three sides of 
that materia] and one only of glass. The specimen 
tanks at the Crystal Palace and Royal Westminster 
Aquaria are made by the Gen. Slate Works, 
Belvedere-road, and exteriors covered with beauti- 
ful glossy, black enamel, clean, shining, and 
non-corrosive, in perfectly good taste. The dura- 
bility of the material, the correct msthetio treat- 
ment and ornamentation, the neatness and nicety 
with which their things arc put out of hand are, 
in themselves, sufficient recommendation. Can 
anything be imagined more suited to a given end, 
or better substance found to supersede the rusty 
corruption of metal tanks of the old school? The 
same works also supply an excellent red lead cement 
at Gd. per pound, suitable for fitting the joints of 
these tanks. If a tank leaks, it cannot be wall 
cured from the outside. It must be emptied, be 
veil dried, and have the old cement well raked out 



everywhere, as far as can be reached, and then, 
after being well payed over in all such places where 
the old cement has been thus removed, with boiled 
oil, the red lead and oil cement may be well and 
neatly applied inside. When the leak is the fault 
of general bad work and bad materials, such as 
iron, which yields by pressure of water, there seems 
no known remedy. I have lately heard of a simple 
aquarium cement which very quickly sets as hard as 
stone — made of glycerine and litharge mixed into a 
paste. This, and all other cements for tanks, re- 
quire long soaking oat and change of fresh water 
before sea-water can be safely introduced ; even 
when this has been done with scrupulous cleanliness 
and much scrubbing, it is long before the water is 
fit to support animal life, it being necessary to wait 
for spontaneous vegetation. This process will be a 
tedious one at Westminster, where the quantity of 
water to be stored in the underground reservoirs for 
circulation is five times as much ae that in the show 
tanks, weighing altogether about 400 tons, costing, 
with the prepared fresh water, over £4,000 ; but 
when once it is clear, pure, and fit for use, it never 
need be changed. The first supply is supposed to 
last for ever. 

The best proportioned tank is that which gives 
the largest surface and smallest depth in proportion 
to the Biae of the animals. Dimensions increase 
difficulties, but do not alter principles. The distri- 
bution of water is of immense importance. The 
tanks at Westminster vary from 60ft. long, 90ft. 
broad, and 5ft. high, to 10ft. long, 8ft. broad, and 
lft. high, whilst others are still smaller and shal- 
lower. The water is to be circulated from one to 
the other incessantly, thenoe into the dark reservoir, 
to be ramped up again by steam engines, which, 
with all the circulating machinery, are in duplicate, 
to guard against accident and prevent the possibility 
of a stoppage of stream and current, which might 

rve fatal to a valuable collection of animals. It 
important that parts coming in contact with 
water (either fresh or salt) should be made of some 
non-corrosive material. Iron or other metals be- 
come rusty, poisonous, unsightly, and unsafe. To 
cover these frequently with paint is equally injurious, 
objectionable, and inartistic Bad art and bad 
science go together. Again Redgrave aids us with 
another incomparable axiom, that " good design 
implies the right use of material." This one appa- 
rently small matter — namely, the right use of 
material — may bo said to typify three eras in 
aquarium science, which I propose to call the iron, 
the slate, and the enamel age. 

The first is characterised by the toll tanks, with 
four glass sides, inclosed in brass, iron, sine, or 
bronse rims and supports, with pointed knobs and 
ragged excrescences of perforated sine at the top, 
and extends from pre- his tone times, includes the 
opening of the first publio aquarium in Regent's 
Park Zoological Gardens, London, in 1858, and the 
rage for painted and perforated metal tanks up to 
about 1890, when a new era was ushered in by the 
introduction of the patent slope-back slate tanks, 
with dark water chamber, invented by Mr. Lloyd 
and Mr. Edwards. In these better and shallower 
vessels aquarium science was patiently nursed by 
the faithful few who had courage to persevere 
through a period of steady and melancholy decline in 
England, whan in 1870 (after a revival on the Con- 
tinent) the introduction of enamelled slate tanks 
marked the last era, culminating in the marvellous 
success of the Crystal Palace Aquarium, and the 
still more ambitious undertaking at Westminster, 
with all the latest and most thoughtful improve- 
ments, under the able management of that zealous 
naturalist, Mr. W. A. Lloyd. In these the 
water is to be ever circulated and never 
changed, lung breathers are excluded, oxygen 
is supplied by spontaneous vegetation, circulation, 
and "pulverised air" forced into every corner of 
the tank by jete impinging on the surface. Every 
part of the circulating machinery, steam' engines, 
boilers, pumps, pipes, Ac., is in duplicate, and can 
be worked separately or in concert, for a cessation 
of the current would sensibly imperil the lives of 
delicate animals. So admirably does this system 
work at the Crystal Palace that the tanks have 
never had to be cleaned out by manual labour— the 
same animals lire on and flourish, the water is ever 
sparklingly clear, because no poisons are allowed to 
accumulate. At Westminster the fronts are made 
of toughened glass. All the pipes, pumps, valves, 
jets, taps, strainers, <fco., and every part that comas 
in contact with the water— that is not glass, slate, 
masonry, asphalto, or stone — is made of vulcanite or 
hard indiarubber. This, being non-corrosive and 
incorruptible, may be said virtually to last for ever. 
A. good aquarium is made for all time, and not only 
for the passing hour. These vulcanite materials, 
and the whole of the machinery, boilers, fittings, 
Ac., have been made and carried ont by Messrs. 
Leete, Edwards, and Norman, of 368, Euston-road, 
London, who are giving much attention to aquarium 
engineering. The eight pumps for raising the water 
from the dark underground reservoir into the cistern 
above the tanks, are on Forbes and Edwards' patent 
rotary principle, and are driven by two separated 
horizontal steam-engines. 



The steam-boiler* are Galloway's patent, fitted 
with Smith's mechanical stoker, by which the 
engines feed their own f amaeee and heat the build- 
ing beside, when necessary. Extremes of tempera- 
ture ara to be avoided when delicate aquarium 
animals are couoerned. Messrs Lucas, the builders 
have taken i>ains with the solidity of the whole 
structure. The reservoirs are built of brickwork 
on a bed of concrete, hold 700,000 gallons, and are 
lined with asphalt, supplied by 8 tod art and Co., 
now used for the first time. Mr. W. Hudson is to 
supply the sea-water in casks, from Brighton. This 
as well as the fresh water will take some time to 
settle j once pure it will improve with keeping, and 
can be used indefinitely, without addition of new 
water, which, even when added in small quantities, is 
often found so injurious that here the loss by 
evaporation is to be supplied by distilled water con- 
densed from the steam of the engine. Organic 
poisons — the inevitable results of animal and vege- 
table life and decay— are never allowed to accumu- 
late in the tanks, but are dissipated as soon as 
formed by circulation and contact with atmospheric 
air, and the large proportion of cool dark water 
underground, and so to say, burnt-up by oxidation, 
or the process called by Ltebig, eremacausis. The 
superiority of this self-contained system of purifica- 
tion is evident to thinking people over that which 
prevails at Brighton and a few other places, where 
large bubbles of air are admitted from the bottom, 
instead of email ones from the top, and the water 
is supposed to be changed as soon as it becomes 
foul, by a fresh supply from the shore, which, 
however, is rarely, if ever, clear and free from 
organic or inorganic matter when thus introduced. 
Pure water, properly aerated, never becomes in- 
pure, beoauee poisons are arrested and deodorised as 
soon as formed. Change of water brings with H 
dirt, disease, and death. 

The one system seeks to euro am tvil, the other 
•reveni* its occurring. 

A full account of this last and best circulating 
machinery, invented by Mr. W. A. Lloyd, with 
figures, plana, and sections, will be found in the 
Engineer of October 1st and 15th, 1875, price fid. 
Further particulars are furnished in the " Royal 
Aquarium Handbook' ' referred to. A concise philo- 
sophical essay appears in the Gardeners' Macaeint, 
January 22, 1876, 120, Alders gate-street, and Long- 
lane. E.C., price 2d. Much may be learnt from a 
6d. Handbook to the Crystal Palace Marine Aqua- 
rium, and a 2d. pamphlet on " Public Aquaria.' • 
If, side by side with this evidence of an advancing 
standard, there remain those wko still believe in 
metal tanks, change of water, and the usual accom- 
paniments, they should be regarded as belonging to 
the first era, and judged accordingly. 

I have a tank of the first period, which I value as 
one values ancient bronxes dug from pre- his tone 
times, not because it is intrinsically good or beau- 
tiful, hot rather as a relic of old times, and because 
the same water has remained in it unchanged from 
the beginning, when first established, in May, 1859. 
It has four glass sides, with base, rim, and piHars of 
iron, painted green and bronzed. I now find n 
possible to keep this absolutely clear and pokurtess 
by reducing the number of animals and shading 
three sides constantly with dark blue cloth. For 
years it has not been turned out and cleaned. I 
hope to be spared the sorrow of disturbing the 
clinker rookwork, which is merely built up, and not 
cemented. I cherish it as it it, for what it is, and 
has been, just as I would preserve the first pubhe 
aquarium as it now exists, in primitive simplicity, 
in Regent's Park Zoological Gardens, aa an example 
of aucoess and failure — the noble forefather of aH 
other public attempts. I would make the best of 
that, but I would not build another such. 

We must advance with the times. My first tank 
remains beautiful inside, but the rust becomes more 
and more unbearable outside, and the glass bears 
marks of scratches inflicted in the annual autumnal 
scrubbing that used to appear inevitable from ex- 
cessive vegetation, both growing and decaying- 
- ■ second 



slate tank, covered with enamel instead of paint, 
and provided with a stream and tide, is the latest 
known improvement for small tanks. In l* r ^* r 
ones polished granite is sometimes substituted lor 
the sills. There is always some risk in repainting 
tanks ; even paint outside the window has betm 
known to kill animals in aquaria inside. Therefore, 
avoid point-like poison, which it is ; or reduce it to 
a minim am j and use slate instead of metal. Whil't 
my slate tank has not required painting once in w 
years, the iron one has had to be done many times ; 
grows worse and worse every year, and wants paint- 
ing more frequently than ever, causing increasing 
trouble and anxiety. Though it was done less than 
two years ago, it is now in an almost hopeless 
state of corrosion. Paint and rust are peeling ott 
the top rim in flakes, and threaten to ooctonunase 
the water. To remove all the animals is oliffiealtor 



• A valuable scries of articles on " Aquaria and Winter 
Gardens" appeared in the Building Neve, February •» 
February U, and February 85 last.— Ss. 



[Supplement to the